HYBRID MOTORCYCLE1) KHATRI ROHAN RAJESHBHAI 0901901190042) THAKOR JAYRAJSINH SANTOSHSINH0901901190143) CHAHWALA VIJAY HARISHBHAI0901901190374) PATIL SAGAR KAPTAN090190119063 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Prof. M.M.MADHIKAR MECH. DEPT., G.E.C., VALSAD
Hybrid motorcycle Petrol TankBat teri es Controller BL DC Mo tor ngine Petrol E rive Chain D Petrol Engine Along With An Electric Motor
What Is Hybrid ?Hybrid Vehicle is a an automobile which combines more than one method ofpropulsion system.It can be anything from a petrol with electric motor, petrol with an hydraulicmotor, diesel with electric or even solar power.In fact, we already see around us so many hybrid cars and motorcycles runningon CNG with Petrol and even Motorcycles with LPG. They are nothing but formof a Parallel Hybrid system .
Aim of our ProjectThis project outlines the design, construction and testing of a 1000W DC brushlessmotor controller for use in a light electric vehicle. Specific attention was paid to thelayout of the motor controller to ensure high reliability, ease of manufacture andlightweight construction without compromising efficiency.The concept is to club the two technologies of an Internal Combustion Engine with theElectric main drive.This we thrive to achieve by using the electric hub motor installed in the wheel and aprogrammable controller which will have the maximum speed of the motor to 50km/hr.,once the motorcycle goes above 50km/hr., the controller cuts of the current to the motorand the fuel is induced into the petrol engine and then the normal commuting is possible.Once the vehicle is running on petrol, the battery will be regenerated for further usageand can be fully charged with a 220v ac supply and Dynamo in the wheel.The motor used is a BLDC (Brush Less DC Motor) hub motor and we target to achieve 150km of mileage within Rs. 100 worth the fuel (combining petrol and electric power). Theportability of the batteries is a high value concerned and shall be met with proper resultin this project.
Project Development Process Market assessment for the current I.C engine efficiency, Electric vehicle Efficiency and positive – negative effects. The survey was conducted over petrol motorcycles and electric scooters available in the market. The cost per km was calculated with an assumption of the future prices and the maintenance cost of these vehicles and later compared with the hybrid motorcycle project.Bikes comparison Model name Cost/kmLPG Converted Bike Passion converted Rs 0.85/ 1kmElectric Scooter YO bike Rs 0.5/ 1kmPetrol Bike Passion Rs 1/ 1kmHybrid electric Bike Passion hybrid Rs 1/ 7km (for electric drive)
Feasibility of the project as per current market conditionAlthough there has been development in the diesel fuel with an advent of biodiesel and LPG conversion kits in the market but still there is almost nocompetition in the market with this kind of hybrid motorcycle.The sale if motorcycle is still increasing and in future so will the fuel prices, forthat the hybrid concept seems quite ideal as it not only decreases the per kmcost of the consumer but also enhances the range of the drive.Below listed is an article report from www.zigwheels.com of the motorcyclesales from mid-2012. From which we can determine the future necessity ofhybrid.“Two-wheeler manufacturer Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India (HMSI) todayreported a 38.65 per cent growth in total sales for August at 2,22,768 units.Motorcycle sales jumped by 69.44 per cent to 1,04,316 units in August this yearas against 61,562 units in the same month last year, HMSI said in a statement.”
Parameters responsible for project components based on end user Requirement termsThese requirements were necessary in order to find the complete set of calculationson which the project can be made, unless we know what our need we can’t develop agood project is. Range: 60 km to 80 km on electric power Speed: Maximum speed 40-50km/hr. (as per the city driving condition) Torque: Enough to carry a passenger and a rider with a tank full of petrol (300kg approximately ( + or – 30 kg).
Motor Power StudyIn order to obtain the best power from the motor, we have to have amotor with a higher watt specification, that is we need to increase thestator winding keeping the voltage constant.For that we did a complete survey of the motors available in themarket but we found none matching our need so we decided to makeone by increasing the winding for the existing motor.Motors available in market along with their power and range specification:Motor Power V/I Range(km) No. Of Poles Price in Rs250 W 48/24 50-65 2 10 k300 W 48/24 60-70 2 12 k700 W 48/24 65 4 17 k1100 W 48/24 50-60 6 20 k + * K =1000
What is a Hub Motor ?It is also called wheel motor, wheel hub drive, hub motor or in-wheel motor isan electric motor that is incorporated into the hub of a wheel and drives itdirectly.Hub motor electromagnetic fields are supplied to the stationary windings ofthe motor. The outer part of the motor follows, or tries to follow, those fields,turning the attached wheel.In a brushed motor, energy is transferred by brushes contacting the rotatingshaft of the motor which results in loss of power in the form of heat. Energy is transferred in a brushless motor electronically, eliminating physicalcontact between stationary and moving parts. Although brushless motortechnology is more expensive, most are more efficient and longer-lasting thanbrushed motor systems.
