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Lecture 3 & 4: Ch. 3–4 | Int'l Marketing-MKTG 335-G | Chad Jardine, Utah Valley University, 2015–2017

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Lecture 3 & 4: Ch. 3–4 | Int'l Marketing-MKTG 335-G | Chad Jardine, Utah Valley University, 2015–2017

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Chapter 3-4: History, Geography, Culture

This presentation is part of a series of lectures by Chad Jardine, teaching MKTG 335-G, International Marketing at Utah Valley University, 2015–2017.

International marketing is a fascinating topic and I hope publishing my lectures will inform and educate. It's important to note that this is NOT an online course. The video contains lecture content only and is presented without the course context where assignments, exams, and a schedule of other coursework would be included. Enjoy!

Chapter 3-4: History, Geography, Culture

This presentation is part of a series of lectures by Chad Jardine, teaching MKTG 335-G, International Marketing at Utah Valley University, 2015–2017.

International marketing is a fascinating topic and I hope publishing my lectures will inform and educate. It's important to note that this is NOT an online course. The video contains lecture content only and is presented without the course context where assignments, exams, and a schedule of other coursework would be included. Enjoy!

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Lecture 3 & 4: Ch. 3–4 | Int'l Marketing-MKTG 335-G | Chad Jardine, Utah Valley University, 2015–2017

