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Eutrophication

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Eutrophication

  1. 1. Water Related Pollution
  2. 2. EUTROPHICATION
  3. 3.  Eutrophication is the accumulation of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. It alters the dynamics of a number of plant, animal and bacterial populations; thus, bringing about changes in community structure.  It is a form of water pollution and like all other forms of pollution is the result of human activities influencing ecological cycles.  An increase in chemical nutrients — compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus in an ecosystem, and may occur on land or in water. However, the term is often used to mean the resultant increase in the ecosystem's primary productivity (excessive plant growth and decay), and further effects including lack of oxygen and severe reductions in water quality, fish, and other animal populations.
  4. 4. STEPS OF EUTROPHICATION 1. Fertilizer flows into water causing…. 4. Plants in lower levels of water to die, causing…. 5. Decay using up O2 and increasing CO2,causing…... 2. Increased plant growth on the surface of water, causing….. 3. Decreased light in lower levels of water, causing… 6. Death of fish and other animals.
  5. 5. The rise in eutrophic and hypoxic events has been attributed to the rapid increase in intensive agricultural practices, industrial activities, and population growth which together have increased nitrogen and phosphorus flows in the environment. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) found that human activities have resulted in the near doubling of nitrogen and tripling of phosphorus flows to the environment when compared to natural values.
  6. 6. Sources of Eutrophication Discharge of untreated municipal sewage (nitrates and phosphates) Nitrogen compounds produced by cars and factories Natural runoff (nitrates and phosphates Inorganic fertilizer runoff (nitrates and phosphates) Discharge of detergents ( phosphates) Discharge of treated municipal sewage (primary and secondary treatment: nitrates and phosphates) Dissolving of nitrogen oxides (from internal combustion engines and furnaces) Manure runoff from feedlots (nitrates, phosphates, ammonia) Runoff from streets, lawns, and construction Lake ecosystem lots (nitrates and nutrient overload phosphates) and breakdown of chemical cycling Runoff and erosion (from cultivation, mining, construction, and poor land use)
  7. 7. Overview of Cultural Eutrophication  Start with clear water stream or blue water lake.  Introduction of organic and/or inorganic nutrients.  The pathways of these two nutrient sources differ.  Follow organic pathway first; inorganic nutrient pathway second
  8. 8. Ecological effects Increased biomass of phytoplankton Toxic or inedible phytoplankton species Increases in blooms of gelatinous zooplankton Increased biomass of benthic and epiphytic algae Changes in macrophyte species composition Decreases in water transparency (increased turbidity) Colour, smell, and water treatment problems Dissolved oxygen depletion Increased incidences of fish kills Loss of desirable fish species Reductions in harvestable fish and shellfish Decreases in perceived aesthetic value of the water

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