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Intrinsic factors

Factors affecting the growth of microorganism- Intrinsic factors

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Intrinsic factors
Intrinsic factors(Substrate
ations) The factors of plant and animal tissues that are an
inherent part of the tissues are referred to as intrinsic
factor. Or in other words intrinsic factors are related to
the food properties.
 Nutrient content
 pH and buffering capacity
 Redox potential (Eh)
 Water activity(aw)
 Antimicrobial barriers and constituents.
Nutrient content
In order to grow and function normally the
microorganisms of importance in foods
require the following:
 Water
 Source of energy
 Sources of nitrogen
 Vitamins and related growth factors
 Minerals
Nutrient content
In order to grow and function normally, the
microorganisms of importance in foods require
the following:
• water
• source of energy
• source of nitrogen
• vitamins and minerals
•As sources of energy ,food borne microorganisms may
utilize sugar, alcohols and amino acids.
• Some microorganisms are able to utilize complex
carbohydrates such as starches and cellulose as sources of
energy by first degrading these compounds to simple
sugars.
•Fats are also used by microorganisms as sources of
energy but these compounds are attacked by a relatively
small number of microbes in foods.
The concentration of key nutrients can, to some extent, determine
the rate of microbial growth. The relationship between the two,
known as the Monod equation, is mathematically identical to the
Michaelis– Menten equation of enzyme kinetics, reflecting the
dependence of microbial growth on rate-limiting enzyme reactions:
where m is the specific growth rate; µm the maximum specific
growth rate; S the concentration of limiting nutrient; and Ks the
saturation constant.
Nutritional Type of organism
pH and buffering capacity
•pH is equal to the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity
•For aqueous solutions, pH 7 corresponds to neutrality,pH values below 7
are acidic and those above 7 indicate an alkaline environment.
•In general, bacteria grow fastest in the pH range 6.0–8.0,
• yeasts 4.5– 6.0 and filamentous fungi 3.5–4.0.
• As with all generalizations there are exceptions, particularly
among those bacteria that produce quantities of acids as a
result of their energy-yielding metabolism. Examples important
in food microbiology are the lactobacilli and acetic acid bacteria
with optima usually between pH 5.0 and 6.0.
•The acidity of a product can have important implications for its
microbial ecology and the rate and character of its spoilage. For
example, plant products classed as vegetables generally have a
moderately acid pH and soft-rot producing bacteria such as
Pectobacterium carotovorum and pseudomonads play a
significant role in their spoilage. In fruits, however, a lower pH
prevents bacterial growth and spoilage is dominated by yeasts
and moulds.
•As a rule, fish spoil more rapidly than meat under chill conditions.
•The pH of post-rigor mammalian muscle, around 5.6, is lower than that of
fish (6.2–6.5) and this contributes to the longer storage life of meat.
• The pH-sensitive genus Shewanella (formerly Alteromonas) plays a
significant role in fish spoilage but has not been reported in normal meat
(pHo6.0).
• Those fish that have a naturally low pH such as halibut (pHE5.6) have
better keeping qualities than other fish.
With the exception of those soft drinks that contain phosphoric acid, most foods
owe their acidity to the presence of weak organic acids. These do not dissociate
completely into protons and conjugate base in solution but establish an
equilibrium:
•Equation is known as the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation and describes
the relationship between the pH of a solution, the strength of the acid
present and its degree of dissociation. When the pH is equal to an acid’s
pKa, then half of the acid present will be undissociated.
•If the pH is increased then dissociation of the acid will increase as well, so
that when pH = pKa+1 there will be 10 times as much dissociated acid as
undissociated. Similarly as the pH is decreased below the pKa the
proportion of undissociated acid increases.
• If the external pH is sufficiently low and the extracellular concentration of
acid high, the burden on the cell becomes too great, the cytoplasmic pH
drops to a level where growth is no longer possible and the cell eventually
dies
Redox potential
 The tendency of a medium to accept or donate electrons, to
oxidize or reduce, is termed its redox potential (Eh) and is
measured against an external reference by an inert metal
electrode, usually platinum, immersed in the medium.
 The measured Eh will also be influenced by the relative
proportions of oxidized and reduced species present.
 This relationship for a single couple is expressed by the
Nernst equation:
•where Eh and E0 are both measured at pH 7;
• R is the gas constant
• T, the absolute temperature
• n, the number of electrons transferred in the process and
• F is the Faraday constant.
• Microorganisms display varying degrees of sensitivity to the
oxidation-reduction potential of their growth medium.
•When the concentration of oxidant and reductant is equal, a
zero electrical potential exists.
•Among the substances in foods that help to maintain
reducing conditions are SH groups in meats and ascorbic
acid and reducing sugars in fruit and vegetables.
•Obligate or strict aerobes are those organisms that are
respiratory, generating most of their energy from oxidative
phosphorylation using oxygen as the terminal electron
acceptor in the process.And have high Eh or +ve Eh
•Obligate anaerobes tend only to grow at low or negative redox
potentials and often require oxygen to be absent.And have low
Eh or –ve Eh.
