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Uses of radiation to man

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Uses of radiation to man

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Importance of radiation to mankind, types of radiations, useful and harmful radiations with some safety precautions. it also contains what to do when exposed to radiation as a pregnant woman.

Importance of radiation to mankind, types of radiations, useful and harmful radiations with some safety precautions. it also contains what to do when exposed to radiation as a pregnant woman.

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Uses of radiation to man

  1. 1. OBJECTIVE(S) • To learn about some importance of radiation to humans. 11/13/2016 2
  2. 2. What Is Radiation  The process in which energy is released in the form of waves or particles from an unstable atom.  Naturally occurring and man-made  ...most are produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators 11/13/2016 3
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  4. 4. Types of Radiation Ionizing radiation Higher energy electromagnetic waves (gamma) or heavy particles (beta and alpha). High enough energy to pull electron from orbit. Gamma rays, X-Rays, Neutrons are examples. Non-ionizing radiation Lower energy electromagnetic waves. Not enough energy to pull electron from orbit, but can excite the electron.  Eg. Visible or infrared light, microwaves and radio waves.
  5. 5. Importance of Non-ionizing radiation  Microwave ovens to heat food.  Toasters use infrared to toast or burn.  We watch television, talk on cell phones, and listen to the radio through the use of radio waves.  Visible light used in laser pointers.  Ultra violet (UV) radiation for pasteurizing fruit juices and preserving some foods. NOTE: Too much exposure may cause harm. Eg. UV radiations can cause skin cancer.11/13/2016 6
  6. 6. Application of ionizing radiation Food Sterilization Medical Applications and Radiotracers Smoke detectors Radiocarbon Dating Energy Production Weapons 11/13/2016 7
  7. 7. Food Sterilization  Gamma irradiation of foods often from 60Co source  Spices, herbs and dehydrated vegetables. Also pork and poultry are also preserved in this way  FDA approved11/13/2016 8
  8. 8. Medical Applications of Radioactivity  Radioactive nuclides can be introduced into laboratory reactions or organisms and traced for diagnostic purposes.  Renograms employ the use of tracers. Radiotracers
  9. 9. Radiotracers - Choice of Tracer  Gamma rays are chosen since alpha and beta particles would be absorbed by tissues and not be detected outside the body.  Technitium-99m is most widely used because it has a half-life of 6 hours. 11/13/2016 10
  10. 10. Medical Applications of Radioactivity  Infrared gun or Temperature gun. Used for quick body temperature measurements 11/13/2016 11
  11. 11. Medical Applications of Radioactivity - Scanners  Medical Scanners utilize many types of radiations X-Rays – Bone structures opaque to rays X-ray computed tomography (CT Scan – X- rays) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI – Nuclear magnetism) Ultrasound (high frequency sound waves) √ Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
  12. 12. Medical Applications of Radioactivity - Scanners  X-ray scans to detect injury or the presence of foreign objects in patients  CT scans to create a computer- generated 3D image of cross-sections of the body
  13. 13. Medical Applications of Radioactivity - Radiotherapy Radiation is also used in radiotherapy where higher doses of radiation are used to kill cancerous cells during the treatment of tumours. The aim of radiation therapy is to cause damage to the cancerous cells whilst minimising the risk to surrounding healthy tissue. The damage inflicted by radiation therapy causes the cancerous cells to stop reproducing and thus the tumour shrinks. The amount of radiation given to the patient has to be accurately calculated so that the damage is limited to the cancerous cells only. 11/13/2016 14
  14. 14. Radiotherapy methods TELETHERAPY  involves irradiating tumours using beams of high-energy radiation, focused specifically on the tumour to minimize damage to surrounding tissue 11/13/2016 15
  15. 15. Radiotherapy methods BRACHYTHERAPY  provides a highly localized dose by one of two methods: either the insertion of sealed radioactive sources in the form of rods, wires or through hollow tubes into or close to the tumour, or the swallowing by the patient of a radioactive liquid that is selectively absorbed by the tumour. 11/13/2016 16
  16. 16.  Radiation not only kills cells, it can also kill germs or bacteria.  Nowadays, medical instruments (e.g. syringes) are prepacked and then irradiation using an intense gamma ray source.  This kills any germs or bacteria but does not damage the syringe, nor make it radioactive.
  17. 17. Scientific Research Archaeologists use 14C to date artifacts containing plant or animal material  Criminal investigators use radiation to examine evidence  Museums rely on radioactive materials to verify authenticity of art objects and paintings
  18. 18. FLUOROSCOPY FOR SECURITY SCANS 11/13/2016 19
  19. 19. Smoke Detectors  Americium-241 emits alpha particles and ionizes air in a space in the detector  Ions allow a current to flow  Smoke absorbs alpha particles, interferes with ion formation and electric current. An alarm sounds
  20. 20. Agricultural Uses  Radioactive materials pinpoint where illnesses strike animals to breed disease-resistant livestock  Nutritional value, baking and melting qualities of some crops and cooking times have been improved using isotopes  Hardier and more disease resistant crops (peanuts, tomatoes, onions, rice, soybeans, barley) have been developed using radioactive materials in agricultural research
  21. 21. Agricultural Uses  Isotopes help farmers and scientists control pests; e.g., California has used radiation sterilization since the mid-70s to control Mediterranean fruit fly infestations  Radioactive materials show how plants absorb fertilizer; this helps researchers figure where and how much to apply to crops for maximum yield
  22. 22. Generation Of Electricity 11/13/2016 23 US nuclear power plants provide 20% of electricity
  23. 23. Production Of Nuclear Weapons  caghj 11/13/2016 24
  24. 24. Disadvantages Of Excessive Exposure To Radiations. 11/13/2016 25  The damaged caused by exposure to radiation is determined by the ; Type of radiation The duration of exposure The part of the body exposed  The effects of radiation are either prompt or delayed
  25. 25. Diadvantanges Of Excessive Exposure To Radiations. 11/13/2016 26
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  28. 28. Summary  There are 3 main uses of ionising radiation in medicine: treatment, diagnosis and sterilisation.  Radiotherapy is used to treat cancers by irradiating them with ionising radiation.  Radioactive tracers are used to diagnose and investigate several medical conditions.  Ionising radiation is used to sterilise medical equipment as it kills germs and/or bacteria.
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  30. 30. References  Uses of radioactive substances. http://www.radiation.org 19th October, 2016  Tim, Newman (2016). X-ray exposure: How Safe Are X-rays? http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles 19th October, 2016  Health effects of radiation. http://en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/health/ 19th October, 2016  World nuclear association (2012). Radiation and life. http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and- security/ 11/13/2016 31
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