Energy Storage and US competitiveness*Charged 2020San Diego, July 2-3, 2010<br />Eric D. Isaacs<br />Director<br />Argonne...
Three Messages <br />Technology Roadmap shows potential for gaining on world competition<br />Gap exists between what U.S....
Game-changing technology is on the map, but only now being developed in U.S.<br />Source: Prof. J. Newman, LBNL<br />
Overview of Technology RoadmapArgonne and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories’ perspective<br />Short term, 0 to 3 years:  Lith...
There are many ways to store energy <br />Energy storage:<br />Electrical<br />capacitors<br />Potential<br />hydroelectri...
There are many types of batteries <br />Batteries:<br />alkaline<br />lead-acid<br />zinc-chloride<br />Li-ion<br />silver...
In addition to<br />We need<br /><ul><li>Cost
Life
Safety
Energy
Power
Efficiency</li></li></ul><li>Transformational 21st century transportation<br /><ul><li>Fully electrified United States tra...
Energy Storage R&D at Argonne<br />Developing transformational energy storage systems that enable and enhance electric-dri...
Prototype & Manufacturing Process Engineering
Stationary Storage & Grid Management
Electric Transportation Systems</li></li></ul><li>10<br />The Storage ChallengeR&D on new technologies is needed now<br />...
How a Lithium Ion Battery Works; Definition of the Key Issues with this System<br />e-<br />Cathode (+)<br /> (-) Anode<br...
54%PF<br />P-O<br />27%PF<br />50%PF<br />P-F<br />50%PF<br />27%PF<br />20%PF<br />20%PF<br />13%PF<br />13%PF<br />0%PF<...
LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co)<br />Li2MnO3<br />(M4+)<br />(M3+ or M4+/M2+)<br />MO6<br />octahedra<br />·<br />·<br />= Li<br />...
350<br />0.3Li<br />MnO<br />   0.7LiMn<br />Ni<br />O<br />2<br />3<br />0.5<br />0.5<br />2<br />300<br />236<br />250<b...
DOE Awarded Battery Energy Frontier Research CenterANL has experience and skills to take the next step in Li-ion<br />Goal...
Another look: game-changing technology is on the map, but only now being developed in U.S.<br />Source: Prof. J. Newman, L...
Li<br />    Fe<br />    O<br />The future beyond lithium-ion: Lithium-air<br /><ul><li> Potential for 10x the energy densi...
 specific energy: 11,000 Wh/kg </li></ul>         (gasoline:13,000Wh/kg)<br /><ul><li> 500-mile electric vehicles</li></ul...
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Energy Storage and US Competitiveness

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Dr. Eric Isaacs, Laboratory Director, Argonne National Laboratory
• Comparing the life, density, safety, and costs of new battery technologies for EVs and portable electronics
• Assessing the viability of emerging technologies
• How do we develop a domestic manufacturing capability for advanced energy storage technologies?

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  • I changed this &amp;#x201C;Hurdle exists&amp;#x2026;&amp;#x201D; statement to be a little softer for the general public. We presented this privately, one-on-one to Andy Grove, not in the public eye.\n
  • The dashed line here is a slope of 1, so this shows how we haven&amp;#x2019;t achieve theoretical limits on specific energy yet. But, importantly, this graph also shows that, even if you improve lithium ion to its theoretical maximum, you only move the li-ion point slightly to the right on this curve. Granted the scale is logarithmic, but this illustrates how far we are away from octane. Wheat and methanol are listed here only for reference &amp;#x2013; this is sometimes confusing to the listener in that he might assume we also want to perform research on &amp;#x201C;wheat&amp;#x201D; systems. I usually point this out as merely a reference, and probably one reason we eat wheat products.\n\nMain point is we need advancements in systems like Li-air and Li-S to make the next leap toward independence from fossil fuel.\n
  • It may be obvious, but this is a key slide.\n\nIn the first bullet (&amp;#x201C;Short term&amp;#x201D;), I like to note 1) that the barrier of high capital investment is being overcome with the DOE grants and loans to build factories, mostly in Michigan (JCI, A123, Compact Power), and 2) &amp;#x201C;lack of differentiating technology&amp;#x201D; means that what is being commercialized now is known technology. The big companies in the U.S. are fairly well currently consumed with the work required to commercialize and manufacture the current technology, and that they have few remaining resources to develop the next gen technology. That is where the labs and universities come in to play.\n
