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General theoretical observations

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  1. 1. Constructivism Cesar C. Navarrete, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Epistemology •  Constructivism—philosophical perspective that individuals for (construct) what they learn and understand •  Piaget •  Vygotsky •  Dewey •  May include cognitivist views •  and concepts
  3. 3. Perspectives •  Exogenous—reconstruction of the external world •  Endogenous—cognitive abstraction as mental reconstruction •  Dialectical—interaction between the person and environment
  4. 4. Situated  Cognition •  Learning is specific to context •  Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky)
  5. 5. Measurement •  How is learning measured in schools? •  How can student learning be measured in constructivist learning environments?
  6. 6. Benjamin  Bloom