Qualitative Data AnalysisWithin and Across SettingsBeginner Level WorkshopJune 9, 2013TorontoReed Early, MA CErearly@telus.net250 748 0550http://www3.telus.net/reedspace/shared/1:00 Overview of QDA and mixed methods.2:00 Exercise 1 involving quotes, codes, memos and content analysis, using narrative data.3:00 Exercise 2 in grounded theory that maps themes, quotes and codes.Alternate Exercise: Theorizing Using Matrix Analysis or Software Sampler3:45 Wrap up – lessons learned and evaluationObjective: Participants learn a range of tools for use in analysis of text, documents and images.
ContentsQualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsOverview of field of QDA ....................................................................................................... 1Exercise 1 involving quotes, codes, memos and content analysis, using narrative data .......... 5Exercise 2 in grounded theory, network maps of themes, quotes and codes............................ 8Methods Matched to Data and Task ....................................................................................... 10Alternate Exercise: theorizing using matrix analysis across settings ..................................... 11QDA Software sampler .......................................................................................................... 14HANDOUTS1. Summary of Qualitative Methods – matrix .............................................................. 152. Websites, Software, and Internet Resources ............................................................. 16ReferencesData – Incidents of Support 1, 2, 3
1Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550Qualitative Data AnalysisOverview of field of QDAOutcomes – learners understand the origin and current practice of QDA methods in general,grounded theory in particular, and possible applications of the methods.Methodsuseful for inductive researchuseful in naturalistic inquiryqualitative methods growing consensuscollection ↔ analysis ↔ collectionQualitative Data Analysis (QDA)openexploratoryuseful when questions to ask not yet been definedallows insightsOverview of QDA(nested diagram)QDA cycle(begin with question, data collection, continue ad infinitum)Research process(all stages connected)Work plan of research process
2Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550Characteristics of Qualitative Dataconstructivist - words have many meaningscontext bound i.e. “cast of thousands"uses inflection i.e. "THIS was good."can be sorted in many waysQD by itself has meaning i.e. “apple”Sources of Qualitative Datainterviewsfocus Groupsfield observations (GPS data)survey commentshistorical recordssecondary dataphotos, paintings, songs ...Types of Qualitative Datastructured text, (writings, stories, survey comments, news articles, books etc)unstructured text (transcription, open interviews, focus groups, conversation)audio recordings (as above, music)visual recordings (graphics, art, pictures)location specific data Google Earth GPS
3Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550Principles of QDA (J. Morse)Data entry (gathering)Comprehending (immersion)Synthesizing (sifting)Theorizing (sorting)Re-Contextualizing (emerging theory)Data entry (analogous demo)not easily mechanizedimportant part of processoften done by analystconcurrent with analysistranscribe thoroughly, as soon as possiblewrite memos (reflect)coding (start with few)Comprehending (immersion)begin while entering datastart QDA immediately“live with it”line by line examinationcreate new questions for collectionSynthesizing (sifting) “selecting quotations” (decontextualize)use inductive categoriesfind common threadscompare transcriptsaggregate storiesTheorizing (sorting) “coding”ask questions of the datafind alternative explanationsallow sufficient timebe open to insightsRe-Contextualizingdevelop theoretical “elegance”apply to other settingsexamine fit to literature/researchdescribe emerging theoryData Management Principlesstay close to the databe sensitive to emergent theoryallow recontextualizingit is a non-linear process
4Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550QDA method options – everyday analoguesi) Content Analysis - like movie ratings by the censorship bdii) Grounded Theory – like a mystery solved by ordinary citizensiii) Matrix Analysis – like a map’s matrix of campsite servicesiv) Phenomenology – like a movie documentaryDisplaying resultsv) display code frequenciesCode Count % Codes Cases % Cases1.1 Defines Mgmt Structure, Roles, Resp 36 1.20% 21 5.30%1.1 Framework Contents 42 1.40% 23 5.80%1.1 Key People Involved 119 3.90% 59 14.80%1.1 Lines of Authority 46 1.50% 26 6.50%1.2 Approval and Endorsement 25 0.80% 17 4.30%1.2 Key Elements of Strategic Plan Exist 72 2.40% 36 9.00%1.2 Plan Communicated 55 1.80% 26 6.50%1.2 Plan Updated 18 0.60% 14 3.50%
5Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550Exercise 1, quotes, codes & memos (within a setting)Outcomes – learners will practice the use of quotes, codes and memos and will understand the stepsin relation to comprehending (immersion), and synthesizing (sifting).Equipment: scissors, glue stick, 12 blank index cards, post-it notes, data1) Immersion: Read 1. An Incident of Support (p17) quickly to understand the context.(comprehending)2) Selecting Quotations: Read it again and underline each distinct behaviour or incident(full sentences – non-overlapping). Look for a phrase that captures several sentencesBe selective - underline less than half the text (approx 8-12 quotes) (synthesizing).3) Memoing: As you are selecting quotations make memos to yourself (on post-it notes).On them record ideas for a code i.e. “shared need is the bridge”. Also include ideas fora theory, notes about the speaker, additional data to collect, etc. (i.e. needed fortheorizing).4) Selecting quotations: Cut out the quotations underlined in step 2 above. Tape orpaste them onto the bottom of the index cards, one per card. Affix post-it notes to theirrelevant quotes. You should end up with about 10-12 cards (synthesizing)5) Coding: Group the cards into 5 to 10 piles based on similarity of behaviour/incident.Write a fitting descriptive code name on a blank piece of paper i.e. “mutual needs aresupportive” and place it by the pile. A code name can be 3-6 words (like a theme),expressing a topic a verb and a descriptor. If a pile gets too large split it intosubcategories. If two smaller piles may be merged if they have a commonality(synthesizing).6) Order the codes: Now consider the codes you created and reorder the piles left toright along some continuum related to the codes (tangible-specific, subjective-objective, serious-funny, etc). Identify the order (theorizing).7) Choose an illustrative quote: From each pile choose a particularly clear quote thatexpresses the code best and put it on the top of the pile. On the next pages “CodeList” make a master list of codes, in your chosen order, and beside write the illustrativequote. (synthesizing)
6Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550Code ListCode Name Illustrative QuotationMutual needs aresupportive.She said that her children were in need of other childrento play with and she needed an adult to talk to.
7Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550Grounded TheoryPrimary documents (comprehending)i) Immerse yourself in the primary documents (all types)ii) begin as data are collectediii) read/view/listen to the dataQuotations (synthesizing)i) select and mark salient quotations/passagesii) compare each line to other relevant data constantlyCoding (theorizing)i) assign codes in marginii) group, sort, categorize codes into familiesiii) collect new data based on emerging theory, memos, new codes…until“saturation” is reachedMemos (aids in all processes)i) record insights on memos or post-it notes ie: ideas for emerging theories,thematic ideas, linked memosNetwork (re-contextualizing)i) create a work view (mind map) see p9ii) add and arrange network nodes (quotes, memos and codes)iii) collect more data as neededGenerate Theoryi) (Optional Exercise) Make a matrix of themes (rows) by roles (cols)ii) Fill in cells with either a selected quote or “*” to indicate missing data.iii) Look for patterns, empty cells, areas of convergence.iv) Generate an explanation and provide a short quote to support your "theory".(optional exercise p11)
8Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550Exercise 2: Grounded theory and network maps (across settings)Outcome – participants will generate theory to explain the interactions in context. Learners willgenerate understanding based on emerging theory (theorizing) in terms of the context(re-contextualizing). They will draw a map depicting the evidence and create an explanation(theory) emerging from it.1. Explanatory statements: Re-examine the code list from Exercise 1. Pay attention toany explanatory quotes – statements that answer why something occurred. Askquestions of the data. Why did it go the way it did? Look for reasons why, andalternative explanations. Allow time – this is a creative process. Be open to insights.2. Reexamine the original transcript: Look for explanatory quotes or examples of “laytheory” or grounded theory.3. Grounded Theory: Choose one brief explanatory statement paraphrased from thedata that seems to represent the data (grounded theory).4. Mind Map: Take the Grounded Theory Network Map on the next page (or enlargedcopy). In the centre summarize that explanatory statement.5. Codes: In the bubbles around the central idea write (in pencil) the codes from thecode list (example shown). Arrange them in an order that makes sense, in relation tothe central explanatory idea (grounded theory).6. Quotations and memos: Near each code (bubble) attach with glue (or re-write) theapplicable quotation on the card. Also beside the code affix applicable memos (post-itnotes). Note: you will not use all codes, quotes and memos; be selective and includeonly those relevant to support the theory. Other theories may require more maps.7. Examine the Map: Consider the map. Look at it from a distance, and close up. Lookfor patterns and new explanations (several grounded theories may emerge).
9Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550Grounded Theory Network Map (across settings)Central organizing questionMutual needs aresupportive.Card: She said that herchildren were in need ofother children to playwith and she needed anadult to talk to.Post-It: Sharedneed is thebridge
10Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550Methods Matched to Type of Data (my preferences)structured texti) Content Analysis (i.e. coding of survey comments by themes)ii) Matrix Analysis (i.e. coding as above and by speaker, role, time etc)unstructurediii) Phenomenology (i.e. essence of the lived experience described)iv) Grounded Theory (i.e. sense making by participants)audio voice / musicv) Matrix Analysis, Grounded Theoryvideo photos / scenesvi) Matrix Analysis, Grounded TheoryMethods Matched to Principle Taskdescriptionvii) Content analysisexplanationviii)Matrix analysisderive new ideas and insightsix) Phenomenologytest significancex) Matrix analysis, Quantitativemap theoretical relationxi) Grounded Theory, Network MappingCrosstab (matrix) of codes and variables (program and time) (see Exercise next page)Proj A Proj B Proj CTime1Time2Time 3Chi-squareP valuefinding 1.1.x 2 1 3 9.924 0.357finding 1.2.x 1 9 1 2 17.447 0.042finding 1.3.x 1 5 1 10.624 0.302finding 1.4.x 1 2 12 4 2 41.016 0finding 2.1.x 3 1 2 1 20.759 0.014finding 2.2.x 1 2 2.13 0.989finding 2.3.x 20 2 1 3 4 2 16.514 0.057Risks 6 2 2 17 4 4 33.709 0Best Practices 4 1 1 3 6 4 49.178 0
11Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550(Optional) Exercise 3: Theorizing Using Matrix Analysis (across settings)Outcomes – learners will use matrix of roles and themes to theorize an explanation of male and femalesupport giving, grounded in two narratives.Equipment: scissors, tape, data – Incidents of Support #2 and #31. Read Support Incident #2, the mother/daughter. Read Support Incident #3 by LesBrown about Mr. Washington and the student. (can be done ahead of time)2. Quotations and Coding. Reread Support Incident #2. Beside each of the three codes(page over), write (or cut and paste) the chosen underlined quote from the incident.3. More Quotations and Coding. Now reread Support Incident #3, Mr Washington, lookingfor similar quotes. If you find some (and you may not) put them in this column. At thesame time be looking for new ideas (based on themes) to put in rows 4 and 54. Matrix. Down the left side add new code names beside 4 and 5. Fill in cells with eithera selected quote or an “*” to indicate missing data.5. Give it a thorough look for patterns, empty cells, areas of convergence.6. Below write an explanation (theory or testable statement) about possible patterns forfemale and male support giving. Include a short quote from each incident to supportyour "theory".
12Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550Mother (incident 2) Mr. Washington (incident 3)1. Being there issupportive2. Tangible actionis supportive3. Support yieldspositive outcomes4.____________5. __________
13Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550Multi Dimensional Scaling 2D and 3D maps
14Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550Show rotating Code Correlation 3D in QDA MinerQ&A Questions and answersSome QDA Methods (and Software)1. Content AnalysisWord, QDA Miner Word-SimStat, Excel, Atlas-ti2. Matrix analysisNvivo, QDA Miner Word-SimStat,3. Grounded Theory MappingAtlas-ti, QDA Miner Word-SimStat,4. Phenomenology - using mind mapsInspiration, Visio5. Concept MappingConcept Systems, QDA Miner Word-SimStat,QDA software1. QDA Miner Word-SimStat (Provalis, CAN)2. Atlas-ti (Scientific Software, GER)3. NVivo (QSR, AU)4. Inspiration (USA)5. Concept Systems (USA)6. Excel, Access, SPSS (USA)See Handouts.http://www3.telus.net/reedspace/shared/Reed Earlyrearly@telus.net250 748 0550
15Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550Handout 1. Summary of Qualitative MethodsMethod Software Data PrincipleTask+ / - Application/timeContent AnalysisFrom sociologyWordprocessing,Atlas-ti, QDAMiner-WordStat,Static datasuch as photos,newspapers,books etcCountfrequencies ofrecurring keywords/phrasesand themesSimple tograsp and use,quantified,reliable andrigorous butshallow> 100 items/observations in5-10 hoursMatrix Analysis fromsocial science fromMatthew Miles andMichael HubermanNVivo, wordprocessorAtlas-ti/SPSS,QDA Miner-WordStattranscripts,interviews,photos, books,newspapersReduce bulk ofdata, memoand code longtranscripts,pull out quotessimple,displays well,raw text data ispreserved, buttwodimensional50 interview or3 focus groupstakes ~3 daysto analyzeGrounded Theoryfrom SociologistsAnselm Strauss,Barney Glaser andCorbinQDA Miner-WordStat,Atlas-ti, NVivoText,interviews,focus groups,audio tapes,video tapesCode andexamine inter-relations/patterns ofcodes/themesdeep analysis,sensitive to laytheory but timeconsuming,50 interview or3 focus groupstranscripts, ~5days to analyze.Phenomenology fromphilosophy fromAntonio Giorgi, EgonGuba and YvonneLincoln and othersMind Mapsuse Inspiration,Visiotapes,interviews,anecdotes,diaries,literatureDerive newideas andinsights, mapideassensitive todefinitions,looksinteresting, butless precise50 interview or3 focus groups~ 2 days toanalyzeMulti-DimensionalScaling (Conceptmaps) advanced byBill Trochim.ConceptSystems,SPSS, QDAMiner-WordStatAny set ofcodes orranked, sortedconcepts , GPSspecial dataGenerate,analyse, mapand confirmideasempowersparticipants,displays well,preserves ownwords, butcomplicated tointerpret50 interview or3 focus groups~3 days toanalyzePost Coding fromquantitativesociological surveytechniquesAccess,database,Excel, QDAMiner-WordStat,surveycomment lines,line entries inlog books,short quotesTestsignificance ofideas (i.e.statisticalsignificance)done in statsprogram, fast,but lacks depth200 surveys ~1day to analyze
16Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550Handout 2. Website, Software and Internet ResourcesClick on links in MSWord or at www3.telus.net/reedspace/QDA2013workshop.htmlNON-COMMERCIAL COMMENT (useful, current links etc)√ Text Analysis Infowww.textanalysis.info/A free information source for information thatdeals with the analysis of content of humancommunication, mostly but not limited to text.√Scoop It http://www.scoop.it/t/qualitative-quantitative-data-analysis-managementA currently active Q&A about Qual Quan dataanalysis.√ Qualitative Research Web Siteshttp://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/web.htmlGood links to Action Research, Qualitative DataAnalysis, and Ethnography and other sites√ Computer Assisted Qualitative DataAnalysis Softwarehttp://www.surrey.ac.uk/sociology/research/researchcentres/caqdas/CAQDAS at the Sociology Dept in U. of SurreyUK announcing upcoming seminars and providingslideshows.√International Institute for QualitativeMethodologieshttp://www.uofaweb.ualberta.ca/iiqm/The International Institute site at U. of Albertaannouncing conferences, workshops and training.√Qualitative Research Web Ringshttp://www.ringsurf.com/netring?ring=QualitativeResearch;action=listA number of web rings of interest to graduatestudents and faculty interested in all aspects ofqualitative research. Includes YouTube.√ Qual Pagehttp://www.qualitativeresearch.uga.edu/QualPage/Resources for qualitative research from Universityof Georgia. Another contribution of linksoriginated by a member of the web ring.
17Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550COMMERCIAL COMMENTS√ Atlas.ti Workbenchhttp://www.atlasti.comDanish maker of Atlas ti offers a demo, workshopschedule, user groups and a variety of extras.√ Qualitative Solutions and Researchhttp://www.qsrinternational.comThe Latrobe people who started it all withNud-Ist. And N-Vivo. Demos, prices etc√ Concept Systems Mapping softwarehttp://www.conceptsystems.comBill Trochims excellent and expensive hybridhard-art qual/quan software√ Provalis Researchhttp://provalisresearch.com/productsCanadian Normand Peladeau of provides QDAMiner and companion program WordStat (contentanalysis and text mining) .√ Inspiration softwarehttp://www.inspiration.comSimple, traditional but very effective networkmapping software (manual) for analysis and ideas,from Oregon√ Qualitative Research and Consultinghttp://www.quarc.deList of QDA software workshops and seminars,from Germany√ Ethnograph by Qualis Researchhttp://www.qualisresearch.comFrom Utah, the demo, workshop schedule and lotsmore.√ HyperResearch by ResearchWarehttp://www.researchware.comSimple description of the software and links fromMass.√ MaxQDAhttp://www.maxqda.comOrganize, evaluate, and interpret data, create easy-to-read reports and visualisations, and connect andshare with other researchers. From Germany.√ Sage Publishinghttp://www.sagepub.comA source for QDA books and support√ SPSS Text Analytics for Surveys SPSS, the Statistical Package for the SocialSciences. Some QDA software (i.e.ATLAS.ti’sexport function) creates a syntax file to permitSPSS to work with it.
18Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550ReferencesDenzin, N. And Lincoln, Y. (Eds) (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research,Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.Fielding and Lee (1998). Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research. Thousand OaksCA: Sage.Friese, S. (Presentation 2004). Computer Aided Qualitative Data Analysis ofMultimedia Data. http://caqdas.soc.surrey.ac.uk/.Froggatt, K.A (2001). Using Computers in the analysis of qualitative data. Froggatt,K.A. (2001) The analysis of qualitative data: processes and pitfalls. PalliativeMedicine, (15) 517-520.Lewins, A and Silver, C (June 2005). Choosing a CAQDAS Package – A WorkingPaper by Ann Lewins and Christina Silver. http://caqdas.soc.surrey.ac.uk .Miles, M. and Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of NewMethods, (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.Morse, J. M. and Field, P.A. (1995). Qualitative Research Methods for HealthProfessionals. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.Strauss, A (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. New York : CambridgeUniversity.
19Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 05501. An Incident of SupportMy children were age one, three and five and we had justmoved out to the country. We were thirty miles from townand were able to build a home on the quarter section of landwe had recently purchased. We were living in a small cabinon the property which was without electricity, telephone andrunning water or central heating. Each time we entered thegates was like stepping back in time. We used kerosene,had a well, and kept warm with a small space heater. Icooked on a two burner camp stove that rested on boardssuspended on two saw horses. My nearest neighbour wastwo miles away; I had unreliable transportation and no wayof communication. What began as fun and adventurous inthe summer became difficult when the winter snows arrivedand the days were short and cold. I felt lonely and strandedwith three preschool children.Each Friday I went to town to shop for groceries, go to alaundromat and visit the public library. Socialization andcommunication were the problems I tried to solve on thisone day per week. I remember thinking that it was a sadstate of affairs for me to need the interactions withsalespersons for adult company. I often felt sorry for myself,but was determined to be strong for the benefit of thechildren. I did indeed become self sufficient in running ofthe "home". At this time I was not employed in the outsidework force.One particularly cold December day I was lingering in thestore because I was not looking forward to the chore ofentertaining my children in a laundromat for the next fewhours. A Scottish lady that I had previously met sociallyapproached me to wish us a Merry Christmas. After we hadconversed for a while she invited us to her home for lunch. Iexplained that I couldnt because I still had the marketingand the laundry to do before going home. She convincedme that if I came to her house I would be doing her a favour.She said that her children were in need of other children toplay with and she needed an adult to talk to. I was surprisedto see that even in a large community there could beloneliness. Her children were the same ages as mine andthey also began a journey of long lasting friendship whichexists even today.
20Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 0550During lunch she offered to me to use her laundry facilities. Igratefully accepted because I enjoyed her company andknew that I could fulfill my need for adult contact for a longerperiod of time. I felt somewhat selfish about the possibleimposition on her household, but she assured me that sheneeded the stimulation of the company of another womanjust as I did. It became a habit to go to her home on Fridayto do laundry, as she insisted. She could not see why Ishould be paying for facilities when hers were not beingused that day.As the winter progressed and our friendship flowered, wetook turns looking after each others children while the othersavoured personal time. I used my time to quickly do themarketing and visit the library. Without the addeddistraction of children my time was efficiently andwonderfully spent. Occasionally my friend would scoot meout for a whole afternoon while she stayed in with thechildren. It was difficult to discourage her from doing mylaundry as well, but I had to draw the line somewhere!There were times when we accepted a dinner invitation ather insistence. Occasionally we gratefully acceptedbecause I knew what it would be like for my children to arriveback at the cold dark cabin, hungry and tired.In a few short months the days became longer and theweather warmer and I continued to visit my friend on aweekly basis. I tried many times to speak of payment. Shewould not hear of it and gently said that it would be an insultto her to speak of payment for what she offered so freely. Ifelt obligated to her because I did not think that I wasoffering anything to her in return.It took some negotiating and much thought but we finallyarrived at a solution which was satisfactory to both of us.She said that since she had done a service for me I mustnow find a way to pass on a service to someone else. WhenI had done so I was to let her know the circumstances.Three years later I took time off work to care for the childrenof another friend for ten days while she recovered fromsurgery. I related the events to both of my friends because Ifelt that I had paid my debt of gratitude. My Scottish friendwas delighted and felt rewarded, as did I.Anonymous
21Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 05502. Incident of SupportA daughter of age twenty had just recently returned to livewith her mother. After living at home a few months shedecided to move out again but this time she planned to livewith her boyfriend in a different town. Both her parentswere very upset with her decision because she had onlyknown her boyfriend for a few months and they believed thatpeople should be married before they live together. Eventhough the mother did not believe that her daughter wasmaking the right decision she still supported her.The mother supported her daughter in several ways. Firstshe helped resolve conflict between the father and daughterby helping them each see both sides of the situation. Shealso let her daughter know that she loved her unconditionallyand that even though she did not agree with what herdaughter was doing she would still be there when she wasneeded. She told her daughter that she believed in herability to make her own decisions and that she would respectwhatever her daughter decided. Another example ofsupport that the mother demonstrated was to help herdaughter pack and make necessary arrangements to move.I think this proved to the daughter that her mother wassincere in what she had said.During this situation many thoughts were going though myhead. First I thought it must be hard for the mother tosupport her daughter in a decision that she did not agreewith. I also thought that this daughter was very lucky to havesuch an understanding and supportive mother. Thinkingthese things brought up some feelings for me. I felt a lot ofrespect towards the mother because she was able to put herown feelings aside in order to support here daughter. I alsofelt happy for the daughter because she had someone in herlife that loved her unconditionally.By watching the expressions on her faces I saw a lot of loveand respect between a daughter and a mother, but most ofall I saw how much the daughter appreciated her motherssupport. Seeing the results of the support was veryexciting. In this situation the mothers supportive nature toher daughter paid off. After a few months of living togetherthe daughter got engaged to her boyfriend. Now the motherhas a new son-in-law and her daughter has been happilymarried for three years.
22Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE firstname.lastname@example.org 250 748 05503. Incident of Support by Les BrownOne day in eleventh grade I went into a classroom to wait fora friend of mine. When I went into the room the teacher, MrWashington suddenly appeared and asked me to go to theboard to write something, to work something out. I told him Icould not do it. He said "Why not?".I said "Because I am not one of your students. He said itdoesnt matter. I said "I cant". He said "Why not?"I paused, because I was somewhat embarrassed and said"Because I am Educably Mentally Retarded". He came frombehind his desk and he looked at me and he said "Dontever say that again. Someone elses opinion of you doesnot have to become your reality".It was a very liberating moment for me. On one hand I washumiliated because the other students laughed at me. Theyknew I was in Special Education. But on the other hand Iwas liberated because he began to bring to my attention thatI did not have to live within the context of what anotherpersons view of me was.And so Mr Washington became my mentor. Prior to thisexperience I had failed twice in school. I was identified asEducably Mentally Retarded in the fifth grade, was put backinto fourth grade, and failed again when I was in eighthgrade. So this person made a dramatic difference in my life.Mr Washington believed that nobody rises to lowexpectations. This man always gave students the feelingthat he had high expectations for them and we strove to liveup to them.One day when I was still a junior I heard him giving a speechto some graduating seniors. He said "you have greatnesswithin you. You have something special. If just one of youcan get a glimpse of a larger vision of yourself, of who youreally are, then in a historical context the world will never bethe same again. You can make your parents proud. Youcan make your school proud. You can make yourcommunity proud. You can touch millions of lives. He wastalking to the seniors but it seemed like the speech was forme.
23Qualitative Data Analysis – Within and Across SettingsReed Early, MA CE email@example.com 250 748 0550I remembered when they gave him a standing ovation.Afterwards I caught up to him in the parking lot and aftershort conversation said "Mr Washington,........Is theregreatness within me sir?" He said "Yes, Mr Brown"."But what about the fact that I failed English and math andhistory, and that Im going to summer school? Im slowerthan most kids. Im not as smart as my brother or sister whois going to University".He said "It doesnt matter. It just means that you have towork harder. Your grades dont determine who you are orwhat you can produce in your life."I said I want to buy my mother a home. "You can do that"He turned and walked a way again."Mr Washington", I said..."Um Im the one sir, You rememberme, remember my name. One day youre gonna hear it .Im gonna make you proud. Im the one sir."School was a real struggle for me. I was passed from onegrade to the next because I was not a bad kid....MrWashington became my drama instructor in senior year,even though I was in Special Ed. The principal realized thekind of bonding that had taken place and the impact hedmade on me because I had begun to do well academically.For the first time in my life I made the honour roll. I wantedto travel on a trip with the drama department and you had tobe on the honour roll to make the trip out of town. That wasa miracle for me!Mr Washington restructured my own picture of who I am.He gave me a larger vision of myself, beyond my mentalconditioning and my circumstances.Years later I produced five specials that appeared on publictelevision. I had some friends call Mr Washington when myprogram "You Deserve" was on....I was sitting by the phonewhen he called and said..."May I speak to Mr. Brownplease?""Oh, Mr Washington, its you" I said."You were the one, werent you?"Yes, Sir I was" I said.From A Third Serving of Chicken Soup for the Soulby Jack Canfield and Mark Victor Hansen