•Facultative anaerobes have high and low Eh (+ve /-ve Eh)
•Micro-aerophilic have relative low Eh values .
Redox potentials of some food materials
Water activity(aw)
 Water activity or aw is the partial vapor pressure of
water in a substance divided by the standard state
partial vapor pressure of water.
aw=p/pₒ or ERH/100
 where p is the vapor pressure of water in the
substance, and p₀ is the vapor pressure of pure
water at the same temperature
 ERH= Equilibrium Relative Humidity.
 Or in others words water activity is related to
amount of free water present in foods
•Growth of microorganisms is greatly affected by the level of water
activity(aw) in the food.
•Inhibition of growth occurs if the water activity for food is lowered
beyond an organism’s minimum level of water activity that is
necessary for growth.
•Microorganisms have varied minimum water activity
requirements that supports their growth in food.
•In general, bacteria require higher values of aw for growth
than fungi, with gram-negative bacteria having higher
requirements than gram positives.
• Most spoil- age bacteria do not grow below aw =
0.91,whereas spoilage molds can grow as low as 0.80.
With respect to food-poisoning bacteria, Staphylococcus
aureus has been found to grow as low as 0.86, whereas
Clostridium botulinum does not grow below 0.94.
• Low water activities are associated with three distinct types of food, three
terms are used to describe the micro-organisms especially associated with
these foods:
(i) Halotolerant – able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of
salt
(ii) Osmotolerant – able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of
unionized organic compounds such as sugars
(iii) Xerotolerant – able to grow on dry foods.
Antimicrobial Barriers and constituents
Some foods cannot easily be attacked by microorganisms due
to the presence of naturally occurring substances that have
antimicrobial activity. For examples presence of essential oils in
some species
 Allicin in garlic,
 Eugenol from cloves and cinnamon,
 Thymol from thyme and oregano, and
 Cinnamic aldehyde from cinnamon and cassia
Fruits, vegetables, tea, molasses contain
hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives which show
antibacterial activity.
•Animal products too, have a range of non-specific antimicrobial
constituents.
•Probably the supreme example of this is the white or albumen of
the hen’s egg which possesses a whole battery of inhibitory
components.
•Many of the same or similar factors can also be found in milk
where the are present in lower concentrations and are thus less
effective.
•Both products contain the enzyme lysozyme which catalyses the
hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages in peptidoglycan, the structural
polymer responsible for the strength and rigidity of the bacterial
cell wall.
•In addition, egg white has powerful cofactor-binding
proteins such as avidin and ovoflavoprotein which
REFERENCES
 Food Microbiology BY Martin R. Adams
and Maurice O. Moss
 Modern Food Microbiology BY James M.
Jay
 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/128
98417
 Google images
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Intrinsic factors

  • 2. Intrinsic factors(Substrate ations) The factors of plant and animal tissues that are an inherent part of the tissues are referred to as intrinsic factor. Or in other words intrinsic factors are related to the food properties.  Nutrient content  pH and buffering capacity  Redox potential (Eh)  Water activity(aw)  Antimicrobial barriers and constituents.
  • 3. Nutrient content In order to grow and function normally the microorganisms of importance in foods require the following:  Water  Source of energy  Sources of nitrogen  Vitamins and related growth factors  Minerals
  • 4. Nutrient content In order to grow and function normally, the microorganisms of importance in foods require the following: • water • source of energy • source of nitrogen • vitamins and minerals
  • 5. •As sources of energy ,food borne microorganisms may utilize sugar, alcohols and amino acids. • Some microorganisms are able to utilize complex carbohydrates such as starches and cellulose as sources of energy by first degrading these compounds to simple sugars. •Fats are also used by microorganisms as sources of energy but these compounds are attacked by a relatively small number of microbes in foods.
  • 6. The concentration of key nutrients can, to some extent, determine the rate of microbial growth. The relationship between the two, known as the Monod equation, is mathematically identical to the Michaelis– Menten equation of enzyme kinetics, reflecting the dependence of microbial growth on rate-limiting enzyme reactions: where m is the specific growth rate; µm the maximum specific growth rate; S the concentration of limiting nutrient; and Ks the saturation constant.
  • 8. pH and buffering capacity •pH is equal to the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity •For aqueous solutions, pH 7 corresponds to neutrality,pH values below 7 are acidic and those above 7 indicate an alkaline environment.
  • 9. •In general, bacteria grow fastest in the pH range 6.0–8.0, • yeasts 4.5– 6.0 and filamentous fungi 3.5–4.0. • As with all generalizations there are exceptions, particularly among those bacteria that produce quantities of acids as a result of their energy-yielding metabolism. Examples important in food microbiology are the lactobacilli and acetic acid bacteria with optima usually between pH 5.0 and 6.0. •The acidity of a product can have important implications for its microbial ecology and the rate and character of its spoilage. For example, plant products classed as vegetables generally have a moderately acid pH and soft-rot producing bacteria such as Pectobacterium carotovorum and pseudomonads play a significant role in their spoilage. In fruits, however, a lower pH prevents bacterial growth and spoilage is dominated by yeasts and moulds.
