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Treatment Options for
Wastewaters Collected from On-
Site Systems
Gordon Balch
Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment...
Disposal Challenges
2
• Regulatory oversight / requirements
increasing
– post Walkerton
– Ont. Environ Protection Act, Ont...
 only 2.5% of global water
is drinkable
 of this nearly ¾ is locked
away in ice and snow
 only a small fraction if
read...
1st everything
(1,385 km diameter)
2nd groundwater, fresh
surface water
(272.8 km diameter)
3rd fresh water in lakes
and r...
 Water use growing
twice as fast as
population growth
 world’s 6 billion people
are drawing from 54% of
all water resour...
North America
Wastewater Infrastructure Deficit
6
• Wastewater
infrastructure deficit
in 2 Provinces and 8
US states is $1...
Aging municipal
infrastructure
7
When Bigger Isn’t Better: Decentralized Wastewater
Treatment Systems (Environ. Commission...
Waste Generation from DWWTs
8
• 1980 USA census – 3.8
trillion L per year to vadose
zone (US EPA 1987)
• 25-30% of househo...
Increasing complexity of
wastewaters
9
• Consumption of pharmaceuticals $16 million in Canada
(2000)
– double digit growth...
Impediment to Decentralized
Systems
10
• DWWT have historically been poorly understood and
managed
• Regulatory agencies n...
What Wastewater Disposal Options
Exist?
11
• Options depend on source of
wastewater and regulatory
requirements
• Most tre...
Liquid disposal options
12
• Decentralized systems typically dispose of the primary
treated wastewater to soil absorption ...
Alternative Treatment Systems
13
Number of treatment options is increasing
to accommodate
• Complexity of waste stream
• V...
Future Trends in Treatment
14
• New twist on old
methods
– Constructed
wetlands,
– lagoon systems
• Biofilm
Technologies
–...
Constructed Wetlands
15
Many
different
configuration
Designed for
different
wastes
Passive, low
maintenance
Hybridized Constructed
Wetlands
16
• Growing trend towards combining different types of
CWs
• Can treat complex wastewater...
Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactor
17
Blue Frog™ (base unit) is an efficient mixer and
passive aerator that provides up to 7 ...
Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactor
18
Hog Farm
19
Location: Western Oklahoma
 Farrowing operation with 6,600 sows
 Total of 14 feet of sludge was remediated i...
BioCord Floating Islands (fixed
film)
20
Absorbed
by plants
and biofilm
Nitrogen Gas
to atmosphere
Phosphorus
removal howe...
Waterloo Biofilter
21
There are different configuration depending on
the wastewater constituents and desired
treatment lev...
Fixed Film Bioreactor
- rotating contact reactor -
22
• Biofilm grown on several discs stacked in a row
• Only half of dis...
Fixed Film Bioreactor
- rotating contact reactor -
23
Rotation ensure oxygenation for bacteria
Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor
24
• High BOD, NH4
+, NO2/NO3, potential to add a P removal media that is regenerative
• Relati...
Advanced On-Site Treatment
25
• Ozone
• Pressure differentials
• Poly-filter
• Granulated activated carbon
filter
• Nutrie...
Results: Selected PPCPs (ppt)
26
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Levonargestrel
Progesterone
Medroxyprogesterone
Aspartame
Diclofen...
Summary
• Need is great
• Expect greater demand for on-site
treatment
• More research needed to increase options
for solid...
Questions
“You cannot get through a single day without having an impact on the
world around you. What you do makes a diffe...
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Treatment Options for Wastewaters Collected from On-Site Systems

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The CAWT's Dr. Gordon Balch's presentation to the Ontario Association of Sewage Industry Services (OASIS) from October 2014.

Treatment Options for Wastewaters Collected from On-Site Systems

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Treatment Options for Wastewaters Collected from On-Site Systems

