Ultracapacitors  •  Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors 


CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM

The Quest...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Safe, low cost and reliable energy storage
                       • Trends i...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Introduction:
  Electric energy storage is a pervasive aspect of society ran...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Lithium­ion Battery History
  • Li-ion battery principle conceived and devel...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Trend in Electrochemical Energy Storage
 • Specific power vs. specific energ...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Build up of Lithium­ion Plants to Over­capacity in US
  OEM/Plant          C...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Lithium­ion Base Materials ­ Cost
 • Advanced chemistry batteries contain si...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Lithium­ion Battery­EV’s
 • Lithium metal content in Battery EV’s is not the...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Lithium­ion Battery­Cost Survey
 • Technology trends in lithium-ion
     •  ...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Lithium­ion Battery – Automotive Applications
 • Lithium-ion chemistry types...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Quest for the Perfect Battery ­ Safety
 • Consider the gases that evolve whe...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Quest for the Perfect Battery ­ Safety
 • Gas analysis of vented cells show ...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Quest for the Perfect Battery – Safety is System Issue
• Industry lacks non-...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Energy Storage Applications




  Smart Grid




                           ...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Integrating Renewable Resources to Smart Grid
 Renewable Energy Sources will...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Energy Storage Benefits to Smart Grid
 Smart Grid Applications of Electric E...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Will Power Electronics Enable the Perfect Battery?




 The Role of Power El...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Role of Power Electronics in Energy Storage Systems
 • Power electronic conv...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
     The Maxwell Approach: Develop Models & Strategy
                       ...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Hybridized Battery Selection and Sizing
 • Pugh analysis of competing Ultrac...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Benefits of Hybridized Battery
 • Without question, the value of active comb...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Ultracapacitor Model Applications




 Renewable Energy Resource
 Distribute...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Smart Grid: Regulation Activities using Energy Storage
• Problem: The variab...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Architecting the Perfect Battery
 • The best batteries today are based on in...
CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM
Wrap­up




        Thank You!

        Questions?

                        ...
The Quest For The Perfect Battery: Designing High-Performance Energy Storage Technologies That Are Safe, Low-Cost And Reli...
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The Quest For The Perfect Battery: Designing High-Performance Energy Storage Technologies That Are Safe, Low-Cost And Reliable

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Dr. John M Miller, Technical Adviser to the CEO, Maxwell Technologies
• Developing new battery technologies that enhance energy density and provide fast charging times
• Ensuring that new technologies are economically viable and can be integrated seamlessly into existing applications
• Discussing new and existing battery innovations that are potential winners

Published in: Business, Technology

The Quest For The Perfect Battery: Designing High-Performance Energy Storage Technologies That Are Safe, Low-Cost And Reliable