  • 10. •As a rule, fish spoil more rapidly than meat under chill conditions. •The pH of post-rigor mammalian muscle, around 5.6, is lower than that of fish (6.2–6.5) and this contributes to the longer storage life of meat. • The pH-sensitive genus Shewanella (formerly Alteromonas) plays a significant role in fish spoilage but has not been reported in normal meat (pHo6.0). • Those fish that have a naturally low pH such as halibut (pHE5.6) have better keeping qualities than other fish.
  • 11. With the exception of those soft drinks that contain phosphoric acid, most foods owe their acidity to the presence of weak organic acids. These do not dissociate completely into protons and conjugate base in solution but establish an equilibrium:
  • 12. •Equation is known as the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation and describes the relationship between the pH of a solution, the strength of the acid present and its degree of dissociation. When the pH is equal to an acid’s pKa, then half of the acid present will be undissociated. •If the pH is increased then dissociation of the acid will increase as well, so that when pH = pKa+1 there will be 10 times as much dissociated acid as undissociated. Similarly as the pH is decreased below the pKa the proportion of undissociated acid increases. • If the external pH is sufficiently low and the extracellular concentration of acid high, the burden on the cell becomes too great, the cytoplasmic pH drops to a level where growth is no longer possible and the cell eventually dies
  • 13. Redox potential  The tendency of a medium to accept or donate electrons, to oxidize or reduce, is termed its redox potential (Eh) and is measured against an external reference by an inert metal electrode, usually platinum, immersed in the medium.  The measured Eh will also be influenced by the relative proportions of oxidized and reduced species present.  This relationship for a single couple is expressed by the Nernst equation:
  • 14. •where Eh and E0 are both measured at pH 7; • R is the gas constant • T, the absolute temperature • n, the number of electrons transferred in the process and • F is the Faraday constant. • Microorganisms display varying degrees of sensitivity to the oxidation-reduction potential of their growth medium. •When the concentration of oxidant and reductant is equal, a zero electrical potential exists. •Among the substances in foods that help to maintain reducing conditions are SH groups in meats and ascorbic acid and reducing sugars in fruit and vegetables.
  • 15. •Obligate or strict aerobes are those organisms that are respiratory, generating most of their energy from oxidative phosphorylation using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor in the process.And have high Eh or +ve Eh •Obligate anaerobes tend only to grow at low or negative redox potentials and often require oxygen to be absent.And have low Eh or –ve Eh. •Facultative anaerobes have high and low Eh (+ve /-ve Eh) •Micro-aerophilic have relative low Eh values . Redox potentials of some food materials
  • 16. Water activity(aw)  Water activity or aw is the partial vapor pressure of water in a substance divided by the standard state partial vapor pressure of water. aw=p/pₒ or ERH/100  where p is the vapor pressure of water in the substance, and p₀ is the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature  ERH= Equilibrium Relative Humidity.  Or in others words water activity is related to amount of free water present in foods
  • 17. •Growth of microorganisms is greatly affected by the level of water activity(aw) in the food. •Inhibition of growth occurs if the water activity for food is lowered beyond an organism’s minimum level of water activity that is necessary for growth. •Microorganisms have varied minimum water activity requirements that supports their growth in food.
  • 18. •In general, bacteria require higher values of aw for growth than fungi, with gram-negative bacteria having higher requirements than gram positives. • Most spoil- age bacteria do not grow below aw = 0.91,whereas spoilage molds can grow as low as 0.80. With respect to food-poisoning bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus has been found to grow as low as 0.86, whereas Clostridium botulinum does not grow below 0.94.
  • 19. • Low water activities are associated with three distinct types of food, three terms are used to describe the micro-organisms especially associated with these foods: (i) Halotolerant – able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of salt (ii) Osmotolerant – able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of unionized organic compounds such as sugars (iii) Xerotolerant – able to grow on dry foods.
  • 20. Antimicrobial Barriers and constituents Some foods cannot easily be attacked by microorganisms due to the presence of naturally occurring substances that have antimicrobial activity. For examples presence of essential oils in some species  Allicin in garlic,  Eugenol from cloves and cinnamon,  Thymol from thyme and oregano, and  Cinnamic aldehyde from cinnamon and cassia
  • 21. Fruits, vegetables, tea, molasses contain hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives which show antibacterial activity.
  • 22. •Animal products too, have a range of non-specific antimicrobial constituents. •Probably the supreme example of this is the white or albumen of the hen’s egg which possesses a whole battery of inhibitory components. •Many of the same or similar factors can also be found in milk where the are present in lower concentrations and are thus less effective. •Both products contain the enzyme lysozyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages in peptidoglycan, the structural polymer responsible for the strength and rigidity of the bacterial cell wall. •In addition, egg white has powerful cofactor-binding proteins such as avidin and ovoflavoprotein which
  • 23. REFERENCES  Food Microbiology BY Martin R. Adams and Maurice O. Moss  Modern Food Microbiology BY James M. Jay  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/128 98417  Google images