Smokeless Tobacco Use and Periodontal Disease NYC in a Rural Male Population
Smokeless Tobacco Use and Periodontal Disease NYC in a Rural Male PopulationA study investigating smokeless tobacco use found that people who chew tobacco or retain it intheir mouths display greater gingival recession prevalence and extent.Periodontal Disease NYC: Investigating the Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Use on OralHealthDespite the reported effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the periodontium (the soft tissuessurrounding and supporting the teeth), the incidence of periodontal disease NYC, and thehigh prevalence of ST use in rural populations and in men, studies on this specific topic arelimited. With such a gap in the literature on this subject, it is the purpose of this cross-sectionalinvestigation to evaluate the periodontal health status and incidence of periodontal disease NYCin male ST users from a rural population. However, before the methodology is explored, theterm ‘smokeless tobacco’ needs elucidation. Smokeless tobacco, in the context of the UnitedStates and this research, generally refers to tobacco leaves that are placed between the lower orupper lip and the gums, or alternatively chewed.Investigating Health and Periodontal Disease NYC and the Connection with SmokelessTobacco Consumption: MethodologyThe study sample of this periodontal disease NYC study consisted of 73 adult male residentsof two rural Appalachian Ohio counties that were daily ST users and presented unilateralmandibular oral ST keratosis lesions. Keratosis legions generally take the form of a growth inthe upper layer of soft tissue or gum. Subjects completed a questionnaire and received an oralexamination in which the following variables were recorded: ● Teeth present (the number of missing teeth, if any) ● ST keratosis lesion, ● Plaque and gingival index (the severity of accumulation) ● Probing depth (PD) (to what extent the gingival can be separated from the tooth) ● Recession depth (RD) (to what extent the gum has receded from the tooth, exposing the root), and ● Attachment levelA Statistical analysis was conducted, which compared ST-site mandibular teeth (teeth adjacent tothe subjects unilateral ST keratosis lesion) to NST-site teeth (contralateral corresponding teeth).Investigation of Periodontal Disease NYC in ST Users: ResultsOf the 73 ST users recruited for this analysis, the following results were obtained: ● Recession prevalence is much greater in ST-site quadrants (36%) compared to NST-site quadrants (18%). ● Twice as many teeth had recession on ST-site (approximately 20%) than NST-site (approximately 10%). ● Average buccal (cheek-side) RD on ST-site teeth did not differ from that on the NST-
site teeth. Although average buccal attachment loss is greater on ST-site teeth, the mean difference is <0.5 mm. ● When stratified by years of ST use, subjects using ST for 10 to 18 years exhibit the most differences between ST and NST sites, whereas subjects using ST for <10 years show no differences.From this analysis, the authors conclude that the results indicate that greater gingival recessionprevalence and extent are associated with ST placement site in rural male ST users. Theimplications in terms of periodontal disease NYC remain to be investigated, but from theseinitial findings, it can be inferred that ST users are at a greater risk due to gum recession andtooth root exposure.