  1. 1. Ultracapacitors  •  Microelectronics • High Voltage Capacitors  CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM The Quest for the Perfect Battery: Designing High- performance Energy Storage Technologies that are Safe, Low-Cost and Reliable Dr. John M. Miller, Technical Advisor to CEO Maxwell Technologies, Inc. San Diego, CA Univ. San Diego, 30 June 2010 MORE POWER.  MORE ENERGY.  MORE IDEAS.™  © 2008 Maxwell Technologies, Inc.
  2. 2. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Safe, low cost and reliable energy storage • Trends in battery energy Introduction & Li-ion History • Grants & Loans funding plant over-capacity Lithium-ion • Lithium content in EV battery Costs • Cell cost survey Smart Grid • Battery safety, DGA Applications • Energy storage for grid ancillary services • Power electronics enabled energy storage Combination Energy Storage • Battery+Capacitor path to perfect battery 2
  3. 3. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Introduction: Electric energy storage is a pervasive aspect of society ranging from portable and mobile consumer appliances to utility scale storage for grid stability. Battery technologies continue to evolve to smaller and lighter designs through materials and innovation. High power batteries today trade-away energy for power. 3
  4. 4. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Lithium­ion Battery History • Li-ion battery principle conceived and developed, Asahi Kasei, Saga Univ, Japan • Li-ion battery commercialized by Sony 1991 • Followed by A&T Batt Co. (JV of Toshiba Batt + Asahi Kasei) in 1992 • Insertion chemistry and intercalating cathode of LiCoO2 patented by Goodenough in 1980 • Intercalating graphite anode patented by H. Ikeda at Sony in 1981 • Early Li-ion cells had series safety issues: • Lithium metal anodes form dendrites and powder deposits on recharge • Electrolyte reactions with lithium powder on anode • Basic electrolytes and separators did not provide any safety protection • Development in 1990’s into 2000’s focused on safer electrolytes, polymer separators, shut-down separators, electrolyte additives and cell over current protection (PTC’s). Source: Masaki Yoshio, Ralph J. Brodd, Akiya Kozawa, Lithium-ion Batteries Science and Technologies, Springer Science NY 2009 4
  5. 5. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Trend in Electrochemical Energy Storage • Specific power vs. specific energy  Primary Lithium 3.6V, 2.4Ah 300  Wh/kg  885Wh/lit 450Wh/kg io n Panasonic  o lut 2008  v cee 3.6 Ah  an 740 Wh/l  fo rm r Lithium-air Pe 0     50     100           200  Theoretical Li­Ion  5,200 Wh/kg 11,140Wh/lit Ni­Zn AA Alkaline Gasoline Lead  Ni­MH Primary  @12,400 Wh/kg Acid Ni­Cd  0      100  200  300  400     500      600      700     800  Wh/l  5
  6. 6. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Build up of Lithium­ion Plants to Over­capacity in US OEM/Plant Customer/Vehicle DOE Grant Plant Cap New Jobs Funding # packs LG Chem/CPi GM/Volt $151M 200,000 Holland, MI Ford Motor Ford/Focus HEV $135M of Rawsonville, MI 2011 Focus BEV $550M Ford $’s with Magna Int’l General Motors GM/Volt $106M Brownstown, MI Coda Auto/Lishen Coda/ 20,000 1,000 Ohio Ener1 Fisker/Karma $118M 120,000 3,000 Indianapolis, IN Nissan Motor Nissan/Leaf 200,000 Smyrna, TN Dow Kokam $161M Midland, MI 6
  7. 7. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Lithium­ion Base Materials ­ Cost • Advanced chemistry batteries contain significant amounts of expensive, and strategic, metals: • Typically, 3% to 10% by weight cobalt in nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries, • Prius 1.3kWh battery pack for example contains 2.5kg of Co, with a 2010 price point of $39.90/kg, on par with its 2007 price of $40.25/kg after a 60% jump from 2006. • Lithium carbonate spot price is now $6.60/kg, of which 18.8% is lithium metal • The typical lithium-ion battery contains approximately 170g lithium/kWh gross • For example, DOT’s Travel Safe Initiative mandates <8g equivalent lithium in laptop, mobile phone, in carry-on baggage • This equates to 13.9Wh/g x 8g = 110Wh pack at most. 7
  8. 8. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Lithium­ion Battery­EV’s • Lithium metal content in Battery EV’s is not the dominant cost factor: • Some illustrations OEM/Vehicle Total pack Cell Capacity Pack voltage Equiv. Li energy (Wh) (Ah) (V) metal (kg) Ford Motor 23 60 383 3.91 Focus EV Nissan 24 4.08 Leaf EV BYD 48* 200 240 8.16 E6 EV * Down rated since 2009 Auto Show concept vehicle 60kWh pack 8
  9. 9. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Lithium­ion Battery­Cost Survey • Technology trends in lithium-ion • Cobalt price remains concern, processing cost dominates price • Portable tools moving to thin electrode spinel & PCB free electrolyte • Sony Nexelion anode of SnCCo composite improves safety (2.5V?) • Sanyo began commercializing silicon anode 2005—2008+ Material cost and price of Laminate  Others  package LIB for HEV (US$/Wh)  0.8  0.7  Electrode manufacturing cost  0.6  Laminate package  0.5  Electrolyte  0.4  Separator  0.3  Cu foil  0.2  0.1  Anode active material  0  Al foil  Goal  08­09CY  Cathode active material Source: Hideo Takeshita, Institute of Information Technology, Ltd., Worldwide Market Update on NiMH, Li Ion and Polymer Batteries for Portable Applications and HEVS, THE 22ND INTERNATIONAL BATTERY SEMINAR & EXHIBIT 10:30 -12:15 Pre-Seminar Tutorial II , March 14, 2005  9
