System analyst and design

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RU-MSIT5 Comprehensive Tutorial

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System analyst and design

  1. 1. SYSTEM ANALYST AND DESIGN A Comprehensive Tutorial For RU MSIT5
  2. 2. SDLC • System Development Life Cycle o o
  3. 3. SDLC • 4 Phase o Planning ( ) o Analysis ( ) o Design ( ) o Implementation ( ) phase (deliverable) input phase
  4. 4. SDLC • Planning 1. o System Request o (Feasibility Analysis) - Technical Feasibility ( ?) - Economic Feasibility ( ?) - Organizational Feasibility ( ?)
  5. 5. SDLC • Planning 2. - (work plan) - (staffing plan) - - SDLC Project Plan
  6. 6. SDLC • Analysis o ? o ? o o ?
  7. 7. SDLC • Analysis 1. Analysis Strategy (as is) (to be) 2. Requirement Gathering 3. System Proposal
  8. 8. SDLC • Design 4 o Design Strategy o Architecture Design o Database and File Specification o Program Design
  9. 9. SDLC • Design o Architecture Design ( ) o Interface Design ( ) o Database Design ( ) o Program Design ( ) System Specification
  10. 10. SDLC • Implementation 1. 2. 3. Support Plan ( )
  11. 11. SDLC • System Development Methodologies ( SDLC) SDLC o Structured Design - Waterfall Development - Parallel Development o Rapid Application Development (RAD) - Phased Development - Prototyping - Throwaway Prototyping o Agile Development - Extreme Programming
  12. 12. SDLC • Structured Design 1. Waterfall Development 2. Parallel Development
  13. 13. SDLC • Structured Design o Waterfall Development
  14. 14. SDLC • Structured Design o Waterfall Development - - -
  15. 15. SDLC • Structured Design o Parallel Development ( ) - -
  16. 16. SDLC • Structured Design o Parallel Development ( )
  17. 17. SDLC • Rapid Application Development (RAD) - Structured Design - SDLC -
  18. 18. SDLC • Rapid Application Development (RAD) 3 1. Phased Development 2. Prototyping 3. Throwing Prototyping
  19. 19. SDLC • Phased Development version version
  20. 20. SDLC • Phased Development version
  21. 21. SDLC • Prototyping system prototype
  22. 22. SDLC • Prototyping
  23. 23. SDLC • Throwaway Prototyping - Prototyping - - -
  24. 24. SDLC • Throwaway Prototyping
  25. 25. SDLC • Agile Development - SDLC - - Extreme Programming (XP) - Scrum - Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM)
  26. 26. SDLC • Extreme Programming (XP) - Communication ( ) - Simplicity ( ) - Feedback ( ) - Courage ( )
  27. 27. SDLC • Extreme Programming (XP) - -
  28. 28. SDLC • o RAD (Phased , Prototyping and Throwaway Prototyping) o Throwaway Prototyping o Throwaway Prototyping
  29. 29. SDLC • o Throwaway Prototyping o Phased Development and Prototyping o Phased Development
  30. 30. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) OOSAD Phased Development RAD 1. Use-Case Driven 2. Architecture-Centric 3. Iterative And Incremental
  31. 31. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) • Use Case Driven - Use Case - Use Case - Use Case
  32. 32. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) • Architecture Centric 3 - Functional View - Structural View
  33. 33. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) • Iterative and Incremental SDLC
  34. 34. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) • OOSAD - - - user object
  35. 35. THE UNIFIED PROCESS • UML Object- Oriented Analysis and Design (OOSAD) • - Phases - Workflow
  36. 36. THE UNIFIED PROCESS
  37. 37. THE UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML) • OOSAD • Diagram
  38. 38. PLANNING
  39. 39. PROJECT IDENTIFICATION • System Request - Project Sponsor ( ) - Business Need ( ) - Business Requirement ( ) - Business Value ( ) - Special Issues or Constraints (
  40. 40. PROJECT IDENTIFICATION • Feasibility Analysis - Technical Feasibility ( ?) - Economic Feasibility ( ?) - Organization Feasibility ( ?)