  1. 1. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing MKTG 335-G
  2. 2. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Quote of the Week “Don’t bunt. Aim out of the ballpark. Aim for the company of immortals. • —David Ogilvy
  3. 3. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. History and Geography: The Foundations of Culture Chapter 3
  4. 4. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Takeaways Chapter 3 What You Need to Know: • The importance of history and geography in understanding international markets • The effects of history on a country’s culture • How culture interprets events through its own eyes • How long-past U.S. international policies still affect customer attitudes abroad • The effect of geographic diversity on economic profiles of a country • Why marketers need to be responsive to the geography of a country • The economic effects of controlling population growth and aging populations • Communication infrastructures are an integral part of international commerce
  5. 5. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. The basis for world trade is the differences between countries
  6. 6. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Where does culture come from?
  7. 7. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Culture evolves as people live in a place over time.
  8. 8. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. History What is history?
  9. 9. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Culture evolves as people live in a place over time. Events over time = history.
  10. 10. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G
  11. 11. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. History Historical events between nations influence business and history
  12. 12. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. History Any nation’s business and political culture are shaped by history Mount Nemrut, Turkey
  13. 13. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. “History is a set of lies agreed upon.” —Napoleon Bonaparte
  14. 14. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. History History is subjective
  15. 15. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Like the map is subjective
  16. 16. Case in Point: Japan
  17. 17. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Historical Context 1192–1867 700 years under the shogun feudal system
  18. 18. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Historical Context 1853 The arrival of Commodore Perry opening relations with the U.S. 1192–1867 700 years under the shogun feudal system
  19. 19. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Historical Context 1800–1900s Threat of domination by colonial powers, rise of new social classes, undefeated wars with neighbors. 1192–1867 700 years under the shogun feudal system 1853 The arrival of Commodore Perry opening relations with the U.S.
  20. 20. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Historical Context 1800–1900s Threat of domination by colonial powers, rise of new social classes, Undefeated wars with neighbors. 1945 Japanese surrender to Allied forces at the end of WWII 1192–1867 700 years under the shogun feudal system 1853 The arrival of Commodore Perry opening relations with the U.S.
  21. 21. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Historical Context 1800–1900s Threat of domination by colonial powers, rise of new social classes, Undefeated wars with neighbors. 1945 Japanese surrender to Allied forces at the end of WWII 1945 + Increasing influence of Western culture 1192–1867 700 years under the shogun feudal system 1853 The arrival of Commodore Perry opening relations with the U.S. Gyaru Youth, Japan
  22. 22. Case in Point: Japan ▪ Why do the Japanese have such strong loyalty toward their companies? ▪ Why is a distribution system so difficult for an outsider to develop? ▪ Why are decisions made by consensus? ▪ Why are they loyal to family, to country, to company, and to social group?
  23. 23. Manifest Destiny ▪ Manifest Destiny and Monroe Doctrine were the basis of U.S. foreign policy in the 19th and 20th centuries ▪ Manifest Destiny meant that Americans were a chosen people ordained by God to create a model society. It referred to the territorial expansion of the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific John O’Sullivan First coined Manifest Destiny 1839
  24. 24. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. President James Monroe, originator of the Monroe Doctrine—a defining moment in U.S. foreign policy.
  25. 25. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Three premises under the Monroe Doctrine: • No further colonization of the New World by Europe • U.S. abstains from European political affairs • Nonintervention by Europe in the governments of the Western Hemisphere
  26. 26. 26 Exhibit 3.1. Source: Oxford Atlas of the World, 18th ed., 2002 Preprinted with permission of Philip Maps 3-7
  27. 27. 27 3-8
  28. 28. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Culture evolves as people live in a place over time. The environment or place = geography. Events over time = history.
  29. 29. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Why study Geography in International Marketing?
  30. 30. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. One does not simply launch… …a product in Uzbekistan.
  31. 31. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners.
  32. 32. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners.
  33. 33. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Geography and Global Markets Climate & Topography Geography, Nature and Economic Growth Social Responsibility & Environmental Management Resources
  34. 34. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. 3-11 Climate & Topography
  35. 35. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Knowledge about geography, the climate and physical terrain when appraising a market… Mount Athos, Greece
  36. 36. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. …influences marketing from product adaptation to the development of marketing systems. Mount Athos, Greece