  10. 10. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Lithium­ion Battery – Automotive Applications • Lithium-ion chemistry types for automotive applications Chemistry Specific Pro Con OEM Application Energy (Wh/kg) Lithium Nickel Cobalt 170 Most proven Safety is poor JC-S HEV Aluminum High energy High cost (Co, Ni) PEVE LiNiCoAl (NCA) High power Poor life Low charge rate Lithium Manganese 150 COST Poor life LG Chem HEV Spinel Safety ElectroVay LiMnO2 (LMO) Low Temp perf. a Lithiuim Titanate 150 Safety COST vs. LMO EnerDel HEV LMO/LTO Life Expectancy Voltage is low Toshiba Charge time AltairNano Lithium Iron 140 Safety Low Temp Perf A123 EV/PHEV Phosphate (LFP) Life & Cost Energy Density BYD LiFePO4 Charge rate Source: Deutsche Bank, “Electric Cars – Plugged In Rise of the Electric Car, and Related Themes”, THE 22ND INTERNATIONAL BATTERY SEMINAR & EXHIBIT, Broward Cty Conv. Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, March 14, 2005 10
  11. 11. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Quest for the Perfect Battery ­ Safety • Consider the gases that evolve when utility substation transformer or energy storage components fail catastrophically • Utilities implement DGA – dissolved gas analysis for early identification of failure Low temperature, low energy processes generate hydrogen and single bond C-C carbon compounds Hydrogen (H2) Carbon monoxide (CO) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Ethane (C2H6) High temperature, high energy processes generate C=C double bond compounds C2H4 H2C=CH2 Ethylene (alkene) Very high temperatures and energy processes generate CΞC triple bond compounds C2H2 HCΞCH Acetylene Source: Michel Duval, “DGA-dissolved Gas Analysis”, IEEE Power and Energy T&D Converence, New Orleans, LA, 21 April 2010 11
  12. 12. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Quest for the Perfect Battery ­ Safety • Gas analysis of vented cells show little effect of SOC • But, aged cells have lower methane and higher ethylene than unaged cells Aged cells show more gas evolution resulting from higher temperature processes Source: E.Pete Roth, Dan Doughty, Chris Crafts, “Thermal and Gas Generating Response of Li-ion Cells to Thermally Abusive Environment,” Sandia National Labs report, 2006 12
  13. 13. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Quest for the Perfect Battery – Safety is System Issue • Industry lacks non-invasive prognostic tools: • Incidents occur in ~5 to 10ppm cells • Cell lots subject to recall all passed UL testing • Internal short circuits are responsible for thermal incidents • Cell/module materials play a large role (18650 cell basis) • Anode and cathode materials play significant role ------------80C to 120C, 150 to 300C • Anode and cathode energy release is about 10kJ • Electrolyte salt reacts with solvent for temperature in 250C to 400C and releases 20kJ • Auto-ignition of the solvent when internal temperature rises to 450C releasing ~100kJ Text Source: Brian Barnett, Suresh Siriramulu, “A Perspective on Li-ion Safety and Opportunities for Portable and Electric Vehicle Applications”, THE 22ND INTERNATIONAL BATTERY SEMINAR & EXHIBIT, Broward Cty Conv. Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, March 14, 2005 (Source of graphic, E.Pete Roth, Dan Doughty, Chris Crafts, Sandia National Labs) 13
  14. 14. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Energy Storage Applications Smart Grid 14
  15. 15. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Integrating Renewable Resources to Smart Grid Renewable Energy Sources will require storage at distribution level • Renewable resources today cannot be scheduled • Storage at the PCC means RES can be scheduled and spinning reserve lowered 15
  16. 16. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Energy Storage Benefits to Smart Grid Smart Grid Applications of Electric Energy Storage: Ultracap and Battery • Most relevant would be as energy storage in STATCOM • Less likely in SVC’s – static VAR compensators Stabilization of frequency requires the dc Energy Source have sufficient capacity to maintain high power levels for up to 1 minute. Control and smoothening of grid voltage require the dc Energy Source be capable of fast (ms) delivery and absorption of power from the thyristor converter. Source: Rajiv K. Varma, “Elements of FACTs Controllers,” IEEE Power & Energy Society Transmission and Distribution Conference & Exposition, Ernst N. Morial Convention Center, New Orleans, LA, 19-22 May 2010 16
  17. 17. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Will Power Electronics Enable the Perfect Battery? The Role of Power Electronics in Energy Storage 17
