Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Fiber Science
By Chamal Jayasinghe [B.Sc. Engineering (Textiles)]
FibersFibers
A thin long flexible structure InA thin long flexible structure In
witch, the ratio of length to diameterwit...
Examples for length to diameter ratio
Fiber Type Length Diameter Length:Diameter
Cotton 1” 0.0007” 1,400:1
Wool 3” 0.001” ...
Other Needful Qualities of
Fibers
Thinness
Flexibility
Sufficient Strength
Sufficient Length
Fiber Classification
Staple and Filament Fibers
Fibers with infinite length(long) are
called filament fibers
Fibers with finite length length...
Monomers → Polymers → Micro fibrils
→ Fibrils → Plant Cell Walls → Fibers
Monomers are single structure
composed of atom...
From Monomer to FiberFrom Monomer to Fiber
From Monomer to FiberFrom Monomer to Fiber
Looking in to PolymerLooking in to Polymer
ArrangementsArrangements
Crystalline & Amorphous Regions
Crystalline & Amorphous Regions
Crystalline – Orderly arrangement of molecular chains
Less internal spaces
Higher strengt...
 The degree of polymerization, or DP, is usually defined asThe degree of polymerization, or DP, is usually defined as
the...
Degree of Polymerization withDegree of Polymerization with
Melting TemperatureMelting Temperature
 Nylon 6 -120Nylon 6 -120
 Nylon 6,6-200Nylon 6,6-200
 Polyester (PET)- 100Polyester (PET)- 100
 Polyacrylonitrile > 2...
 Chemical constituent of polymer(monomer)
is mainly responsible for the chemical
properties of textile fibers.
 Physical...
PhysicalPhysical
Properties ofProperties of
FibersFibers
The strength of textile fibers is
referred to as their tenacity. It is
determined by measuring the force
required to rupt...
General Fibre Properties
1.Tenacity
Molecules parallel to the longitudinal axis take their
fair share of the load result ...
Effects of Polymer Length to TenacityEffects of Polymer Length to Tenacity
Area of attraction that is greater in the long molecules
than in short molecules.
Therefore fibers consist of longer mol...
FinenessFineness
2.Fineness
Fibre fineness governs the end use application of fibre.
Fibres used in clothing fabrics are below 5 decitex ...
Moisture AbsorptionMoisture Absorption
The ability of a fiber to absorb moisture is referred in moisture
regain or moisture content.
The quantity of moisture p...
Moisture ContentMoisture Content
Moisture Content % =Moisture Content % = MoistureMoisture x 100 %x 100 %
Total MassTotal ...
Moisture RegainMoisture Regain
Moisture Regain % =Moisture Regain % = MoistureMoisture x 100x 100
%%
Dry MassDry Mass
The influence of moisture
absorption of fibers.
The comfort of the wearer.
The amount of shrinkage that will
occur durin...
Abrasion ResistanceAbrasion Resistance
 Fabrics are abraded in use against various materials
 The life of a fabric is dependent on its resistance to
abrasion.
...
Crease RecoveryCrease Recovery
 To retain a good appearance of a fabric , they must have good
crease recovery from unwanted creases occur in fabric usag...
Elongation & Elastic RecoveryElongation & Elastic Recovery
The amount of extension or stretch that a fiber accepts is
referred to as elongation.
Elastic recovery indicates the abili...
ResiliencyResiliency
ResiliencyResiliency
Resiliency refers to the ability of a fiber to come back to its originalResiliency refers to the abil...
LusterLuster
Luster is amount of light reflected from the surface of the fibre
Fine fibers provide a greater number of reflecting sur...
FlexibilityFlexibility
 Fibers should be flexible in order to be made into yarns
and thereafter into fabrics that permit freedom of
movement. Ce...
UniformityUniformity
 Uniformity of fibers towards itsUniformity of fibers towards its
length, ensure production of evenlength, ensure product...
StiffnessStiffness
Stiffness is a special property of fabric. It is the
tendency of fabric to keep standing without any
support. It is a key ...
Chemical Properties
Reaction with AcidsReaction with Acids
Most of the cellulose based fibers dissolves in acids.Most of the cellulose based f...
Most of the Protein Based fibers react with alkali.Most of the Protein Based fibers react with alkali.
While Cellulosic fi...
It is valuable for a fiber to withstand when exposed toIt is valuable for a fiber to withstand when exposed to
organic sol...
Bleaching is used everywhere in the textile industry.Bleaching is used everywhere in the textile industry.
A fiber must be...
Resistance to MildewResistance to Mildew
Resistance to InsectsResistance to Insects
Insects stays in fabrics
Where they have enough
Warmth, food and
Protection as ...
Since people are interested and interacted withSince people are interested and interacted with
colors, it is important for...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