  37. 37. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Climactic features affect uses and function of products and equipment.
  38. 38. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Products may require special cooling or lubrication to function properly in tropical zones
  39. 39. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Climate differences in Europe caused Bosch-Siemens to alter its washing machines. Heidelberg, Germany
  40. 40. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Geographic terrain, such as mountain ranges in a country, can influence transportation of products Yangshuo, China
  41. 41. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. 3-11 Geography, Nature & Economic Growth
  42. 42. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. There is a correlation between geographic location and economic growth. Eastern Mongolia
  43. 43. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Hostile climates are associated with economic stagnation. Africa
  44. 44. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Haiti Countries that suffer the most from major calamities are among the poorest in the world, which influences ability to market products.
  45. 45. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Resources
  46. 46. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Resources Natural resources key to manufacturing & production; supply not endless Human labor provides much of the energy in many countries Importance of oil & gas in world energy consumption
  47. 47. 47 Exhibit 3.3 Source: EuroMonitor International, 2012; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 3-15
  48. 48. Source: Key World Energy Statistics 2015, International Energy Agency
  49. 49. 49 Exhibit 3.4 Source: Data compiled from Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Outlook 2011 (Washington, D.C. 2012), http://www.eio.doe.gov/ 3-16
  50. 50. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Social Responsibility & Environmental Mgt
  51. 51. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Environmental protection is an essential part of the complex process of doing business.
  52. 52. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Of special concern to governments and businesses are ways to stem the tide of pollution and clean up decades of neglect. China
  53. 53. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Many governments are drafting new regulations and enforcing existing ones.
  54. 54. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. It’s motivating to realize that pollution is on the verge of getting completely out of control. China
  55. 55. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Global Population Trends
  56. 56. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. 3-17 Important to know population trends/shifts.
  57. 57. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. 3-17 Rural to urban shifts, growth rate, age levels, population control, population aging and decline, worker shortage and immigration
  58. 58. Exhibit 3.5 Source: World Population Prospects, The 2011 Revision, United Nations Economic and Social Affairs, www.unpopulation.org. 2012. Africa N. America Latin America Europe Asia Oceania 2011 (=100M people) 2050 estimate Life expectancy ? 79.3 73.4 75.1 54.1 76.2 68.9 77.1 Developed 65.6 Less Developed 55.9 Least Developed
  59. 59. 1-‹#› Population Control Issues ▪ Adequate Incomes ▪ High literacy levels ▪ Education for women ▪ Health care ▪ Family planning ▪ Cultural attitudes ▪ Political reasons
  60. 60. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. 3-11 Trade Routes & Communication Silk Road Trade Route Between India and China
  61. 61. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Photo Credit: Business Insider “The best way to predict the future is to create it.” —Peter Drucker Author & Management Consultant Quote of the Week
  62. 62. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets Chapter 4
  63. 63. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Takeaways Chapter 4 What You Need to Know: • The importance of culture to an international marketer • The origins of culture • The elements of culture • The impact of cultural borrowing • The strategy of planned change and its consequences
  64. 64. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture influences every part of our lives Culture’s pervasive impact
  65. 65. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Culture influences every part of our lives
  66. 66. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Culture impacts birth rates
  67. 67. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Birth rates impact sellers of diapers, toys, schools and colleges
  68. 68. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Consumption of different foods impacts culture
  69. 69. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Chocolate by the Swiss
  70. 70. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Beef by the British
  71. 71. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Wines by the French and Italians
  72. 72. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Even diseases are influenced by culture
  73. 73. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact Such as stomach cancer in Japan
  74. 74. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact liver disease in Germany
  75. 75. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Culture’s pervasive impact and lung cancer in Spain
  76. 76. Exhibit 4.2 Patterns of Consumption (annual per capita) Source: EuroMonitor International, 2010, 2012
  77. 77. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Three definitions of culture: 1. Culture is the sum of the “values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation”
  78. 78. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Three definitions of culture: 2. “software of the mind, problem-solving tool” (Hofstede)
