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Emerging Technologies in Onsite Wastewater Treatment


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The CAWT's Dr. Gordon Balch's presentation to the Alberta Onsite Wastewater Management Association (March 2015).

Emerging Technologies in Onsite Wastewater Treatment.

Published in: Technology
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Emerging Technologies in Onsite Wastewater Treatment

  1. 1. Emerging Technologies in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Gordon Balch Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment, Fleming College, Lindsay, Alberta Onsite Wastewater Management Association: Convention and Trade Show Friday, March 6th, 2015, Edmonton, Alberta
  2. 2. Overview Opportunities for Rural Growth through Sustainable Service • Framework (Building Code) • Advanced Treatment Systems – domestic – Customized (alternative systems) • CAWT Testing • Future Trends / Needs 2
  3. 3. Ont. Building Code Part 8: Sewage Systems • Building code regulates a number of different classes of onsite treatment systems • Class 4 is most common and is intended to minimize pathogens released into the environment – can include secondary and tertiary (advanced) treatment systems located between septic tank and leaching bed 3
  4. 4. Advanced Treatment Systems 4
  5. 5. 5 Advanced Treatment Systems Advantages • provide the opportunity to service sites not suited for conventional septic systems • Better treatment • may extend the life of an existing leaching bed • take up less room in the yard • require mandatory maintenance (ensures the unit is functioning properly) • may reduce nutrient output (depending on type) Disadvantages • may be more expensive to purchase and install • more expensive to operate (e.g. yearly electrical costs, media replacement) • mechanical parts that can break down or need replacement • requires mandatory maintenance (increases costs)
  6. 6. Conventional Septic System 6 septic tank pipe 30-50% treatment in septic tank 50-70% treatment in soil Pre-treatment Final Distribution and Soil Treatment Absorption trench or filter bed SepticSmart 2010
  7. 7. native soil advanced treatment unit pump chamber pressure flow pressure pipe and chamber pre-treatment tank* Advanced treatment units use oxygen to enhance treatment. saturated soil 7 Advanced Treatment System Pre-treatment Final Distribution and Soil Treatment Shallow Buried Trench SepticSmart 2010 30-50% treatment in septic tank 50-70% treatment in soil
  8. 8. advanced treatment unit gravity or pump flow Area Bed pre-treatment tank* stone sand pipe native soil saturated soil Advanced Treatment System 8SepticSmart 2010 Pre-treatment Final Distribution and Soil Treatment Shallow Buried Trench 10% treatment in soil90% treatment in septic tank
  9. 9. Advanced Treatment Systems Intent of ATS: • To mitigate site impediments to installation (e.g., heavy clays, shallow soils, limited space, high water table, etc.) • To provide added protection (nutrient abatement) to at-risk sites (e.g., nutrient sensitive lakes, ground waters, etc.) 9
  10. 10. 10 Smaller foot print of advanced treatment systems conventiona l advanced WSB Clean
  11. 11. Approval Criteria for ATS Must meet performance criteria set out by building code – testing and certification by the NSF International (U.S.-based) standard – consideration of Ontario’s environmental/climatic conditions – evidence of in-field performance. 11
  12. 12. Evaluation of ATS Technologies • Treatment unit technologies were evaluated by MMAH • List of approved treatment units found in Supplementary Standard SB-5 to the Building Code • All currently approved systems incorporate microbial treatment and or physical filtration 12
  13. 13. SB-5 (Ontario): Advanced Treatment Units Suspended Growth • Aquarobic Canada • Aqua Safe and Aqua Air • Biocycle Aerated Wastewater System • Clearstream Treatment Systems • Norweco Singulair Treatment Systems • Whitewater Treatment Systems • WSB® Clean Treatment Systems 13
  14. 14. SB-5 (Ontario): Advanced Treatment Units Attached Growth • Bio-Microbics — FAST®Wastewater Treatment Systems • Bionest Technologies Inc. • Nayadic Wastewater Treatment Systems • Rotordisk Wastewater Systems 14
  15. 15. SB-5 (Ontario): Advanced Treatment Units Synthetic Media Filter • Orenco AdvanTex® Wastewater Treatment System • Waterloo Biofilter Treatment Systems Peat Filter • Premier Tech Environment — Ecoflo Biofilter Treatment Systems • Puraflo® Peat Fiber Biofilter Treatment Systems Sand Filter • Orenco Treatment Systems 15
  16. 16. Alberta manufacturers/parent companies authorized to sell their NSF 40 Class 1 Sewage Treatment Plants. 16 Treatment Plant Manufacturer/Parent Company AdvanTex Orenco Systems Inc. Bionest Bionest Technologies Inc. Aero-Tech Aero-Tech Singulair Norweco Inc. Singulair Norweco Inc. Mo-Dad Acquired Wastewater Technologies, LLC AdvanTex Orenco Systems Inc. Singulair Norweco Inc. Fast Bio-Microbics Inc. Ecopod Pentair (formerly Delta Environmental Products) Ecoflo Bioflo Premier Tech Technologies Limited SludgeHammer SludgeHammer Group Ltd. Singulair Norweco Inc. Pro Flo Pro Flo Aerobic Systems, LP Jet Bat Jet Inc. Bionest Bionest Technologies Inc.
