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REGULAR / IRREGULAR VERBS



The English language uses both regular and irregular verbs. When forming the past
tense or the present/past perfect tense of these verbs, we use different methods.

To form the past tense of a regular verb ending with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u), add a d to the
word. To form the present/past perfect tense, add a d plus a helping verb (have, had, or
has).
              For example, the verb share ends with the vowel e.
                                 share = present tense
                            shared (share + d) = past tense
    had shared (had + share + d) = past perfect tense (have is the helping verb)

If the regular verb ends with a consonant, add ed for the past tense. Add ed plus a
helping verb for the present/past perfect tense.

             For example, the verb pour ends with the consonant r.
                              pour = present tense
                   poured (pour + ed) = past tense
              have poured (have + pour + ed) = present perfect tense


(If you need help understanding tense, please ask a CWC instructor for a handout on
definition of tense.)

Unlike regular verbs, irregular verbs do not follow a pattern. You must memorize them.

For example, the irregular verb see has three principal parts: see, saw, seen.
                         I see the stars= present tense
                           I saw the stars= past tense
                  I have seen the stars= present perfect tense

Below is a list of irregular verbs and a few tricky regular verbs that students often
misuse. Cover the columns marked past and present/past perfect, leaving the present
column visible. Now read the verbs in the present column and see if you know their past
and present/past perfect forms. If not, keep memorizing!

                                                                       PRESENT/PAST
PRESENT                                    PAST                        PERFECT (with
                                                                       has, had, have)

arise                                      arose                       arisen
awake                                      awakened                    awakened
bear                                       bore                        borne
become                                     became                      become
begin                began     begun
bend                 bent      bent
bid                  bade      bidden
bite                 bit       bitten
blow                 blew      blown
break                broke     broken
bring                brought   brought
burst                burst     burst
buy                  bought    bought
build                built     built
can                  could     could
catch                caught    caught
choose               chose     chosen
cling                clung     clung
come                 came      come
cost                 cost      cost
creep                crept     crept
dig                  dug       dug
do                   did       done
drag                 dragged   dragged
drug                 drugged   drugged
draw                 drew      drawn
drink                drank     drunk
drive                drove     driven
eat                  ate       eaten
fall                 fell      fallen
feel                 felt      felt
fight                fought    fought
find`                found     found
fit                  fit       fit
forget               forgot    forgotten
forgive              forgave   forgiven
forsake              forsook   forsaken
freeze               froze     frozen
get                  got       gotten, got
give                 gave      given
go                   went      gone
grow                 grew      grown
hang (execute)       hanged    hanged
hang (picture)       hung      hung
have                 had       had
hear                 heard     heard
hide                 hid       hidden
hold                 held      held
hurt                 hurt      hurt
keep                 kept      kept
know                 knew      known
lay (put or place)   laid      laid
lead                 led       led
learn                learned   learned
leave                left      left
lend                 lent      lent
let                  let       let
lie (recline)        lay       lain
lose                 lost      lost
mean                 meant     meant
meet                 met       met
pay                  paid      paid
raise (lift)         raised    raised
read                 read      read
ride                 rode      ridden
ring                 rang      rung
rise (move upward)   rose      risen
run                  ran       run
say                  said      said
see                  saw       seen
sell                 sold      sold
set                  set       set
shake                shook     shaken
shine (give light)   shone     shone
shine (polish)       shined    shined
shoot                shot      shot
show                 showed    shown
shrink               shrank    shrunk
sing                 sang      sung
sink                 sank      sunk
sit                  sat       sat
slay                 slew      slain
sleep                slept     slept
sneak                sneaked   sneaked
speak                spoke     spoken
spend                spent     spent
spin                 spun      spun
stand                stood     stood
steal                stole     stolen
sting                stung     stung
strew                strewed   strewed
strike               struck    struck
strive               strove    striven
swear                swore     sworn
swim                 swam      swum
swing                swung     swung
take                 took      taken
teach                taught    taught
tear                 tore      torn
tell                 told      told
think     thought          thought
throw     threw            thrown
tread     trod             trodden
wake      waked            waked
wear      wore             worn
weave     wove             woven
win       won              won
wring     wrung            wrung
write     wrote            written




        Revised May 2005

             at Meramec

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Verb list irregular

  • 1. REGULAR / IRREGULAR VERBS The English language uses both regular and irregular verbs. When forming the past tense or the present/past perfect tense of these verbs, we use different methods. To form the past tense of a regular verb ending with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u), add a d to the word. To form the present/past perfect tense, add a d plus a helping verb (have, had, or has). For example, the verb share ends with the vowel e. share = present tense shared (share + d) = past tense had shared (had + share + d) = past perfect tense (have is the helping verb) If the regular verb ends with a consonant, add ed for the past tense. Add ed plus a helping verb for the present/past perfect tense. For example, the verb pour ends with the consonant r. pour = present tense poured (pour + ed) = past tense have poured (have + pour + ed) = present perfect tense (If you need help understanding tense, please ask a CWC instructor for a handout on definition of tense.) Unlike regular verbs, irregular verbs do not follow a pattern. You must memorize them. For example, the irregular verb see has three principal parts: see, saw, seen. I see the stars= present tense I saw the stars= past tense I have seen the stars= present perfect tense Below is a list of irregular verbs and a few tricky regular verbs that students often misuse. Cover the columns marked past and present/past perfect, leaving the present column visible. Now read the verbs in the present column and see if you know their past and present/past perfect forms. If not, keep memorizing! PRESENT/PAST PRESENT PAST PERFECT (with has, had, have) arise arose arisen awake awakened awakened bear bore borne become became become
  • 2. begin began begun bend bent bent bid bade bidden bite bit bitten blow blew blown break broke broken bring brought brought burst burst burst buy bought bought build built built can could could catch caught caught choose chose chosen cling clung clung come came come cost cost cost creep crept crept dig dug dug do did done drag dragged dragged drug drugged drugged draw drew drawn drink drank drunk drive drove driven eat ate eaten fall fell fallen feel felt felt fight fought fought find` found found fit fit fit forget forgot forgotten forgive forgave forgiven forsake forsook forsaken freeze froze frozen get got gotten, got give gave given go went gone grow grew grown hang (execute) hanged hanged hang (picture) hung hung have had had hear heard heard hide hid hidden hold held held hurt hurt hurt keep kept kept know knew known lay (put or place) laid laid
  • 3. lead led led learn learned learned leave left left lend lent lent let let let lie (recline) lay lain lose lost lost mean meant meant meet met met pay paid paid raise (lift) raised raised read read read ride rode ridden ring rang rung rise (move upward) rose risen run ran run say said said see saw seen sell sold sold set set set shake shook shaken shine (give light) shone shone shine (polish) shined shined shoot shot shot show showed shown shrink shrank shrunk sing sang sung sink sank sunk sit sat sat slay slew slain sleep slept slept sneak sneaked sneaked speak spoke spoken spend spent spent spin spun spun stand stood stood steal stole stolen sting stung stung strew strewed strewed strike struck struck strive strove striven swear swore sworn swim swam swum swing swung swung take took taken teach taught taught tear tore torn tell told told
  • 4. think thought thought throw threw thrown tread trod trodden wake waked waked wear wore worn weave wove woven win won won wring wrung wrung write wrote written Revised May 2005 at Meramec