  18. 18. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Role of Power Electronics in Energy Storage Systems • Power electronic converter facilitates the active combination of capacitor and battery for decoupled power and energy • Power electronics is viewed as facilitating next generation energy and power optimized ESS. Modern SiC power converters operate from 50kHz to 200kHz greatly reducing the size of magnetic components L1 and smoothing capacitors C1 and C2. 18
  19. 19. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM The Maxwell Approach: Develop Models & Strategy • Combination technologies require an energy management system strategy that optimizes use of available ultracapacitor energy  Battery and Ul tracapacitor Current  L oad_ P ro fil e_P ...  232.00  2 84.00  2 00.00  AM2.I [A]  Id.I [A]  AM1.I [A]  0  AM2.I [A]  Id.I [A] A M1...  0  ­218.00  ­192.00  0  100.00  199.00  t  0  250 .00  500.00  655.00  t  Load power profile applied to combination Battery (red) and ultracap (blue) currents for this power (this is case of digital filtered load current to ultracap) 19
  20. 20. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Hybridized Battery Selection and Sizing • Pugh analysis of competing Ultracap + Battery architectures Table: Equal energy ultracapacitor implementations Architecture Robustness Cost Performance Overall Up Convert Fewer, large UC 1 1 + cells, few conn’s High input current Lower Converter operates Best choice overall Enable & to converter voltage only when needed and considering PE EMS strategy semiconduct High bandwidth technology advances Stable dc link control Down Convert More, smaller UC 0 1 0 cells, more conn’s high voltage Converter operates Lower input current semiconduc only when needed Too many Stable dc link High bandwidth interconnects, voltage Enable & control management, higher EMS strategy voltage UC system Converter on Batt More, smaller UC -1 0 - cells, more conn’s Converter Highly dynamic dc operational Converter fault cannot Requires ultra-robust Enable & link voltage 100% of time be tolerated converter and high EMS strategy Thermal Higher thermal burden performance inverter Difficult Inverter concerns controller and higher PWM control current inverter switch 20
  21. 21. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Benefits of Hybridized Battery • Without question, the value of active combination energy storage lies in improvements in safety, durability, cost and performance. • Safety à reduced battery heating, longer life • Durability à battery not exposed to high C-rates, potential to admit more chemistries into acceptable category • Cost à energy battery is less expensive, ability to widen SOC window provides indirect cost advantage: • Targeting $350/kWh of useable energy in lithium-ion having 55% dSOC, • Means that overall pack cost must be <$195 • Performance à optimal when power and energy are decoupled. • Quest for wider SOC window. AGEING: Cathode: Anode: Z increases, P dec 21
  22. 22. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Ultracapacitor Model Applications Renewable Energy Resource Distributed Energy Storage Smart Grid 22
  23. 23. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Smart Grid: Regulation Activities using Energy Storage • Problem: The variability and intermittency of wind resource causes large imbalanced power that demands more expensive ancillary services. • Solution: Energy storage, fast response but costly, is a viable solution to suppress the fluctuation of wind power [1]. 10s à3min Voltage and frequency regulation P-w and Q-U droop stabilization √ √ √ √ √ √ [1] Yuri Makarov, Pengwei Du, Michael CW Kintner-Meyer, Chunlian Jin, Howard Illian, “Optimal Size of Energy Storage to Accommodate High Penetration of Renewable Resources in WECC System,” Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, NIST Conference Center, Gaithersburg, MD, 19-21 Jan 2010 23
  24. 24. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Architecting the Perfect Battery • The best batteries today are based on insertion chemistry of light elements. Lithium-ion is smaller and lighter than any other secondary cell. • All batteries have cost issues due to strategic materials needed for high specific energy. Ultracapacitors are viable for high pulse power and provide excellent augmentation of the battery. • Rechargeable batteries have safety concerns due to subtle electrode impurities or non-uniform self-assembly on recharge that appear late in service life as localized hot spots. DGA is a potential prognostic. • Grid applications of electric energy storage are increasing and demanding long life, high energy, and robust service in highly cycling environment. Here the ultracapacitor can help. • Use of power electronics to manage energy storage brings with it decoupled power and energy and possibly the “perfect battery”. 24
  25. 25. CHARGED 2020: THE GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE FORUM Wrap­up Thank You! Questions? 25

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