  17. 17. Waterloo Biofilter 17 There are different configuration depending on the wastewater constituents and desired treatment level
  18. 18. CANWEST tanks & ecological systems Ltd. Surry, BC 18
  19. 19. 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Primary Clarification 2. Moving Bed Bioreactor 3. Aeration 4. Final Clarification 5. Sludge Return 6. Outlet WSB® clean Septic System
  20. 20. CAN/BNQ 3680-600 • CAN/BNQ 3680-600, “Onsite Residential Wastewater Treatment Technologies” is the new national standard for testing wastewater residential treatment technologies. • This standard will replace the current criteria for treatment units set out in the Ontario Building Code, and the list of treatment units found in Supplementary Standard SB-5 which are deemed to meet these Code requirements. [to be revoked Jan 1/17] 20
  21. 21. Treatment Options Domestic  Conventional Septic Systems  Advanced Wastewater Treatment • Microbial (suspended or fixed) ± aeration • Physical filtration ± aeration Alternative  Constructed Wetlands  Engineered Bio Reactors (e.g., S-reducing Bacteria for Arsenic)  Sportive media for Phosphorus  Moving Bed Bio Reactors for Oxidized N  Ozone  UV  Hybridized nano-membranes with nanoparticles  others 21
  22. 22. Disposal Challenges 23 • Regulatory oversight / requirements increasing – post Walkerton – Ont. Environ Protection Act, Ont. Clean Water Act, etc. • Complexity of wastewater increasing – Pharmaceuticals and personal care products • Increasing number of wastewater sources – Petroleum, agra-farms, aquaculture, etc. • Treatment Costs Increasing
  23. 23. Specialized (site-specific)Treatment Needs • Complexity of waste stream is increasing • Greater need for site specific treatment options – reduce treatment burden on existing systems (e.g., high BOD from brewery industry) – Meet industry specific needs (aquaculture, mining, health care, etc.) • Ozone, sulfur reducing bioreactors, hybridized constructed wetlands, etc., all showing promise 24
  24. 24. Enhanced Nitrogen Removal (stationary fixed film) 25 Anoxic Aerobic Clarifier Denitrification Nitrification + BOD removal Denitrification • 2.3 g BOD per g NO3-N • 3.02 g organic matter per g NO3-N • Heterotrophic bacteria for generation of carbon source • Significant portion of BOD generally consumed during nitrification, leaving little for denitrification High in BOD & NH4 Return unconsumed Carbon
  25. 25. Moving Bed BioReactor (MBBR) 26 • Small foot print • Very efficient • Up to 5Xs biofilm • Does require pumps and aeration
  26. 26. Phosphate Removal adsorption, precipitation 27 H2PO4 - + Fe Fe O O Fe O Fe O P O O H O H Adsorption (Fe, Al, Mn oxides) Precipitation (Fe, Ca, Al phosphates) Variety of Sources and Manufactures • Blast furnace steel slag • Oxide rich natural clays • Manufactured oxides (Al, Fe, mixtures)
  27. 27. Phosphorous adsorptive media for Stormwater runoff 28 • Adsorptive media can also be used in advanced treatment systems (residential) • Work is proceeding in looking at ways to incorporate and regenerate media
  28. 28. Mining Sector 29 Arsenic Removal from Tailings Waters Engineered wetland to complex dissolved Arsenic with Sulfur with the use of bacteria Use of sulfur reducing bacteria
  29. 29. Agriculture Sector 30 CUI2I – Agriculture Wastewaters • Greenhouse wastewaters rich in Cl-, SO4 2-, Na,+ K+, Ca++ • High in Nitrates and Sulfates • Employ salt hyper-accumulating plants, denitrification reactors (removing NO3 and convert SO4 to H2S) College-University idea to innovation Grants
  30. 30. Aquaculture Sector 31 Land Based fish farm • Solids • Nutrients (N & P) • Fish pathogens
  31. 31. Trickle Filters 32 • High removal rate of BOD, Nitrogen, TSS • Aerobic and anaerobic zones • Food wastes, aquaculture applications (e.g. winery wastes) • Sewer by-laws
  32. 32. Advanced On-Site Treatment 33 • Ozone • Pressure differentials • Poly-filter • Granulated activated carbon filter • Nutrients (N & P) • TSS • BOD • Pathogens • PPCPs
  33. 33. Overview of System 34 Off gas & destruct
