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CPAP
A Gentler Mode of Respiratory Support
• It is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure applied to
the airways of a spontaneously breathing patient
throughout the res...
History:
• Harrison 1968: described grunting in neonates as
naturally producing end expiratory pressure.
• Gregory et al, ...
• Surface tension is the elastic tendency of
a fluid surface which makes it acquire the
least surface area possible.
Larger alveolus
r = 2
T = 3
P = (2 x 3) / 2
P = 3
Smaller alveolus
r = 1
T = 3
P = (2 x 3) / 1
P = 6
CPAP
Law of LaPlace :...
• Thus smaller (diameter) alveoli will have a
tendency to empty into larger (diameter) alveoli
connected to each other.
• ...
Closing Volume
• Closing volume is the volume of lung inflated
when small airways in the dependent parts of
the lung begin...
Physiological Benefits of CPAP:
• Results in improved oxygenation, wash out of
CO2, and better blood pH.
• Stimulates ’J’ ...
Indications:
Diseases with low FRC
 RDS, TTNB.
Diseases with airway instability
 Apnea of prematurity
 BPD
 Tracheom...
Contraindication
• Severe Cardiovascular instabality ( SHOCK)
• Progressive respiratory failure with PaCO2 >60
mm hg and i...
CPAP Machine:
An ideal CPAP delivery system consists of:
• A continuous supply of warm, humidified,
blended gases at a flo...
Types of CPAP
• Continuous flow
– Ventilator generated
– Bubbling CPAP
• Variable flow
– Infant flow drivers.
Bubble CPAP- principle
3
6
Patient
Nasal prongs/
NP ET tubeUnder
H20 seal
Bubble=Oscillations
Patient interfaces for cpap
Hudson’s prongs
Bi-nasopharyngeal
prongs
ET tube
Short bi-nasal prongs Argyle prongs
Delivery system advantages disadvantages remarks
Nasal prongs(single or
binasal)eg:argyle,huds
on, IFD prongs.
Simple devi...
Steps of Initiation of CPAP:
Nasal CPAP
Application
1. Position the baby in
supine position with
the head elevated
about 30 degrees
2. Place a small ro...
Nasal CPAP
Application
4. Choose FiO2 to
keep PaO2 at 50-80
mmhg or
O2 saturation at
85% – 95%
Nasal CPAP
Application
5 Adjust a flow rate 5-10 Lpm
to:
a) provide adequate flow to
prevent rebreathings CO2
b) compensat...
Nasal CPAP
Application
7. Insert the lightweight
corrugated tubing
(preferrably with
heating wire inside) in a
bottle of 0...
Nasal CPAP
Application
Lubricate the nasal
CPAP prongs with
sterile water or
saline. Place the
prongs curved side
down and...
Nasal CPAP
Application
10Secure tubings
on both sides of
the hat with
either safety
pins and rubber
band or velcro
Nasal CPAP
Maintenance
1. Observe baby’s vital signs, oxygenation and activity
2. Systematically check CPAP systems, inspi...
Maintaining Optimal Airway
Care:Humidification
• Maintain adequate
humidification of the circuit
to prevent drying of
secr...
SETTING PRESSURE, FLOW & FiO2
1. Pressure- regulated by depth of immersion of
expiratory limb(water level being constant)....
Adequacy of CPAP
• Comfortable baby
• No retraction, no grunt
• Normal capillary refill, BP
• Normal saturations: 87-93%
•...
Failure of CPAP
• Continuing retractions, grunt.
• Recurrent apneas
• PaO2 < 50mm Hg at highest setting.
• PaCO2 > 60 mm H...
Before considering CPAP failure ensure:
WEANING FROM CPAP
• It is considered when clinical condition for which
CPAP was indicated is passive.
• CPAP for apnea may...
Complications associated with bubble
nasal CPAP
• Pneumothorax / PIE - more in the acute phase
- not a contraindication fo...
Prevention of Gastric distension:
• NCPAP is not a contraindication to enteric feeding.
• Infants may experience mild abdo...
Conclusion
• CPAP used in RDS, apnea, weaning.
• Pressure generator
– Bubble CPAP
• Circuit of choice
– Heated humidifier
...
References:
• Ashok Deorari et al .Workbook on CPAP –Science
Evidence and practice,2014.
• Eduardo Bancalari.Principles of...
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Cpap

  1. 1. CPAP A Gentler Mode of Respiratory Support
  2. 2. • It is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure applied to the airways of a spontaneously breathing patient throughout the respiratory cycle. • By which alveoli are kept open which increase the functional residual capacity(FRC) of the lungs resulting in better gas exchange.
