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Insight into Innovative Decentralized
Wastewater Technologies
Barbara Siembida-Lösch
Gordon Balch, Heather Broadbent
Centr...
Outline
• Advanced Treatment Technologies
– residential, communal, and commercial systems
• Legal Framework and Performanc...
Advanced Treatment Systems
3
SepticSmart 2010
or suspended
Advanced Treatment Systems
4
Conventional
Systems
Advanced
Systems
Septic tank or
advanced
treatment unit
30-50% 50-70%
So...
Legal Framework for Advanced
Treatment Systems
• The Ontario Building Code, Part 8: Sewage
Systems, regulates a number of ...
Approval of Advanced Treatment
Systems
• Several advanced systems, listed under the
Supplementary Standards SB-5 to the
Bu...
Approval Performance Criteria
• As of January1, 2014, the treatment unit effluent
criteria have changed
• These performanc...
SB-5 Advanced Treatment Systems
8
9
Advanced Treatment Systems
• Homeowners may want to consider the advanced
systems when:
- properties have inadequate con...
Enhanced Nitrogen Removal
(stationary fixed film)
10
Anoxic Aerobic Clarifier
Denitrification Nitrification
+
BOD removal
...
Moving Bed BioReactor
(MBBR)
11
• Small foot
print
• Very efficient
• Up to 5Xs
biofilm
• Does require
pumps and
aeration
Treatment Options
Domestic
 Conventional Septic Systems
 Advanced Wastewater Treatment
• Microbial (suspended or fixed) ...
CAWT is active in the
following sectors:
• Mining
• Agriculture
• Aquaculture
• Oil & gas
• Pulp & paper
• Food, etc.
Phosphorous adsorptive media
for Stormwater runoff
15
• Monitoring studies have identified issues pertaining to leaching o...
Material and Methods
16
Header Tank 3
Header Tank 2
Header Tank 1
Bioretention Cell 3
Bioretention Cell 2
Bioretention Cel...
Artificial Stormwater Composition
17
• 1000 L stormwater was spiked with KH2PO4
• Four target concentrations applied in or...
Bioretention Soil Mix Composition
18
Cell Number
Soil Mix Composition (% by volume)
Sand Peat Moss Sorbtive®Media
Bioreten...
Phosphorus Removal Performance
19
• The measured concentration difference between
the effluent and header tank was multipl...
20
Cumulative mass of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) retained in
each bioretention cell
21
Cumulative mass of total phosphorus (TP) retained in each
bioretention cell
Phosphorus Removal Performance
22
• The percent removal efficiency = (header tank
concentration – effluent concentration)/...
23
Percent removal of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) for each
bioretention cell at each of four different target phospho...
24
Percent removal of total phosphorus (TP) for each bioretention
cell at each of four different target phosphorus concent...
Conclusions
25
• Phosphorus removal using a sand/peat
soil mix can be greatly enhanced
through amendment with Sorbtive®
Me...
Thank you!
Future of Decentralized Treatment
27
• Growth of cluster and other decentralized
systems
• Recycling treated effluents
• M...
Questions?
Contact information:
Barbara Siembida-Lösch
barbara.siembida-losch@flemingcollege.caollege.cac
Ionic Compound
Quantity of salt
added per 990 L
(g)
Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 123.81
Calcium Chloride (CaCl2 ) 24.50
Sodium S...
Insight into Innovative Decentralized Wastewater Technologies
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Insight into Innovative Decentralized Wastewater Technologies

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The CAWT's Dr. Barbara Siembida-Losch's presentation to the Annual Ontario Onsite Wastewater Association Conference (March 2015).

Insight into Innovative Decentralized Wastewater Technologies.

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Insight into Innovative Decentralized Wastewater Technologies