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  • Note: battery types (chemistries) on the left are &amp;#x201C;primary&amp;#x201D; batteries (one-time use), and battery chemistries on the right are &amp;#x201C;secondary&amp;#x201D; batteries (rechargeable).\n
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  • I battery pack on the left is from an actual commercial system, possibly the Prius. On the right is shown a commercial GM IC-engine vehicle that Argonne adapted to be a plug-in hybrid. Argonne did this work before plug-ins were widely expected to be adopted, and the automakers were still almost wholly concentrating on commercializing mild hybrids, or HEVs.\n\nImagine a fully electrified transportation system. If the United States could covert all our cars and light trucks from gasoline and diesel to electricity, we could save 7.2 million barrels of oil a day. That would cut national oil consumption about one-third and reduce the well-to-wheels carbon footprint of our light-duty fleet nearly 25 percent.\nTo make this dream real, we need an energy-storage system that packs as much energy per pound as gasoline. We call that energy density, and to reach it, we need to improve existing batteries by a factor of 10. \n
  • Pictures, from upper right &amp;#x2013; particles of electrode material nano-engineered for control of particle size and morphology; pilot facility engineered by Argonne for BASF to assist in scaling an agri-chemical for BASF; large prismatic-type cell design, for automotive use; work on a hybrid of ultra-capacitors and lithium ion batteries (lower right); a &amp;#x201C;bread-board&amp;#x201D; vehicle on the dynanometer, used for testing and integrating new vehicle technologies such as hydrogen combustion engine, fuel cell, large battery systems, etc; a model for smart grid development and application; finally, the four symbols on the lower left are a sample of those with whom Argonne collaborates on energy storage research.\n
  • The key point here is that there is a reason why the IC engine is so ubiquitous &amp;#x2013; it exhibits an excellent combination of specific energy and specific power, and oil/gasoline is relatively inexpensive. Another point is that, while we have been moving closer to the IC engine with advancements in battery chemistry and technology, we will still need more development to bridge closer to the performance of the IC engine. (I also like to point out that the scale of the axes are logarithmic.)\n
  • I&amp;#x2019;m sure you&amp;#x2019;ve heard enough about this one &amp;#x2013; an error in this cartoon is the representation of the SEI as a film at the edge of the electrode material, separating the electrode as a whole from the electrolyte. Of course that is not the case; the SEI needs to coat all exposed surfaces of the particles. You have heard me describe this one before &amp;#x2013; a main point is that Argonne (and others) perform important research in each of the critical areas (with the exception of the separator).\n
  • The main point of this slide is that Argonne has the diagnostic tools required for an atomic-level analysis of how the cell chemistry changes over time, or during use.\n\nThese are x-ray photoelectron spectra of two different electrons, as well as an SEM that attempts to show the SEI on cathode particles. In both sets of spectra, &amp;#x201C;PF&amp;#x201D; stands for &amp;#x201C;power fade,&amp;#x201D; and is the measurement of the fade in power with calendar life. Meaning, the batteries&amp;#x2019; power fade is due to aging without cycling.\n\nThe set of spectra on the left are for the oxygen 1s orbital. As the battery ages, we can see that the intensity of this peak increases. Specifically, this peak represents oxygen that is part of a larger molecule that is a constituent of the SEI. &amp;#x201C;R&amp;#x201D; is merely a carbon group that is not defined in this work.\n\nThe set of spectra on the right show changes in two representative peaks, the phosphorous-fluorine and the phosphorous-oxygen. The note refers specifically to electrons from the P2p orbital, and you can see the intensity increase as the cell power fades over time (calendar life). Note that LiPF6 (lithium hexafluorophosphate) is the salt that is primarily used for lithium solvation in lithium ion batteries. So, with this experimental technique, one can learn both about the aging of the cell, and see that the salt itself is becoming incorporated into the SEI layer.\n\nAlso note: the battery department at Argonne receive facilities funding (ARRA funding) to build a so-called &amp;#x201C;post-test&amp;#x201D; laboratory, in which we have a variety of techniques, all interconnected in a single environmental chamber, so that a battery can be taken apart in a controlled environment and examined after use. This will be a unique facility in the DOE system (and was funded as part of the same money that came to fund ES to build the pilot facility for making battery materials). The army, through Tardec, is also contributin funds to this facility, as well as the scale-up facility in ES.\n
