Exam 1 b audience


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Exam 1 b audience

  1. 1. Learning Objectives: <ul><li>Learn a variety of theories on audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to answer question 1b on audience . </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which of your productions you would write about for a question on audience. </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Hypodermic Needle Model <ul><li>1920s attempt to explain how mass audiences might react to mass media </li></ul><ul><li>Audiences passively receive the information </li></ul><ul><li>Audiences do not process or challenge the data </li></ul><ul><li>so the information is unmediated . </li></ul>The Hypodermic Needle Model
  3. 3. The Hypodermic Needle Model <ul><li>As an audience, we are manipulated by the creators of media texts, and our behaviour can be easily changed by media-makers </li></ul><ul><li>Audience are passive and heterogenous </li></ul><ul><li>This model is quoted during moral panics </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stuart hall and reception theory
  5. 5. McDonalds want you to think....
  6. 6. You may agree Or..... You may disagree
  7. 7. Or..... You may think that big macs do taste good, but I’ll only have them every now and again
  8. 8. So here we have three separate readings of that one advert
  9. 9. The preferred o r dominant reading is the reading media producers hope audiences will take from the text.
  10. 10. The audience may reject the preferred reading, receiving their own alternative message. This is an opposition reading .
  11. 11. Negotiated reading is when audiences acknowledge the preferred reading, but modify it to suit their own values and opinions – a compromise.
  12. 12. Stuart Hall – Encoding/Decoding <ul><li>Dominant – ‘flag waving patriot who responds to George Bush’s latest speech’. </li></ul><ul><li>Oppositional – ‘the pacifist who understands the speech but rejects it’. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated – ‘the viewer who agrees with the need for a response to Sept. 11 th but doesn’t agree to the military means announced’. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Uses & Gratifications <ul><li>1960s – generation had grown up with TV </li></ul><ul><li>audiences make choices about what they do </li></ul><ul><li>when consuming texts </li></ul><ul><li>audiences made up of individuals who </li></ul><ul><li>actively consume texts for different </li></ul><ul><li>reasons and in different ways </li></ul>
  14. 14. Uses & Gratifications <ul><li>Blumer and Katz (1974) state a text might be used for the following purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion - escape from everyday problems and routine. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Relationships - using the media for emotional and other interaction, eg) substituting soap operas for family life </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Identity - finding yourself reflected in texts, learning behaviour and values from texts </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance - Information which could be useful for living eg) weather reports, financial news, holiday bargains </li></ul>
  15. 15. Audience <ul><li>How useful is the concept of audience in understanding your work? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is your target audience? How did you develop your target audience? </li></ul><ul><li>How does your production appeal to your target audience? </li></ul><ul><li>What uses and gratifications will the target audience get from the production? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sample Question “ Media texts will never be successful unless they are carefully constructed to target established audience needs or desires.” Evaluate the ways that you constructed your media text to target a specific audience.