Electric Motor Defined Click to edit Master text styles Second level Brush less Direct Current (BLDC) motors Third level in which permanent Fourth level magnets on the rotor Fifth level create a magnetic field which interact with synchronous stator current.Basic TerminologyBrushless motors consist of a stationary part, the stator, and a rotating part, therotor. The space between the stator and the rotor is called the air gap. The statorcarries the windings and the rotor carries the magnets. Brushless motors can haveinside rotors or outside rotors. These two cases are shown in Figure. In either case,the stator and windings are stationary, allowing direct winding access withoutbrushes or slip rings.
Motor Rotor Position Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth levelThe rotation of a motor can be calculated by using EMF sensing to estimate rotorposition. Field-oriented control goes a step further by using a finer rotorposition estimate to calculate motor currents into the rotating frame. Therotating frame is defined by two axes, “d” for magnetic axis and “q” for rotoraxis.
Rotor angle calculation Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth levelGeneral equation for calculating winding angle for throttle.ᶿe =mod ( P.ᶿm.360)ᶿm-ᶿ0.Where ᶿe= electrical angle.ᶿm= mechanical angle and ᶿ0= offset angle between electric and mechanical angle.
The rotor can be on the inside or the outside. In either case, the stator, whichcontains windings, does not rotate and the rotor, which contains magnets, does. Click to edit Master text styles In most brushless motors, windings are placed in slots in Second level a laminated steel structure called the CORE. The purpose Third level of the steel is to channel more Fourth level magnetic flux through the Fifth level winding than would Be possible with a non- ferrous core. The section of TOOTH Difference steel between two slots is called a tooth. Three-phase CORE motors have a number of slots (and teeth) that is evenly divisible by three.
Conclusion and Testing of Motor Outputlick to edit Master text stylesSecond levelThird level Fourth level Fifth level The torque per unit amp of the front scooter The torque per unit amp of the axial motor motor at 20A, plotted within the optimal at 80A, plotted within the optimal 60º 60º rotor electrical angle for BLDC control. rotor electrical angle for BLDC control. It It remains fairly constant over this interval. remains fairly constant over this interval. The future work is to achieve the solution between the present condition and ideal condition and that’s the reason we will vary the current supply and try to be as close as to the ideal condition.
Single Stator CORE developed to test the winding methodThe original motor designpursued in this case study used Click to edit Master text stylestrapezoidal stator core wedges, Second levelwound with flat copper strips. Third level Fourth levelThe stator core segment was Fifth levelproduced by stacking H-shapedlaminations of silicon steel,which were laser cut tospecification. Though expensivein prototype quantities, theshapes would require onlysimple stamp tooling to make inlarge volume
Disassembly of Motor Components Stator Plates Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Stator Housing Cover Permanent Magnets Rotor Plate Windings on Stator
Assembly Of Motor CORE, Stator and First run test usingCopper wire Windings rubber Tube on Motor Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level
Initial CAD Modeling for small capacity Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Exploded View of Assembly carried on CREO Elements 5.0
Sectional view of completed Motor design Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level
Sectional view of motor with reduction Gear Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Reduction Fifth level Gear
Side View showing the motor by creating transparency on the motor housing Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level
Assembly of motor with the wheel and braking system Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level
Battery System A lead acid battery goes through three life phases, called formatting, peak and decline Formatting is most important for deep-Click to edit Master text styles cycle batteries and requires 20 to 50 full cycles to reach peak capacity Second level Third level Peak is the state at which we can obtain the maximum power of battery. Fourth level Fifth level In Decline state, the efficiency of battery goes down and then replacement is the only option available.
Controller Controller is a brain of the complete hybrid system. Its function is to receive data from various sensors and provide Electrical power as per the throttle position and angle. It decides the fuel mode that is, to run the motorcycle on petrol or to run it On electrical power. It checks the battery voltage and current value and notifies the user about the charging time.lick to edit Master text stylesSecond levelThird level Fourth level Fifth level
Controller Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level
Advantages and DisadvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesLower cost/km Higher kerb weightHigher Mileage Centre of Gravity is shiftedPracticality Speed limitationEase of RechargingVery less Maintenance cost
Future Work Highlights.1. Controller programming with optimizing parameters on Throttle Angle Motor Rotational Angle Wheel RPM Battery Discharge Brake cut-off Speed Limiter2. Motor Optimizing3. Load Conditions testing as per the Kerb weight (weight without rider)4. Load conditions on maximum jerks and slippery conditions in rain5. Maximum Torque variation as per the load6. Dynamo Recharging Capability7. Heat Dissipation From the motor8. Throttle limiting position9. I.C. Engine cut-off Threshold value10. Optimum Evaluation and feasibility on the parameters set