  41. 41. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Identifying Project Size ( ) o Function Point Approach - Estimate system size ( ) - Estimate required effort ( / ) - Estimate time required ( )
  42. 42. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Creating and Managing The Work Plan - work plan - Project Manager - Work Plan Gantt chart
  43. 43. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Identifying Tasks ( ) - - Structured, top-down approach Work breakdown structure (WBS)
  44. 44. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) - network analysis technique - PERT 3 1. (optimistic) 2. (most likely) 3. (pressimistic)
  45. 45. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) - - (critical path method) ( ) - (critical task)
  46. 46. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Staffing Plan ( ) - - -
  47. 47. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS • Requirement - Functional Requirement ( ) - Nonfunctional Requirement ( )
  48. 48. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS • Requirement Analysis Strategies requirement analysis 3 1. as-is system 2. 3. requirement to-be system
  49. 49. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS • Requirement Analysis Strategies Strategy ( ) requierment 3 1. Business process automation 2. Business process improvement 3. Business process reengineering
  50. 50. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS • Requirements - Interviews ( ) - Joint Application Development (JAD) - Questionnaires ( ) - Observation ( )
  51. 51. ANALYSIS
  52. 52. Analysis Modeling • Functional Models - Activity Diagrams - Use Case Diagrams • Structural Models - CRC cards - Class Diagrams - Object Diagrams • Behavioral Models - Sequence Diagrams - Communication Diagrams - Behavioral State Machines - CRUD matrix
  53. 53. Use Case Diagrams • Functional Model • Business Function ( ) (as is system) (to be system) • Use Case • (External View) • Logical Models Use Case • Use Case Verb-Noun ( )
  54. 54. Object-Oriented Technology Use Case Modeling : Core Elements Construct Description Syntax use case A sequence of actions, including variants, that a system (or other entity) can perform, interacting with actors of the system. actor A coherent set of roles that users of use cases play when interacting with these use cases. system boundary Represents the boundary between the physical system and the actors who interact with the physical system. UseCaseName ActorName
  55. 55. Object-Oriented Technology Construct Description Syntax association The participation of an actor in a use case. i.e., instance of an actor and instances of a use case communicate with each other. generalization A taxonomic relationship between a more general use case and a more specific use case. extend A relationship from an extension use case to a base use case, specifying how the behavior for the extension use case can be inserted into the behavior defined for the base use case. Use Case Modeling : Core Relationships <<extend>>
  56. 56. Object-Oriented Technology Construct Description Syntax include An relationship from a base use case to an inclusion use case, specifying how the behavior for the inclusion use case is inserted into the behavior defined for the base use case. Use Case Modeling : Core Relationships (cont’d) <<include>>
  57. 57. Use Case Diagrams • Use Case 4 1. Association - Use Case Actor - 2. Extend - Use Case (optional)
  58. 58. Use Case Diagrams • Use Case 4 3. Include - Use Case - Use Case - Use Case Use Case Use Case
  59. 59. Use Case Diagrams
  60. 60. Object-Oriented Technology Actors • Actors Specialization Relationship • Actors UML relationships specialization relationship Customer ATM Customer Cashier Customer
  61. 61. Use Case Descriptions • Use Case Diagram • • SVPDI form ( ) • 1. Overview Information 2. Relationship 3. Flow of events
  62. 62. Use Case Descriptions • Overview Information Use Case • Relationships Use Case • Flow of Events Use Case - Normal Flows - Subflows - Exceptional Flows
  63. 63. Use Case Descriptions
  64. 64. Activity Diagrams • Use Case • Functional Model ( ) • Logical Model ( )
  65. 65. Activity Diagrams
  66. 66. Class Diagrams • • Structural Models • - Attributes ( ) - Operations ( ) • - Concrete ( Object) - Abstract ( Class ) • Class Noun ( )
  67. 67. Class Diagrams • Class 1. Generalization A-kind-of ( ) 2. Aggregation A-part-of ( ) 3. Association
  68. 68. Class Diagrams • Generalization (a-kind-of)
  69. 69. Class Diagrams • Aggregation (a-part-of)
  70. 70. Class Diagrams • Association ( )