  3. 3. History: • Harrison 1968: described grunting in neonates as naturally producing end expiratory pressure. • Gregory et al, 1971: introduced the clinical use of distending pressure in neonates.(via endotrachial tube or a head box) • Kattwinkel reported successful use of nasal prongs in neonates with RDS. ‘-1973 • Reports of significant lower incidence of chronic lung disease from columbia university that used more CPAP as compared to north american centre have led to resurgence of interest in CPAP over the last 15 years. A Device for Administration of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure by the Nasal Route John Kattwinkel, David Fleming, Chul C. Cha, Avroy A. Fanaroff, Marshall H. Klaus
  4. 4. • Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
  5. 5. Larger alveolus r = 2 T = 3 P = (2 x 3) / 2 P = 3 Smaller alveolus r = 1 T = 3 P = (2 x 3) / 1 P = 6 CPAP Law of LaPlace : P = 2T/r P : pressure T : surface tension r : radius
  6. 6. • Thus smaller (diameter) alveoli will have a tendency to empty into larger (diameter) alveoli connected to each other. • If the surface tension is reduced by giving exogenous surfactant, the inward pressure which leads to collapse can be reduced. • By giving CPAP, one neutralizes the inward collapsing pressure. • The net effect of both is more than additive. This principle is applied in clinical practice for INSURE (Intubate give Surfactant and Extubate to CPAP).
  7. 7. Closing Volume • Closing volume is the volume of lung inflated when small airways in the dependent parts of the lung begin to collapse during expiration.
  8. 8. Physiological Benefits of CPAP: • Results in improved oxygenation, wash out of CO2, and better blood pH. • Stimulates ’J’ receptors by stretching the lung/pleura and providing positive feedback to respiratory centre by Hering Bruer reflex. • Results in better Type II-pneumocyte function and even recycling of surfactant thus contributing to early recovery from HMD. • Results in better ventilation-perfusion match, improved minute ventilation and decreased work of breathing. • Splints the upper airways thus preventing obstructive apnea
  9. 9. Indications: Diseases with low FRC  RDS, TTNB. Diseases with airway instability  Apnea of prematurity  BPD  Tracheomalacia Weaning from IMV Patchy atelectasis  MAS, aspiration, pneumonia
  10. 10. Contraindication • Severe Cardiovascular instabality ( SHOCK) • Progressive respiratory failure with PaCO2 >60 mm hg and inability to maintain oxygenation(PaO2<50mmhg) • Certain congenital malformations of the airway like choanal atresia, cleft palate, tracheo osophageal fistula, CDH.
  11. 11. CPAP Machine: An ideal CPAP delivery system consists of: • A continuous supply of warm, humidified, blended gases at a flow rate of 2-3 times the infant minute ventilation. • A device to connect CPAP circuit to infants airway. (patient interface) • Means of creating a positive pressure in CPAP circuit.
  12. 12. Types of CPAP • Continuous flow – Ventilator generated – Bubbling CPAP • Variable flow – Infant flow drivers.
  13. 13. Bubble CPAP- principle 3 6 Patient Nasal prongs/ NP ET tubeUnder H20 seal Bubble=Oscillations
  14. 14. Patient interfaces for cpap Hudson’s prongs Bi-nasopharyngeal prongs ET tube Short bi-nasal prongs Argyle prongs
  15. 15. Delivery system advantages disadvantages remarks Nasal prongs(single or binasal)eg:argyle,huds on, IFD prongs. Simple device. Lower resistance. Mouth leak acts like a pop-off mechanism. Relatively difficult to fix. Risk of trauma to nassal septum. Leak through mouth means end expiration pressure is variable. Studies have shown that they are more effective than nasopharyngeal prongs(in post extubation setting) Nasopharyngeal prongs(using cut endotracheal tube) Easy availability. Economical. More secure fixation. More easily blocked by secretions: likely to get kinked. Though more economical, they are inferior to short binasal prongs. Nasal canualae. Easy application Unreliable pressure. May need high flows to genarate pressure. FiO2 delivered may be high. Mainly tried in apnea of prematurity. Paucity of data in other condition. Still a experimental. Nasal mask minimal nasal trauma. Difficulty in obtaining a tight seal New generation mask are to be studied.