23

Share

Download to read offline

Properties of Fibers

Download to read offline

Properties of Fibers

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Properties of Fibers

  1. 1. Fiber Science By Chamal Jayasinghe [B.Sc. Engineering (Textiles)]
  2. 2. FibersFibers A thin long flexible structure InA thin long flexible structure In witch, the ratio of length to diameterwitch, the ratio of length to diameter is very high.is very high. This ratio should be at least 100: 1 toThis ratio should be at least 100: 1 to be considered as a fiber.be considered as a fiber. To spin textile yarn successfully thisTo spin textile yarn successfully this ratio should be at least 1000: 1ratio should be at least 1000: 1
  3. 3. Examples for length to diameter ratio Fiber Type Length Diameter Length:Diameter Cotton 1” 0.0007” 1,400:1 Wool 3” 0.001” 3,000:1 Flax 1” 0.0008” 1,200:1
  4. 4. Other Needful Qualities of Fibers Thinness Flexibility Sufficient Strength Sufficient Length
  5. 5. Fiber Classification
  6. 6. Staple and Filament Fibers Fibers with infinite length(long) are called filament fibers Fibers with finite length length(relatively short length ) is called staple fibers.
  7. 7. Monomers → Polymers → Micro fibrils → Fibrils → Plant Cell Walls → Fibers Monomers are single structure composed of atoms. Internal Structure of a Natural Fiber
  8. 8. From Monomer to FiberFrom Monomer to Fiber
  9. 9. From Monomer to FiberFrom Monomer to Fiber
  10. 10. Looking in to PolymerLooking in to Polymer ArrangementsArrangements
  11. 11. Crystalline & Amorphous Regions
  12. 12. Crystalline & Amorphous Regions Crystalline – Orderly arrangement of molecular chains Less internal spaces Higher strength due to better orientation Poor water penetration properties Gives strength to the fiber Amorphous – Random arrangement of molecular More internal spaces Good water absorption Lower strength due to poor orientation of molecules. Gives flexibility to fiber
  13. 13.  The degree of polymerization, or DP, is usually defined asThe degree of polymerization, or DP, is usually defined as the number of monomer units in a macromolecule orthe number of monomer units in a macromolecule or polymer molecule.polymer molecule. Degree of PolymerizingDegree of Polymerizing
  14. 14. Degree of Polymerization withDegree of Polymerization with Melting TemperatureMelting Temperature
  15. 15.  Nylon 6 -120Nylon 6 -120  Nylon 6,6-200Nylon 6,6-200  Polyester (PET)- 100Polyester (PET)- 100  Polyacrylonitrile > 2000Polyacrylonitrile > 2000  Viscose Rayon- 150-350Viscose Rayon- 150-350  Polynosic- 700-1100Polynosic- 700-1100  Cotton- 4000-10,000Cotton- 4000-10,000  Wool- 60,000-100,000Wool- 60,000-100,000 DP of Common FibersDP of Common Fibers
  16. 16.  Chemical constituent of polymer(monomer) is mainly responsible for the chemical properties of textile fibers.  Physical arrangement of polymer chains in fiber structure and polymer chain length is mainly responsible for physical properties of textile fibers.  Chemical and Physical Properties of Fibers
  17. 17. PhysicalPhysical Properties ofProperties of FibersFibers
  18. 18. The strength of textile fibers is referred to as their tenacity. It is determined by measuring the force required to rupture or break the fiber. Sufficient tenacity is required to withstand the mechanical and chemical processing as well as make textile products which are durable. Tenacity
  19. 19. General Fibre Properties 1.Tenacity Molecules parallel to the longitudinal axis take their fair share of the load result in high tenacity (breaking load). Molecules lying approximately at right angles to the longitudinal axis take little or none of the load hence result in low breaking load.
  20. 20. Effects of Polymer Length to TenacityEffects of Polymer Length to Tenacity
  21. 21. Area of attraction that is greater in the long molecules than in short molecules. Therefore fibers consist of longer molecules are stronger than fibers consist of shorter molecules. Up to a certain point fiber strength will increase along with increasing molecular chain length. Effects of Polymer Length to Tenacity
  22. 22. FinenessFineness