  79. 79. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Three definitions of culture: 3. “An invisible barrier… a completely different way of organizing life, of thinking, and of conceiving the underlying assumptions about the family and the state, the economic system, and even Man himself” (Hall)
  80. 80. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Consequences Origins, Elements, and Consequences of Culture Origins History Geography (climate, topography, flora, fauna, microbiology) Social Institutions (family, religion , school, media, government, corporations) Technology & Political Economy Peers Elements of Culture (values, rituals, beliefs, thought processes) Imitation Management Styles Consumption Decisions & Behaviors Adaptation/Innovation Application Socialization/ Acculturization
  81. 81. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Eastern Mongolia Geography, which includes climate, topography, flora, fauna, and microbiology, influences our social institutions Origins of Culture: Geography
  82. 82. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Eastern Mongolia Jared Diamond states that historically innovations spread faster east-to-west than north-to-south Origins of Culture: Geography
  83. 83. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Eastern Mongolia Philip Parker reports strong correlations between the latitude (climate) and the per capita GDP of countries Origins of Culture: Geography
  84. 84. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: History ▪ The impact of specific events in history can be seen reflected in technology, social institutions, cultural values, and even consumer behavior ▪ The military conflicts in the Middle East in 2003 bred new cola brands, Mecca Cola, Muslim Up, and Arab Cola
  85. 85. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G For example, American trade policy depended on tobacco being the original source of the Virginia colony’s economic survival in the 1600s Origins of Culture: History
  86. 86. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: The Political Economy For most of the 20th Century, three approaches to governance competed for world dominance: • Fascism • Communism • Democratic Free Enterprise
  87. 87. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: The Political Economy Fascism fell in 1945
  88. 88. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: The Political Economy Communism crumbled in the 1990s
  89. 89. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: The Political Economy The oldest system still stands
  90. 90. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: The Political Economy Socialism?
  91. 91. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Origins of Culture: Technology Technological innovations influence cultural values Jet aircraft, air conditioning, televisions, computers, and the Internet have all influenced culture
  92. 92. Religious
 Value
 Systems School
 &
 Education Government
 Policies Social
 Institutions Family
 Behaviors Corporations Media 4-15
  93. 93. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: Social Institutions Social institutions including family, religion, school, the media, government, and corporations all affect culture
  94. 94. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: Social Institutions The family, social classes, group behavior, age groups, and how societies define decency and civility are interpreted differently within every culture
  95. 95. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: Social Institutions 1. Family behavior varies across the world, e.g., extended families living together to Dad washing dishes 2. Religious value systems differ across the world, e.g., Muslims not allowed to eat pork to Hindus not allowed to consume beef 3. School and education, and literacy rates affect culture and economic growth
  96. 96. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: Social Institutions 4. 4. Media (magazines, TV, the Internet) influences culture and behavior
  97. 97. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: Social Institutions 5. Government policies influence the thinking and behaviors citizens of adult citizens, e.g., the French government offers new “birth bonuses” of $800 given to women as an incentive to increase family size
  98. 98. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Origins of Culture: Social Institutions 6. Corporations influence culture via the products they market, e.g., MTV
  99. 99. Rituals Thought
 Processes Beliefs Cultural
 Values Symbols Elements
 of
 Culture 4-19
  100. 100. 1-‹#› Cultural Values ▪ Hofstede, who studied over 90,000 people in 66 countries, found that the cultures differed along four primary dimensions • Individualism/Collective Index (IDV), which focuses on self- orientation • Power Distance Index (PDI), which focuses on authority orientation • Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), which focuses on risk orientation; and • Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS), which focuses on assertiveness and achievement
  101. 101. 1-‹#› Individualism/Collectivism Index • The Index refers to preferences for self-interested behaviors • High IDV reflects an “I” mentality, tends to reward individual initiative • Low IDV reflects a “we” mentality and subjugates the individual to the group • Collectivism=from birth onward people are integrated into strong, cohesive groups, which protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty
  102. 102. 1-‹#› Power Distance Index • PDI measures power inequality between superiors and subordinates • High PDI tend to be hierarchical and value power and status • High PDI favors those who hold power are entitled to privileges • Low PDI value equality and reflect egalitarian views
  103. 103. 1-‹#› Uncertainty Avoidance Index • UAI measures tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity • High UAI are highly intolerant of ambiguity, experience anxiety and stress, accord a high level of authority to rules as a means of avoiding risk • Low UAI are associated with low anxiety and stress, a tolerance of deviance and dissent, and a willingness to take risks