  16. 16. Steps of Initiation of CPAP:
  17. 17. Nasal CPAP Application 1. Position the baby in supine position with the head elevated about 30 degrees 2. Place a small roll under the baby’s neck 3. Put a pre-made hat or stockinet on the baby’s head to hold the CPAP tubings
  18. 18. Nasal CPAP Application 4. Choose FiO2 to keep PaO2 at 50-80 mmhg or O2 saturation at 85% – 95%
  19. 19. Nasal CPAP Application 5 Adjust a flow rate 5-10 Lpm to: a) provide adequate flow to prevent rebreathings CO2 b) compensate leakage from tubing connectors and around CPAP prongs c) generate desired CPAP pressure (usually 5 cmH2O) 6. Keep inspired gas temperature at 36-40O C (0 ~ –3)
  20. 20. Nasal CPAP Application 7. Insert the lightweight corrugated tubing (preferrably with heating wire inside) in a bottle of 0.25% acetic acid solution or sterile water filled up to a height of 7 cm. The tube is immersed to a depth of 5 cm to create 5 cmH2O CPAP as long as air bubbling out of solution
  21. 21. Nasal CPAP Application Lubricate the nasal CPAP prongs with sterile water or saline. Place the prongs curved side down and direct into nasal cavities
  22. 22. Nasal CPAP Application 10Secure tubings on both sides of the hat with either safety pins and rubber band or velcro
  23. 23. Nasal CPAP Maintenance 1. Observe baby’s vital signs, oxygenation and activity 2. Systematically check CPAP systems, inspired gas temperature, air bubbling out of acetic acid solution. Empty condensed water in the circuit 3. Check CPAP prongs position and keep CPAP cannulae off the septum at all times.
  24. 24. Maintaining Optimal Airway Care:Humidification • Maintain adequate humidification of the circuit to prevent drying of secretions. • Adjust settings to maintain gas humidification at or close to 100%. • Set the humidifier temperature to 36.8- 37.3c
  25. 25. SETTING PRESSURE, FLOW & FiO2 1. Pressure- regulated by depth of immersion of expiratory limb(water level being constant).Start with 5 cm water in case of RDS or pneumonia and 4 cm water for apnea management.(range- 4-8) 2. Flow- it should be minimal to produce bubbling in the bubble chamber(2-5 L/min is sufficient) 3. FiO2- start with a FiO2 of 40 to 50% and after adjusting the pressure,titrate FiO2 to maintain SpO2 between 87% to 93%.
  26. 26. Adequacy of CPAP • Comfortable baby • No retraction, no grunt • Normal capillary refill, BP • Normal saturations: 87-93% • Normal ABG (PaO2 60-80, PaCO2 40-60, pH 7.35-7.45, BE±2)
  27. 27. Failure of CPAP • Continuing retractions, grunt. • Recurrent apneas • PaO2 < 50mm Hg at highest setting. • PaCO2 > 60 mm Hg • Baby not tolerating CPAP • FiO2 required is greater than 70%,PEEP>7 . • Inability to maintain SPO2>85%
  28. 28. Before considering CPAP failure ensure:
  29. 29. WEANING FROM CPAP • It is considered when clinical condition for which CPAP was indicated is passive. • CPAP for apnea may be removed after 24 -48 hrs of apnea free interval. • If the baby is stable on CPAP,first wean off the oxygen in steps of 5% and then wean PEEP to minimum of 4cm in step of 1cm/change. • When baby is in FiO2<30%, PEEP 4cm, with normal saturation and minimal retraction CPAP can be removed.
  30. 30. Complications associated with bubble nasal CPAP • Pneumothorax / PIE - more in the acute phase - not a contraindication for continuing CPAP • Nasal obstruction - Remove secretions and check for proper positioning of the prongs • Nasal septal erosion or necrosis - Keep prongs away from the septum • Gastric distension Intermittent or continuous aspiration of the stomach • Feeding intolerance
  31. 31. Prevention of Gastric distension: • NCPAP is not a contraindication to enteric feeding. • Infants may experience mild abdominal distention during NCPAP delivery from swallowing air. • Assess the infant’s abdomen regularly • Pass an oro-gastric tube to aspirate excess air before feeds q 2-4 hr • An 8 Fr oro-gastric tube may be left indwelling to allow for continuous air removal
  32. 32. Conclusion • CPAP used in RDS, apnea, weaning. • Pressure generator – Bubble CPAP • Circuit of choice – Heated humidifier • Nasal device of choice – NP CPAP > cannula • CPAP range 4-8
  33. 33. References: • Ashok Deorari et al .Workbook on CPAP –Science Evidence and practice,2014. • Eduardo Bancalari.Principles of respiratory Monitoring and theraphy.Avery s diseses of Newborn7th 3d:613-628 • Aparna ,Non Invasive ventilation in Newborn. www.newbornwhocc.org/pdf/Non-invasive- Ventilation.pdf • Samir Gupta .CPAP .To bubble or not to Bubble.Non invasive ventilation.Clinics in Perinatology:647-661,December2016.
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