  23. 23. 2.Fineness Fibre fineness governs the end use application of fibre. Fibres used in clothing fabrics are below 5 decitex and rarely exceeds 15 decitex. . As the average number of fibres in the cross section is high, fine, staple fibres are more suitable for production regular yarns. Cloths made from fine fibres or filaments have a softer smother handle Has lower resistance to abrasion in fabrics as fine fine fibres can be easily damaged. Also being more flexible, they are liable to entangle with foreign matter and form pillings. General Fibre Properties
  24. 24. Moisture AbsorptionMoisture Absorption
  25. 25. The ability of a fiber to absorb moisture is referred in moisture regain or moisture content. The quantity of moisture picked up varies with the relative humidity and the temperature of the atmosphere-The standard values are relative humidity of 65% and temperature of 20C. Depends on the chemical nature and physical arrangement of fiber. Moisture Absorption
  26. 26. Moisture ContentMoisture Content Moisture Content % =Moisture Content % = MoistureMoisture x 100 %x 100 % Total MassTotal Mass
  27. 27. Moisture RegainMoisture Regain Moisture Regain % =Moisture Regain % = MoistureMoisture x 100x 100 %% Dry MassDry Mass
  28. 28. The influence of moisture absorption of fibers. The comfort of the wearer. The amount of shrinkage that will occur during laundering. The speed with which the textile will dry after laundering. How does the fabric or fiber neutralize static electricity Moisture Absorption
  29. 29. Abrasion ResistanceAbrasion Resistance
  30. 30.  Fabrics are abraded in use against various materials  The life of a fabric is dependent on its resistance to abrasion.  Nylon has an outstanding resistance to abrasion.  Abrasion resistance is decided by it’s fiber composition yarn and fabric construction. Abrasion Resistance
  31. 31. Crease RecoveryCrease Recovery
  32. 32.  To retain a good appearance of a fabric , they must have good crease recovery from unwanted creases occur in fabric usage and laundering.  When a fiber is bent, two things can happen 1.The cross links may break and join in new positions. When the load is removed, recovery from the crease is restricted by the new positioning of the cross links and textile will show poor crease recovery. 2.The cross links may be stretched without breaking. When the load is removed, they will tend to return the fiber to its original shape and will show good crease recovery. Crease Recovery
  33. 33. Elongation & Elastic RecoveryElongation & Elastic Recovery
  34. 34. The amount of extension or stretch that a fiber accepts is referred to as elongation. Elastic recovery indicates the ability of fibers to return to their original length after being stretched. . Elongation and elastic recovery
  35. 35. ResiliencyResiliency
  36. 36. ResiliencyResiliency Resiliency refers to the ability of a fiber to come back to its originalResiliency refers to the ability of a fiber to come back to its original position after being creased , folded or any type of physical stress.position after being creased , folded or any type of physical stress. Good elastic recovery usually indicates good resiliencyGood elastic recovery usually indicates good resiliency Excellent resiliency is exhibited by polyester, wool and nylon fibers.Excellent resiliency is exhibited by polyester, wool and nylon fibers. Flax, rayon and cotton, on the other hand, have a low resiliencyFlax, rayon and cotton, on the other hand, have a low resiliency
  37. 37. LusterLuster
  38. 38. Luster is amount of light reflected from the surface of the fibre Fine fibers provide a greater number of reflecting surfaces. Hence good luster Fibers with a uniform diameter has a greater luster. The shape of the cross section affects the degree of luster. yarns made from continuous filaments are more lustrous than those made from short fibers.  Manufactured fibers can have their luster subdued by adding delustering agents. Luster
  39. 39. FlexibilityFlexibility
  40. 40.  Fibers should be flexible in order to be made into yarns and thereafter into fabrics that permit freedom of movement. Certain end uses require greater flexibility, e.g., automobile seat belts. Flexibility
  41. 41. UniformityUniformity
