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Assessing the performance of cold climate natural
wetlands in the treatment of domestic wastewater
effluents in northern C...
Focus
• Wetlands are providing a treatment
benefit
• Assessment tools are available
• Wetlands could be part of a
hybridiz...
Background
• CCME guidelines
• Present and future
challenges for lagoon
systems
• Tundra wetlands exist
downstream of lago...
Question: do wetlands provide
treatment?
• Anecdotal evidence
• Answer hampered by
– Lack of knowledge
– Lack of standardi...
Wetland Surveys
i. Arctic Summer (inlet, outlet)
– Seasonal trend
– No pretreatment or pretreatment (facultative
lakes or ...
6
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Influent Effluent
Arviat, NunavutBOD5mg-L
Sampling Dates
7
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Influent Effluent
Coral Habour, Nunavut
TotalAmmoniaNitrogenmg-L
Sampling Dates
8
Wetland Surveys
ii. Intensive Sampling
– Rapid, intensive testing (2-4 days)
– Sampling stations along transects
cBOD5 T...
9
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
%FSS %VSS
Sample Location
PercentComposition
Composition of Total Suspended Solids
Pond...
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
%FSS %VSS
Sample Location
PercentComposition Composition of Total Suspended
Solids Ulu...
Predictive tools – SubWet 2.0
11
• 16 rate coefficients
• 25 differential equations
• Easily obtained input parameters
• A...
% Derivation of Simulation from Measured
12
Nunavut NTW
BOD5 Ammonium Total
Phosphorus
BOD5 Ammonium Total
Phosphorus
Arvi...
13
cawt.ca
14
Coral Harbour
Northern Wastewater Strategy
Hybridized approach (lagoons + wetlands)
Concluding Remarks
• Wetlands do provide treatment benefit
• Sampling protocols and predictive tools
exist
• Consideration...
Concluding Remarks
• Demand for decentralized treatment likely to
increase
• Demand for specialized treatment to off-load
...
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Assessing the performance of cold climate natural wetlands in the treatment of domestic wastewater effluents in northern Canada

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Wetlands are providing a wastewater treatment benefit in cold climates. Sampling protocols and predictive tools exist. Wetlands could be part of a hybridized wastewater treatment strategy in northern Canada.

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Assessing the performance of cold climate natural wetlands in the treatment of domestic wastewater effluents in northern Canada

  1. 1. Assessing the performance of cold climate natural wetlands in the treatment of domestic wastewater effluents in northern Canada Gordon Balch‡, Brent Wootton‡, Colin Yates†, Sven Jørgensen¥ and Annie Chouinard§ ‡Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment, Fleming College, Lindsay †Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, Waterloo ¥ Water Research Laboratories, ASP, Væløse, Denmark § Civil Engineering Queen’s University, Kingston
  2. 2. Focus • Wetlands are providing a treatment benefit • Assessment tools are available • Wetlands could be part of a hybridized wastewater treatment strategy 2
  3. 3. Background • CCME guidelines • Present and future challenges for lagoon systems • Tundra wetlands exist downstream of lagoons 3 Pond Inlet – sewage lagoon Paulatuk– sewage lagoon
  4. 4. Question: do wetlands provide treatment? • Anecdotal evidence • Answer hampered by – Lack of knowledge – Lack of standardized testing – Inability to predict response to changing 4 Ulukhaktu k
  5. 5. Wetland Surveys i. Arctic Summer (inlet, outlet) – Seasonal trend – No pretreatment or pretreatment (facultative lakes or lagoons) – Lagoon decants / exfiltration – Performance (BOD5, TAN, TSS, microbial, etc.) – Calibration of SubWet 2.0 rate coefficients for Northern conditions
  6. 6. 6 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Influent Effluent Arviat, NunavutBOD5mg-L Sampling Dates
  7. 7. 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Influent Effluent Coral Habour, Nunavut TotalAmmoniaNitrogenmg-L Sampling Dates
  8. 8. 8 Wetland Surveys ii. Intensive Sampling – Rapid, intensive testing (2-4 days) – Sampling stations along transects cBOD5 TKN TAN TSS
  9. 9. 9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 %FSS %VSS Sample Location PercentComposition Composition of Total Suspended Solids Pond Inlet 0 50 100 150 200 Influent Efflluent TSS
  10. 10. 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 %FSS %VSS Sample Location PercentComposition Composition of Total Suspended Solids Ulukhaktok 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Influent effluent TSS
  11. 11. Predictive tools – SubWet 2.0 11 • 16 rate coefficients • 25 differential equations • Easily obtained input parameters • Ability to calibrate to site conditions • Models BOD5, Ammonium, Organic Nitrogen, Nitrate and Total Phosphorus • Easy to use • Available as free-ware • Calibrated to 11 individual tundra treatment wetlands Nunavut: Arviat, Coral Harbour, Gjoa Haven, Pond Inlet, Repulse Bay, Whale Cove NTW: Edzo, Fort Providence, Paulatuk, Taloyoak, Ulukhaktuk
  12. 12. % Derivation of Simulation from Measured 12 Nunavut NTW BOD5 Ammonium Total Phosphorus BOD5 Ammonium Total Phosphorus Arviat 18 7 2 Edzo 8 15 9 Coral Harbour 5 14 8 Fort Providence 79 57 56 Gjoa Haven 2 3 12 Paulatuk 30 10 1 Pond Inlet 5 4 4 Taloyoak 15 2 9 Repusle Bay 5 4 4 Ulukhaktuk 5 16 11 Whale Cove 64 10 34 • Provides the lagoon operator the ability to forecast how the wetland will respond • Forecast future capacities and needs
  13. 13. 13 cawt.ca
  14. 14. 14 Coral Harbour Northern Wastewater Strategy Hybridized approach (lagoons + wetlands)
  15. 15. Concluding Remarks • Wetlands do provide treatment benefit • Sampling protocols and predictive tools exist • Consideration of a hybridized approach should be considered 15
  16. 16. Concluding Remarks • Demand for decentralized treatment likely to increase • Demand for specialized treatment to off-load burden to centralized systems may increase • May see greater need for advanced treatment systems for Nitrate and Phosphorous in relationship to source water protection 16 Acknowledgements

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