  • The theme here is that we can understand the failures of materials, and hence design new, better performing materials.\n
  • A close-to-theoretical high capacity is achieved, and stability of the system is achieved as well, using Argonne&amp;#x2019;s lithium-rich layered-layered nickel-manganese-cobalt material.\n
  • -Since interfaces are key, and Argonne&amp;#x2019;s battery group has a history of success, ANL was awarded and EFRC ( tailoring interfaces)\nDescribe the mission of EFRC and collaborators ( see above)\n
  • The dashed line here is a slope of 1, so this shows how we haven&amp;#x2019;t achieve theoretical limits on specific energy yet. But, importantly, this graph also shows that, even if you improve lithium ion to its theoretical maximum, you only move the li-ion point slightly to the right on this curve. Granted the scale is logarithmic, but this illustrates how far we are away from octane. Wheat and methanol are listed here only for reference &amp;#x2013; this is sometimes confusing to the listener in that he might assume we also want to perform research on &amp;#x201C;wheat&amp;#x201D; systems. I usually point this out as merely a reference, and probably one reason we eat wheat products.\n\nMain point is we need advancements in systems like Li-air and Li-S to make the next leap toward independence from fossil fuel.\n
  • I&amp;#x2019;ve not seen these put together this way before. This is a bit of a misnomer in that the overall capacity of the lithium iron oxide cathode material is lower than that in state-of-the-art electrode materials for lithium ion. We are working on solutions to the problems associated with recharging systems with lithium metal as anode, but I didn&amp;#x2019;t know this was considered a possible solution. I personally wouldn&amp;#x2019;t use this in this way, but, again, I&amp;#x2019;ve not seen this before.\n\nThere are better examples, such as the idea Thackeray and Trahey are working on for the cathode, in which a controlled deposition of iron-based catalyst is deposited in a lattice, so that the catalyst is not consumed during cycling.\n\nThe Lithium-Air battery may be the solution. Argonne is committed to developing it. In theory, lithium can store about as much energy as gasoline: 11,000 watt-hours per kg, compared to 13,000 watt-hours per kg. for gasoline. This gives it the potential to store five to 10 times as much energy as a lithium-ion battery of the same size and to power an electric car 400 miles between recharges. \nBut its lifetime is limited to tens of charge-recharge cycles instead of the thousands a practical auto battery needs, and its charge-discharge rate is slow, which means it doesn&apos;t give a car good acceleration and it takes a long time to recharge. These are all problems in basic materials science. \nEvery sustainable energy technology has similar issues. You name the technology, and success requires real breakthroughs in the basic physical sciences. \nTo make solar electricity fully cost-competitive with fossil electricity, we need new materials. \nTo develop solar or other alternative fuels, we need new catalysts that are more efficient and cost less.\nAdvanced nuclear energy systems need new materials to stand up under extremes of heat, pressure, radiation and corrosion. \nOne of our biggest challenges is to assess and predict climate change. Success requires basic biological and biochemical studies of soils, a better understanding of the physics of aerosols and clouds, and the computing power to model it all. \nThese are not just tweaks or evolutionary improvements to existing technologies. And we can&apos;t afford to economize by trying to pick some renewable technologies as winners and dropping the others. None of them is so close to success that we can single it out at the expense of the others. We will probably need them all in proportions that vary according to our success in R&amp;D and deployment.\n