  71. 71. Class Diagrams • Responsibilities and Collaborations Responsibilities ( ) - Knowing (Attributes) - Doing (Operations) Collaboration ( ) - Client-Server-Contract ( )
  72. 72. Class Diagrams • CRC Card (Class Responsibility and Collaboration) o Responsibility - Attributes ( ) - Operations ( ) o Collaboration - Clients ( ) - Servers ( )
  73. 73. Class Diagrams • CRC Card (Class Responsibility and Collaboration)
  74. 74. Class Diagrams • Class - Class Name - Attributes - Operations
  75. 75. Class Diagrams • Class - Class Name - Attributes - Operations • Class Visibility ( Class) + Public ( Class ) - Private ( Class ) # Protected ( Subclass)
  76. 76. Class Diagrams • Class - Composition - Aggregation
  77. 77. Class Diagrams • Class Multiplicity ( ) 1 0..* 1..* 0..1 2..4 1..3,5
  78. 78. Class Diagrams
  79. 79. Interaction Diagrams • • Behavioral Models • Diagram - Sequence Diagram - Communication Diagram
  80. 80. Interaction Diagrams • Sequence Diagram - Object Use Case - Message ( ) Object - Use Case Scenario ( )
  81. 81. Interaction Diagrams • Sequence Diagram - Actor - Object - Lifeline - Execution Occurrence - Message - Guard Condition
  82. 82. Interaction Diagrams • Communication Diagrams - message object sequence diagram
  83. 83. Interaction Diagrams • Communication Diagrams - Actor - Object - Association - Message - Guard Condition
  84. 84. Behavioral Sate Machine Diagrams • Model Object Object • State ( ) Attribute Object
  85. 85. Behavioral Sate Machine Diagrams • State Machine Diagrams - State - Initial State - Final State - Event - Transition
  86. 86. CRUD Analysis • Object • Object C : Create R : Read U : Update D : Delete Receptionist PatientList Patient Receptionist RU CRUD PatientList R Patient
  87. 87. DESIGN
  88. 88. System Design • Class and Method Design class method • Database Design • User Interface Design • Architecture
  89. 89. System Design Class and Method Design class method method specification - General Information - Events method - Message Passing method - Algorithm Specification method
  90. 90. System Design Database Design Mapping Problem-Domain Objects To Object- Persistence Formats object 1. Mapping Problem-Domain Objects to an OODBMS Format object 2. Mapping Problem Domain Objects to and ORDBMS Format (RDBMS)
  91. 91. System Design User Interface Design User Interface Design Process - Use Scenario Development - Interface Structure Design - Interface Standard Design - Interface Design Prototyping - Navigation Design - Input Design
  92. 92. System Design Architecture Design - Server-Based Architecture mainframe - Client-Server-Architecture LAN - Client-Server-Tiers web application
  93. 93. System Design Infrastructure Design - Deployment Diagram Deployment diagrams Hardware
  94. 94. IMPLEMENTATION
  95. 95. Managing Programming - Assigning Programmers programmers - Coordinating Activities - Managing the Schedule
  96. 96. Testing Unit Tests : classes methods - black-box testing : class specification CRC cards - white-box texting : method class method specification Integration Tests : classes System Tests : classes Acceptance Tests : user - alpha testing :
  97. 97. Development Documentation Three Types of Documentation - Reference Documents user function function field record - Procedures Manuals - Tutorials
  98. 98. Conversion Conversion - Install Hardware - Install Software - Convert Data
  99. 99. Conversion Conversion Style Conversion style user - Direct Conversion - Parallel Conversion
  100. 100. Conversion Conversion Style Direct Conversion direct conversion ( cold turkey, big bang abrupt cutover)
  101. 101. Conversion Conversion Styles Parallel Conversion parallel conversion user
  102. 102. Conversion Conversion Location Conversion location conversion Location - Pilot Conversion - Phased Conversion - Simultaneous Conversion
  103. 103. Conversion Conversion Location Pilot Conversion pilot conversion (workgroup) converted (pilot test) direct parallel
  104. 104. Conversion Conversion Location Phased Conversion phased conversion pilot conversion conversion conversion
  105. 105. Conversion Conversion Location Simultaneous Conversion Simultaneous conversion converted user direct conversion parallel conversion
  106. 106. Conversion Conversion Modules Modules - Whole-System Conversion user conversion - Modular Conversion module module
  107. 107. Conversion Selecting the Appropriate Conversion Strategy conversion - Risk ( ) direct conversion simultaneous conversion - Cost ( ) conversion - Time ( ) conversion

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