  42. 42.  Uniformity of fibers towards itsUniformity of fibers towards its length, ensure production of evenlength, ensure production of even yarns which can then form fabrics ofyarns which can then form fabrics of uniform appearance and consistentuniform appearance and consistent performance.performance. UniformityUniformity
  43. 43. StiffnessStiffness
  44. 44. Stiffness is a special property of fabric. It is the tendency of fabric to keep standing without any support. It is a key factor in the study of handle and drape of fabric. Stiffness of the fibers and fabric structure greatly affect to this quality of the fabric. Stiffness
  45. 45. Chemical Properties
  46. 46. Reaction with AcidsReaction with Acids Most of the cellulose based fibers dissolves in acids.Most of the cellulose based fibers dissolves in acids. While Protein Fibers has a quite good resistance to Acids.While Protein Fibers has a quite good resistance to Acids. Synthetic fibers has less or no reaction with acids at lowSynthetic fibers has less or no reaction with acids at low temperatures and low concentrations. But reacts at hightemperatures and low concentrations. But reacts at high temperatures and concentrations.temperatures and concentrations.
  47. 47. Most of the Protein Based fibers react with alkali.Most of the Protein Based fibers react with alkali. While Cellulosic fibers has a good resistance to alkali.While Cellulosic fibers has a good resistance to alkali. Synthetic fibers has less or no reaction with acids at lowSynthetic fibers has less or no reaction with acids at low temperatures and low concentrations. But reacts at hightemperatures and low concentrations. But reacts at high temperatures and concentrations.temperatures and concentrations. Reaction with AlkaliReaction with Alkali
  48. 48. It is valuable for a fiber to withstand when exposed toIt is valuable for a fiber to withstand when exposed to organic solvents. Because these solvents has a highorganic solvents. Because these solvents has a high tendency to contact with fabrics in day to day usage.tendency to contact with fabrics in day to day usage. Organic SolventsOrganic Solvents 1. Ethyl alcohol1. Ethyl alcohol 2. Methyl alcohol2. Methyl alcohol 3. Paint thinner3. Paint thinner Reaction to Organic SolventsReaction to Organic Solvents
  49. 49. Bleaching is used everywhere in the textile industry.Bleaching is used everywhere in the textile industry. A fiber must be resistance to bleaching at least to a certainA fiber must be resistance to bleaching at least to a certain stage to become a good textile fiber.stage to become a good textile fiber. Bleaching is done in fiber stage, Fabric stage and garmentBleaching is done in fiber stage, Fabric stage and garment stage as well.stage as well. Effects of BleachingEffects of Bleaching
  50. 50. Resistance to MildewResistance to Mildew
  51. 51. Resistance to InsectsResistance to Insects Insects stays in fabrics Where they have enough Warmth, food and Protection as well. Some fibers have good Insect repellent qualities From its nature Ex. linen
  52. 52. Since people are interested and interacted withSince people are interested and interacted with colors, it is important for textile fibers as wellcolors, it is important for textile fibers as well Ability to DyeAbility to Dye
  • HukariyaBharat

    Jun. 10, 2021
  • MamtaGupta76

    Mar. 22, 2021
  • GloriaTieku

    Mar. 2, 2021
  • AbigailAggrey

    Feb. 12, 2021
  • DivyanshaSingla

    Jan. 15, 2021
  • rajamazid

    Dec. 4, 2020
  • ykTuncay

    Jul. 14, 2020
  • VijayadharshiniTFD

    Jul. 1, 2020
  • VenzJazper

    Jun. 21, 2020
  • srimurali

    Apr. 9, 2020
  • priyalaxmiswain

    Dec. 3, 2019
  • PratibhaGupta62

    Dec. 1, 2019
  • SaritaPawanKalra

    Nov. 25, 2019
  • SakibMajumder

    Nov. 18, 2019
  • GehanShokry

    Oct. 6, 2019
  • RaviDon4

    Sep. 17, 2019
  • ShivaniRathi5

    Nov. 28, 2018
  • PhanindraPhanindra

    May. 8, 2018
  • SheebaKavi

    Aug. 17, 2017
  • SaravanaKumar891

    Aug. 16, 2017

Properties of Fibers

Views

Total views

7,597

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

22

Actions

Downloads

248

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

23

×