  104. 104. 111 Exhibit 4.7 Hofstede's Indexes, Language, and Linguistic Distance Source: Geert Hofstede, Culture's Consequences (thousand Oaks CA: Sage, 2011). 4-24
  105. 105. 1-‹#› Masculinity/Femininity Index • Measures extent to which a society stresses achievement or nurture. • Masculinity is seen to emphasize ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles.  • Femininity is seen to stress caring and nurturing behaviors, sexual equality, environmental awareness, and more fluid gender roles.
  106. 106. 1-‹#› Masculinity/Femininity Index
  107. 107. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Rituals & Symbols
  108. 108. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Rituals are patterns of behavior that are learned and repeated vary from country to country e.g., extended lunch hours in Spain and Greece
  109. 109. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Language as Symbols: the “languages” of time, space, things, friendships, and agreements
  110. 110. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. In Canada, language has been the focus of political disputes Differences in language vocabulary varies widely, even English is different in different countries
  111. 111. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Aesthetics as Symbols: the arts, folklore, music, drama, and dance of a culture influences marketing
  112. 112. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Whose English? American English Hood Trunk Elevator Flashlight Vacuum Eraser Apartment Cookies Chips Fries Vacation Yard Subway Can Faucet Closet Candy Stroller Pacifier Diaper British Standard English Bonnet Boot Lift Torch Hoover Rubber Flat Biscuits Crisps Chips Holiday Garden Underground (Tube) Tin Tap Wardrobe Sweets Pram Dummy Nappy
  113. 113. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Whose English? American English Color Neighbor Jail Aluminum Program Eon Airplane Armor Canceled Check Economize Encyclopedia Meter Filet Traveler Fetus Mold Filter Story Ton British Standard English Colour Naighbour Gaol Aluminium Programme Aeon Aeroplane Armour Cancelled Cheque Economise Encyclopaedia Metre Fillet Traveller Foetus Mould Philtre Storey Tonne
  114. 114. 122 Exhibit 4.8 Metaphorical Journeys through 23 Nations Source: Martin J. Gannon, Understanding global Cultures, Metaphorical Journeys through 23 Nations, 2nd ed. Copright 2001. 4-29
  115. 115. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Beliefs, which mainly stem from religious training, superstition, or tradition, vary from culture to culture • The western aversion to the number 13 or refusing to walk under a ladder • Japanese concern about Year of the Fire Horse • The Chinese practice of Feng Shui in designing buildings Beliefs
  116. 116. 1-‹#› Thought Processes ▪ Thought processes also vary across cultures • “Asian and Western” thinking • Other examples?
  117. 117. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Western vs. Traditional Chinese Medicine
  118. 118. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Malcolm Gladwell Malcolm Gladwell Author: Outliers 
 Rice paddies and math tests
  119. 119. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Malcolm Gladwell English vs. Chinese Language of Numbers Length of number words Special names(i.e. eleven, twelve vs. one-one, one-two) Order e.g., decade first (fifteen vs. one-five)
  120. 120. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. Malcolm Gladwell English vs. Chinese Language of Numbers Avg. 4-year old in China counts to 40 vs. 15 in America Language translation to numbers adds to the difficulty of doing math for English-speakers
  121. 121. 1-‹#› Cultural Sensitivity and Tolerance ▪ Successful foreign marketing begins with cultural sensitivity —being familiar with nuances ▪ A new culture can be viewed objectively, evaluated, and appreciated.
  122. 122. Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G
  123. 123. 1-‹#› Cultural Sensitivity Has to Be Cultivated ▪ Cultural sensitivity can be developed by acquiring knowledge about a culture including: • Different meanings of colors, and different tastes • General facts about a culture ▪ It can also be developed by learning the more in- depth meaning of cultural facts: • The meaning of time, and attitudes toward people • Developing a degree of insight
  124. 124. This Solo show East meets West by Yang Liu, which was placed at ministry of foreign affairs in Germany, is poster art that compares German / Western culture with Chinese culture in a way that humorously captures some societal differences. Needless to say blue represents Western culture and red Chinese? East meets West
  125. 125. Way to think 思维方式
  126. 126. Way of life 生活方式
  127. 127. Punctuality 准时
  128. 128. Connections 人际关系
  129. 129. Anger 对待愤怒
  130. 130. Queuing 排队
  131. 131. In the restaurant 在餐厅
  132. 132. Standard of beauty 美丽的标准
  133. 133. Way to solve problems 处理问题
  134. 134. Senior’s daily life 老人的日常生活
  135. 135. Shower time 洗浴时间
  136. 136. Boss 领导
  137. 137. The child 孩子
  138. 138. New things 对待新事物
  139. 139. Image of each other 想像中的对方
  140. 140. Sunday on City Streets
  141. 141. 1-‹#› Resistance to Change ▪ Although some cultures embrace change others are resistant to it • Working women in masculine societies like Saudi Arabia • Lack of acceptance of GM foods (or “Frankenfood”) in Europe
  142. 142. http://www.slideshare.net/MarkZatta/nestle-baby-formula-case-study http://www.nestle.com/aboutus/ask-nestle/answers/nestle-boycott?gclid=CO- dteq0iMgCFURlfgodhXgH9Q Nestle: Bottle vs. Breast
  143. 143. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. For Next Class Due by Next Class (Feb 1, 2017): • Case 1 Nestlé (Individual) • Exam #1 (Chapters 1–4)
  144. 144. International Marketing: MKTG 335-G Course copyright © Chad Jardine. Images, works cited, etc. are copyright © their respective owners. International Marketing MKTG 335-G

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