  1. 1. Treatment Options for Wastewaters Collected from On- Site Systems Gordon Balch Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment, Fleming College, Lindsay,
  2. 2. Disposal Challenges 2 • Regulatory oversight / requirements increasing – post Walkerton – Ont. Environ Protection Act, Ont. Clean Water Act, etc. • Complexity of wastewater increasing – Pharmaceuticals and personal care products • Increasing number of wastewater sources – Petroleum, agra-farms, aquaculture, etc. • Treatment Costs Increasing
  3. 3.  only 2.5% of global water is drinkable  of this nearly ¾ is locked away in ice and snow  only a small fraction if readily available for human use Global Perspective 3
  4. 4. 1st everything (1,385 km diameter) 2nd groundwater, fresh surface water (272.8 km diameter) 3rd fresh water in lakes and rivers (56.2 km diameter)Source: Scientific American Global Water Supply
  5. 5.  Water use growing twice as fast as population growth  world’s 6 billion people are drawing from 54% of all water resources (rivers, lakes, aquifers) Water Use Trends 5
  6. 6. North America Wastewater Infrastructure Deficit 6 • Wastewater infrastructure deficit in 2 Provinces and 8 US states is $10 billion • $90 billion needed in next 10 y (2007) to replace and upgrade Canada wide Great Lakes Commission – 2007 report
  7. 7. Aging municipal infrastructure 7 When Bigger Isn’t Better: Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (Environ. Commission 2009) • Small or rural communities in Ontario faced with: – Increasing population – Climate change – Stricter environmental regulations • A call for decentralized systems
  8. 8. Waste Generation from DWWTs 8 • 1980 USA census – 3.8 trillion L per year to vadose zone (US EPA 1987) • 25-30% of households in USA are served by septic systems (Bremer & Harter 2012) • 22% of Canadians utilize on-site systems (Richardson & Fulton 2009) Septic system leachate represents the largest unregulated source of wastewater
  9. 9. Increasing complexity of wastewaters 9 • Consumption of pharmaceuticals $16 million in Canada (2000) – double digit growth (nearly doubling 2000-2005) Morgan 2004 & 2005 • Estrogen example (2007) Richardson & Fulton 2009 – dispensed 1,700 kg of synthetic estrogen compounds • 760 kg diverted to wastewater (½ to WWTPs; ½ to on-site) – excreted 960 kg endogenous estrogen compounds • ½ to WWTPs; ½ to on-site – WWTPs (75% degraded) ; on-site (zero degradation) – Mass of estrogens released via on-site equivalent to release from WWTPs
  10. 10. Impediment to Decentralized Systems 10 • DWWT have historically been poorly understood and managed • Regulatory agencies need scientifically sound third party validation • Need new more advanced systems to treat a greater complexity of wastewater matrices
  11. 11. What Wastewater Disposal Options Exist? 11 • Options depend on source of wastewater and regulatory requirements • Most treatment options are best suited for liquids with final disposal via absorption into ground • Solids have fewer options at this time • Primary focus of talk on treatment of liquids (all options to treat liquids need some form of solids separation)
  12. 12. Liquid disposal options 12 • Decentralized systems typically dispose of the primary treated wastewater to soil absorption systems rather than release to surface waters • There are several options for disposal to soils, including: – Sandfilters (open, buried, recirculating) – Spray and drip irrigation – Mounded systems – Evaporation systems
  13. 13. Alternative Treatment Systems 13 Number of treatment options is increasing to accommodate • Complexity of waste stream • Volume of waste generation • Replacement of older technology found to be inadequate • Mitigate environmental impacts
  14. 14. Future Trends in Treatment 14 • New twist on old methods – Constructed wetlands, – lagoon systems • Biofilm Technologies – Fixed films • Advanced Systems – ozonation
  15. 15. Constructed Wetlands 15 Many different configuration Designed for different wastes Passive, low maintenance
  16. 16. Hybridized Constructed Wetlands 16 • Growing trend towards combining different types of CWs • Can treat complex wastewater • Large wastewater volumes
  17. 17. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 17 Blue Frog™ (base unit) is an efficient mixer and passive aerator that provides up to 7 mm gallons per day flows and has the ability to layer the treated water • helps to better mix lagoon systems • Aids in sludge digestion
  18. 18. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 18
  19. 19. Hog Farm 19 Location: Western Oklahoma  Farrowing operation with 6,600 sows  Total of 14 feet of sludge was remediated in-situ over a one year period
  20. 20. BioCord Floating Islands (fixed film) 20 Absorbed by plants and biofilm Nitrogen Gas to atmosphere Phosphorus removal however is limited to what plants can accumulate during growth Phosphorus Nitrogen
  21. 21. Waterloo Biofilter 21 There are different configuration depending on the wastewater constituents and desired treatment level
  22. 22. Fixed Film Bioreactor - rotating contact reactor - 22 • Biofilm grown on several discs stacked in a row • Only half of disc rotates through effluent
  23. 23. Fixed Film Bioreactor - rotating contact reactor - 23 Rotation ensure oxygenation for bacteria
  24. 24. Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor 24 • High BOD, NH4 +, NO2/NO3, potential to add a P removal media that is regenerative • Relatively small foot print • Chamber 1: BOD Chamber 2: organic solids & N oxidation Chamber 3: NO3 removal
  25. 25. Advanced On-Site Treatment 25 • Ozone • Pressure differentials • Poly-filter • Granulated activated carbon filter • Nutrients (N & P) • TSS • BOD • Pathogens • PPCPs
  26. 26. Results: Selected PPCPs (ppt) 26 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Levonargestrel Progesterone Medroxyprogesterone Aspartame Diclofenac Carbamazepine Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole Influent Effluent n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. Concentration (ng L-1) Mean ± SD
  27. 27. Summary • Need is great • Expect greater demand for on-site treatment • More research needed to increase options for solids • Greater effort needed for verification of emerging environmental technologies 27
  28. 28. Questions “You cannot get through a single day without having an impact on the world around you. What you do makes a difference, and you have to decide what kind of difference you want to make.” — Jane Goodall 28

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