  • This slide models the Western Interconnect in the US. There are three major sub grids in the US, Eastern, Western, and Texas. What is graphed here is the benefit of plug-in hybrid vehicles. During off-peak hours the PHEV load balances out very well the base load requirements, resulting in a smoothing out the aggregate loads over a 2e hour period.\n
  • This slide models the Western Interconnect in the US. There are three major sub grids in the US, Eastern, Western, and Texas. What is graphed here is the benefit of plug-in hybrid vehicles. During off-peak hours the PHEV load balances out very well the base load requirements, resulting in a smoothing out the aggregate loads over a 2e hour period.\n
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  • \nOur role is to develop science-based solutions to global challenges&amp;#x2014;and developing sustainable energy technologies is certainly one of those global challenges.\nThis top row of this slide summarizes our major areas of R&amp;D.\nThe lower row summarizes the core capabilities we bring to bear on solving the problems in the top row. \n\nCherenkov radiation glowing in the core of the Advanced Test Reactor.\n\n\nIn a collaborative effort, the Joint Genome Institute provided a set of targets to the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics at Argonne for structure determination. These targets were selected for their relevance to the BER program interest in carbon management and were from the genome sequences of environmental microbes. Of the 700 targets provided by the JGI, Argonne staff were successful in cloning 384. 60 clones produced soluble protein suitable for crystallization trials; 12 out of 36 targets put into crystallization trials thus far have produced crystals and structures (shown) have been obtained for 6 of those crystals using the SBC beamlines. Further study of these structures, including functional analysis, will elucidate natural bacterial mechanisms related to carbon management in terrestrial environments.\n
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  • Energy Storage and US Competitiveness

    1. 1. Energy Storage and US competitiveness*Charged 2020San Diego, July 2-3, 2010<br />Eric D. Isaacs<br />Director<br />Argonne National Laboratory<br />Professor of Physics, The University of Chicago<br />* with Jeff Chamberlain, Mark Peters, Mike Thackeray, Khalil Amine<br />
    2. 2. Three Messages <br />Technology Roadmap shows potential for gaining on world competition<br />Gap exists between what U.S. industry will commercialize now, and what is needed to overcome the competition<br />Department of Energy Laboratory system can deliver essential research, but the industry/laboratory interface must be optimized<br />
    3. 3. Game-changing technology is on the map, but only now being developed in U.S.<br />Source: Prof. J. Newman, LBNL<br />
    4. 4. Overview of Technology RoadmapArgonne and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories’ perspective<br />Short term, 0 to 3 years: Lithium Ion (commercial materials and processes)<br />Benefits: known, commercial technology; sufficient for initial PHEVs<br />Barriers: high capital investment (est. $1 K/kWh), lack of differentiating technology<br />Possibilities: manufacturing process innovations; automation, prismatic cells may be key ($0.3 K/kWh)<br />Mid term, 3 to 7 years: Advanced Lithium Ion (new materials and/or processes)<br />Benefits: Higher-energy, safer materials discovered; now need commercial adoption<br />Barriers: developments needed, e.g., stability of electrode and electrolyte materials, and their interface, at high and low potentials and temperatures<br />Possibilities: 1.5-2x the present performance in Lithium Ion batteries; serve as bridge to 10x<br />Long term, 7 to 20 years: New systems, e.g. Lithium-Air, Lithium-Sulfur<br />Benefits: game-changing, 5x – 10x storage capacity<br />Barriers: technological – numerous and difficult, both in materials and engineering<br />Possibilities: leadership position for U.S.; widespread adoption of electric vehicles<br />
    5. 5. There are many ways to store energy <br />Energy storage:<br />Electrical<br />capacitors<br />Potential<br />hydroelectric<br />Electrochemical<br />batteries, fuel cells, solar fuels<br />Thermal<br />Liquid N2, <br />solar ponds<br />Mechanical<br />compressed air,<br />spring, hydraulic<br />