  1. 1. Insight into Innovative Decentralized Wastewater Technologies Barbara Siembida-Lösch Gordon Balch, Heather Broadbent Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment, Fleming College, Lindsay, 2015 Annual OOWA Conference & Trade Show, Tuesday, March 24th, 2015, Niagara Falls, Ontario
  2. 2. Outline • Advanced Treatment Technologies – residential, communal, and commercial systems • Legal Framework and Performance Validation Standards • CAWT - Applied Research  case study on phosphorus removal • Future of Decentralized Treatment 2
  3. 3. Advanced Treatment Systems 3 SepticSmart 2010 or suspended
  4. 4. Advanced Treatment Systems 4 Conventional Systems Advanced Systems Septic tank or advanced treatment unit 30-50% 50-70% Soil ca. 90% ca. 10%
  5. 5. Legal Framework for Advanced Treatment Systems • The Ontario Building Code, Part 8: Sewage Systems, regulates a number of different classes of onsite sewage systems up to 10,000 l/d (larger systems are regulated by the Ministry of the Environment) • Class 4, typically applied to conventional onsite systems, is intended to minimize pathogens released into the environment – may also include secondary and tertiary (advanced) treatment systems located between septic tank and leaching bed 5
  6. 6. Approval of Advanced Treatment Systems • Several advanced systems, listed under the Supplementary Standards SB-5 to the Building Code were evaluated by the Ministry of the Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH) • The following performance criteria must be met: – testing and certification by the NSF International (U.S.-based) standard – consideration of Ontario’s environmental/climatic conditions – evidence of in-field performance 6
  7. 7. Approval Performance Criteria • As of January1, 2014, the treatment unit effluent criteria have changed • These performance criteria now match up with the national CAN/BNQ 3680-600, “Onsite Residential Wastewater Treatment technologies” • The SB-5 units must meet the CAN/BNQ 3680- 600 before January 1, 2017! 7 Secondary quality effl. Tertiary quality effluent
  8. 8. SB-5 Advanced Treatment Systems 8
  9. 9. 9 Advanced Treatment Systems • Homeowners may want to consider the advanced systems when: - properties have inadequate conditions for conventional systems (e.g., heavy clays, shallow soils, high water table, etc.) - limited space to accommodate the size of a conventional leaching bed - wanting to provide additional protection to groundwater by additional nitrate reduction (only some of the treatment units can reduce nitrate)
  10. 10. Enhanced Nitrogen Removal (stationary fixed film) 10 Anoxic Aerobic Clarifier Denitrification Nitrification + BOD removal Denitrification • 2.3 g BOD per g NO3-N • 3.02 g organic matter per g NO3-N • Heterotrophic bacteria for generation of carbon source • Significant portion of BOD generally consumed during nitrification, leaving little for denitrification High in BOD & NH4 Return unconsumed Carbon
  11. 11. Moving Bed BioReactor (MBBR) 11 • Small foot print • Very efficient • Up to 5Xs biofilm • Does require pumps and aeration
  12. 12. Treatment Options Domestic  Conventional Septic Systems  Advanced Wastewater Treatment • Microbial (suspended or fixed) ± aeration • Physical filtration ± aeration Alternative  Constructed Wetlands  Engineered Bio Reactors (e.g., S-reducing Bacteria for Arsenic)  Sorptive media for Phosphorus removal  Moving Bed Bio Reactors for Oxidized N  Ozone  UV  Membrane Bioreactors  others 12
  13. 13. CAWT is active in the following sectors: • Mining • Agriculture • Aquaculture • Oil & gas • Pulp & paper • Food, etc.
  14. 14. Phosphorous adsorptive media for Stormwater runoff 15 • Monitoring studies have identified issues pertaining to leaching of phosphorus from compost-containing bioretention installations • A pilot study was conducted to assess the phosphorus removal performance of bioretention soil mix amended with Imbrium Systems Sorbtive®Media AI 28x48 • Sorbtive®Media is an engineered granular media containing aluminum oxide and iron oxide
  15. 15. Material and Methods 16 Header Tank 3 Header Tank 2 Header Tank 1 Bioretention Cell 3 Bioretention Cell 2 Bioretention Cell 1 Ball valve Sump pump with series of ball valves to control flow rate Well water inflow Outflow to Retention Pond Side view Bioretention Cell 4Header Tank 4 Header Tank 5 Bioretention Cell 5 Collection Tank
  16. 16. Artificial Stormwater Composition 17 • 1000 L stormwater was spiked with KH2PO4 • Four target concentrations applied in order the lowest to the highest (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 mg/L) • Ionic compounds were added to simulate the typical matrix of stormwater Target P-basis concentration Average TDP measured value % of target Average TP measured value % of target (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 0.2 0.11 56 0.16 78 0.4 0.28 70 0.36 89 0.6 0.46 76 0.54 90 0.8 0.65 82 0.72 90 • Measured phosphorus concentrations were consistently lower than the target • The deviations decreased as the target concentration increased • Dissolved phosphorus concentrations were consistently lower than total
  17. 17. Bioretention Soil Mix Composition 18 Cell Number Soil Mix Composition (% by volume) Sand Peat Moss Sorbtive®Media Bioretention Cell 1 (control) 85% 15% 0% Bioretention Cell 2 82% 15% 3% Bioretention Cell 3 80% 15% 5% Bioretention Cell 4 75% 15% 10% Bioretention Cell 5 68% 15% 17% Layers • Bottom layer: 15 cm of ½-inch stone • Middle layer: 3 cm of sand • Top layer: 50 cm of soil mix
  18. 18. Phosphorus Removal Performance 19 • The measured concentration difference between the effluent and header tank was multiplied by five to estimate phosphorus retained for a given week • Calculated values were summed for all twenty weeks Cumulative Retained Phosphorus Mass
  19. 19. 20 Cumulative mass of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) retained in each bioretention cell
  20. 20. 21 Cumulative mass of total phosphorus (TP) retained in each bioretention cell
  21. 21. Phosphorus Removal Performance 22 • The percent removal efficiency = (header tank concentration – effluent concentration)/(header tank concentration) • Calculated percent values were averaged for five weeks Percent Removal of Phosphorus
  22. 22. 23 Percent removal of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) for each bioretention cell at each of four different target phosphorus concentrations
  23. 23. 24 Percent removal of total phosphorus (TP) for each bioretention cell at each of four different target phosphorus concentrations
  24. 24. Conclusions 25 • Phosphorus removal using a sand/peat soil mix can be greatly enhanced through amendment with Sorbtive® Media. • Sorbtive® Media amended bioretention cells demonstrated much greater removal of dissolved and total phosphorus. • Removal efficiency of the amended cells reached upwards to 99% and at least 84% for the duration of the study. • Effluent pH is relatively unaffected.
  25. 25. Thank you!
  26. 26. Future of Decentralized Treatment 27 • Growth of cluster and other decentralized systems • Recycling treated effluents • Management program for onsite systems • May see greater need for advanced treatment systems for Nitrate and Phosphorous in relationship to source water protection • The global warming potential of septic tanks and other advanced technologies
  27. 27. Questions? Contact information: Barbara Siembida-Lösch barbara.siembida-losch@flemingcollege.caollege.cac
  28. 28. Ionic Compound Quantity of salt added per 990 L (g) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 123.81 Calcium Chloride (CaCl2 ) 24.50 Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) 23.35 Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) 2.81 Potassium Chloride (KCl) 2.59 Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate ( MgCl2.6H2O) 5.66 Quantity of salts added to 990 L of well water to create artificial stormwater • Ionic compounds were added to simulate the typical matrix of stormwater • The matrix remained standardized

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