  34. 34. Results: Selected PPCPs (ppt) 35 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Levonargestrel Progesterone Medroxyprogesterone Aspartame Diclofenac Carbamazepine Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole Influent Effluent n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. Concentration (ng L-1) Mean ± SD
  35. 35. 36 Constructed Wetlands • Man-made with specific design specifications • Intended to treat domestic waste using natural processes – Filtration / sedimentation – Microbial oxidation / transformation – Chemical processes – Adsorption / absorption
  36. 36. 37 Hybridized Constructed Wetlands Flow = 40 m3/d; Inlet COD = 1000 mg/L & NH3 = 1000 mg /L Each line consists of: 1. SFS-v (e.g.,VSSF) stage with a superficial peat layer to ensure odor remove, leachate pre- oxidation and metals precipitation; 2. Two stage SFS-v in series for nitrification (add O2) and organic load removal (e.g., BOD); 3. Two stage SFS-h (e.g., HSSF) in series for denitrification (remove O2) and removal of persistent organic compounds; 4. A stage FWS to complete the denitrification and the organic compounds removal and to enhance the evapotranspiration; 5. A final detention pond to accumulate the effluent and enhance the evapotranspiration. The system is designed to ensure high removal rates (>90-95% COD and NH3), and a good reduction of the effluent due to evapotranspiration.
  37. 37. Future Trends (???) 38
  38. 38. North America Wastewater Infrastructure Deficit 39 • Wastewater infrastructure deficit in 2 Provinces and 8 US states is $10 billion • $90 billion needed in next 10 y (2007) to replace and upgrade Canada wide Great Lakes Commission – 2007 report
  39. 39. Aging municipal infrastructure 40 When Bigger Isn’t Better: Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (On. Environ. Commissioner 2009) • Small or rural communities in Ontario faced with: – Increasing population – Climate change – Stricter environmental regulations • A call for decentralized systems
  40. 40. Waste Generation from DWWT 41 • 1980 USA census – 3.8 trillion L per year to vadose zone (US EPA 1987) • 25-30% of households in USA are served by septic systems (Bremer & Harter 2012) • 22% of Canadians utilize on- site systems (Richardson & Fulton 2009) Septic system leachate represents the largest unregulated source of wastewater
  41. 41. 1st everything (1,385 km diameter) 2nd groundwater, fresh surface water (272.8 km diameter) 3rd fresh water in lakes and rivers (56.2 km diameter)Source: Scientific American Global Water Supply
  42. 42. 43 Cluster Systems Cluster systems are generally used to collect wastewater from a small cluster of homes • Waste is transported to the site of treatment via alternative sewers • The transported wastewater is treated at either a conventional treatment system or receives pre- treatment prior to soil absorption of the pretreated effluent
  43. 43. 44 Final disposal to Wetland and Drainfield
  44. 44. 45 Application of Cluster Systems • There can be many reasons to install a cluster systems • Most often installed because the land size of individual properties is not large enough to accommodate an on-site system OR • Because the financial cost for construction of a conventional treatment plant is not feasible Small rural areas
  45. 45. 46 Human Health Concerns • Methaemoglobinaemia • Cancers (increased risk) • Thyroid disruption 2013 May see a greater emphasis on removal of Nitrates
  46. 46. Phosphorus ??? 47 • Phosphorous not strongly linked to human health • Most issues are impacts to surface waters • Cyanobacteria ? • Present concerns are focused on agriculture, stormwater, etc.
  47. 47. Concluding Remarks • Demand for decentralized treatment likely to increase • Demand for specialized treatment to off- load burden to centralized systems may increase • May see greater need for advanced treatment systems for Nitrate and Phosphorous in relationship to source water protection 48
  48. 48. Questions “You cannot get through a single day without having an impact on the world around you. What you do makes a difference, and you have to decide what kind of difference you want to make.” — Jane Goodall 49