    6. 6. There are many types of batteries <br />Batteries:<br />alkaline<br />lead-acid<br />zinc-chloride<br />Li-ion<br />silver oxide<br />Ni-Fe<br />zinc-carbon<br />NiMH<br />lithium<br />NiCd<br />etc.<br />NaMCl<br />
    7. 7. In addition to<br />We need<br /><ul><li>Cost
    8. 8. Life
    9. 9. Safety
    10. 10. Energy
    11. 11. Power
    12. 12. Efficiency</li></li></ul><li>Transformational 21st century transportation<br /><ul><li>Fully electrified United States transport system (cars & light trucks) will:</li></ul>Cut US oil consumption by 1/3 (7.2 million barrels oil/day)<br />25% well-to-wheels reduction in carbon footprint <br /><ul><li>Need 5-10x improvement in battery energy density</li></ul>8<br />
    13. 13. Energy Storage R&D at Argonne<br />Developing transformational energy storage systems that enable and enhance electric-drive vehicles and a green-energy grid through:<br /><ul><li>Electrical Energy Storage Development
    14. 14. Prototype & Manufacturing Process Engineering
    15. 15. Stationary Storage & Grid Management
    16. 16. Electric Transportation Systems</li></li></ul><li>10<br />The Storage ChallengeR&D on new technologies is needed now<br />Ragone Plot of Various Electrochemical Energy-Storage Devices<br />1000<br />IC Engine<br />IC Engine<br />IC Engine<br />6<br />Li-Air,<br />Fuel Cells<br />4<br />100 h<br />EV goal (EoL)<br />2<br />Li-Ion<br />Li<br />-<br />ion<br />Li<br />-<br />ion<br />PHEV-40 (EoL)<br />100<br />PHEV-10 (EoL)<br />Na/NiCl2<br />6<br />Ni<br />-<br />MH<br />Ni<br />-<br />MH<br />4<br />Specific Energy (Wh/kg)<br />Range<br />Lead<br />-<br />Acid<br />Lead<br />-<br />Acid<br />Ni-MH<br />10 h<br />2<br />10 h<br />10 h<br />Lead-Acid<br />HEV goal<br />10<br />Capacitors<br />Capacitors<br />6<br />Capacitors<br />4<br />36 s<br />0.1 h<br />1 h<br />36 s<br />0.1 h<br />1 h<br />36 s<br />0.1 h<br />1 h<br />2<br />3.6 s<br />1<br />0<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />10<br />10<br />10<br />10<br />10<br />Specific Power (W/kg)<br />Acceleration<br />Source: Amended from Product data sheets<br />by Dr. V. Srivinasan, LBNL<br />
    17. 17. How a Lithium Ion Battery Works; Definition of the Key Issues with this System<br />e-<br />Cathode (+)<br /> (-) Anode<br />Charge<br />Discharge<br />Li+ ion<br />Solid Electrolyte Interface<br />protects electrode from reacting with electrolyte<br />Cell performance impacted by structured electrode materials and effective solid-electrolyte interface (SEI)<br />Negative Electrode: Carbon<br />6C + Li <---> C6Li<br />Positive Electrode: Layered oxides<br />Such as LiCoO2, LiNiO2<br />LiNi1-xCoxO2 <-> yLi+ + Li1-yNi1-xCoxO2<br />11<br />
    18. 18. 54%PF<br />P-O<br />27%PF<br />50%PF<br />P-F<br />50%PF<br />27%PF<br />20%PF<br />20%PF<br />13%PF<br />13%PF<br />0%PF<br />0%PF<br />MacLaren/Haasch<br />Fundamental knowledge combined with analysis of the problems (e.g. cathode surface film changes over time)<br />LiPF6 salt incorporated with calendar life into interfacial film as well<br />Interface chemistry changes with calendar life, sitting on the shelf<br />SEM image<br />SNL325, 45°C, 80%SOC<br />Fresh<br />P2p XPS spectra show P-O bond changes on aging<br />XPS analysis area: 1 sq. mm.<br />O1s XPS spectra show peak growth on aging<br />
    19. 19. LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co)<br />Li2MnO3<br />(M4+)<br />(M3+ or M4+/M2+)<br />MO6<br />octahedra<br />·<br />·<br />= Li<br />= Li<br />Concepts for new materials are developed<br />Strategy: Embed inactive Li2MnO3 component within layered, active LiMO2structure to stabilize the electrode and to reduce the oxygen activity at the surface of charged (delithiated) electrode particles<br />
    20. 20. 350<br />0.3Li<br />MnO<br /> 0.7LiMn<br />Ni<br />O<br />2<br />3<br />0.5<br />0.5<br />2<br />300<br />236<br />250<br />200<br />Specific Capacity (mAh/g)<br />150<br />Charge<br />Discharge<br />100<br />1µm<br />4.8 - 2.75 V<br />50 °C<br />2<br />50<br />i=0.25 mA/cm<br />0<br />0<br />5<br />10<br />15<br />20<br />25<br />30<br />35<br />40<br />45<br />Cycle Number<br />Theories are tested using meaningful state-of-the art techniquese.g. Electrochemistry of a Composite CathodeCell<br />90% of theoretical<br />value (262 mAh/g)<br />Stability of the material expressed as little to no<br />capacity fade<br />Effect of formation of<br />SEI is evident in the data<br />10µm<br />secondary particles<br />Nano-primary particles<br />Johnson et al., Argonne National Laboratory<br />Doubles capacity attainable with LiCoO3<br />Amine et al., Argonne National Laboratory<br />
    21. 21. DOE Awarded Battery Energy Frontier Research CenterANL has experience and skills to take the next step in Li-ion<br />Goal: to understand and tailor the interfaces in electrochemical cells<br /><ul><li> Strategy: leverage Argonne’s user facilities, advanced quantum modeling capabilities and expertise in materials synthesis to explore self-healing interface configuration for cell performance recovery for advancing electrochemical storage beyond conventional lithium-ion materials through new material discoveries</li></ul>First results<br />Lithographic solutions<br />Autogenic reactions<br />15<br />
    22. 22. Another look: game-changing technology is on the map, but only now being developed in U.S.<br />Source: Prof. J. Newman, LBNL<br />
    23. 23. Li<br /> Fe<br /> O<br />The future beyond lithium-ion: Lithium-air<br /><ul><li> Potential for 10x the energy density of current batteries
    24. 24. specific energy: 11,000 Wh/kg </li></ul> (gasoline:13,000Wh/kg)<br /><ul><li> 500-mile electric vehicles</li></ul>Compatible interface membranes for separations<br />Stable electrolytes with required ionic conductivity<br />New catalyst for cathode<br />Li5FeO4 (Pbca)<br />Nanoporous carbons for transport and conductivity<br />Catalysts for making and breaking Li-O and O-O bonds at specified energies<br />Johnson, Amine et al., Argonne National Laboratory<br />17<br />
    25. 25. Western Interconnect<br />GTMax Model Representation<br />Energy storage and grid integration of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV’s)<br /><ul><li>New analysis initiated for DOE
    26. 26. Four case studies at different levels of detail
    27. 27. Western Interconnect, Illinois, New York power market, New England power market
    28. 28. Smoothing of aggregate loads over 24 hour period – energy management strategy</li></ul>18<br />18<br />
    29. 29. 19<br />Laboratory - Industry collaboration could solve the problem<br /><ul><li>Good News
    30. 30. The labs are set up well to serve as foundation for R&D of advanced battery concepts, includingnew chemistries, materials and systems
    31. 31. Long-term technology programs funded by DOE
    32. 32. Energy Innovation Hubs, Energy Frontier Research Centers (46; $250 M/yr), Exascale computing initiative
    33. 33. The opportunity
    34. 34. Optimize interface between the publicly-held Labs and private industry – creativity and risk-taking is required on both sides to find the solution</li></li></ul><li>20<br />Ideas to consider<br /><ul><li>Subsidies to industry
    35. 35. Tariffs
    36. 36. Industry - Lab (CRADA) - University partnerships
    37. 37. Cost-share between government and industry to fund research</li></ul>Example Solution: Continue funding the labs to support R&D targetingoptimized current, and next generation systemsto be utilized by U.S. industry; establish funding from industry to ensure focus on outcome<br />
    38. 38. Discussion<br />isaacs@anl.gov<br />21<br />21<br />
    39. 39. Argonne: Science-based Solutions to Global Challenges<br />Environmental Sustainability<br />Energy production, conversion, storage and use<br />National Security<br />Use-inspired science and engineering…<br />… Discovery and transformational science and engineering<br />Major User Facilities<br />22<br />Materials & Molecules<br />
    40. 40. FreedomCAR PHEV Energy Storage Goals<br />Barriers<br />* Three 2s pulses at -30oC with 10s rest between pulses **Price based on 100,000 batteries/year production level<br />Adequate abuse tolerance to meet FMVSS<br />
    41. 41. Decision Science: Global, national, and regional energy systems<br />Challenges<br />Projected 25% -30% growth in energy use by 2020 - demand management is key<br />Renewable power requires management of extremely complex energy flows<br />Modernizing electric system is a substantial undertaking<br />Argonne's approach<br /><ul><li>Agent-based modeling
    42. 42. Complex adaptive systems modeling</li></ul>24<br />http://www.oe.energy.gov/DocumentsandMedia/Electric_Vision_Document.pdf<br />
    43. 43. FreedomCAR HEV Energy Storage Goals<br />Barriers<br />*Three 2s pulses at -30oC with 10s rest between pulses <br />**Price based on 100,000 batteries/year production level<br />Adequate Abuse Tolerance to meet FMVSS<br />

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