The Four E’s of Effective Learning
Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More
Effective Learners
Jeff Nevid
St. John‟s...
“A Mind Must Work to Grow”
Charles W. Eliot,
President
Harvard University
1869-1909
Complaints About Education
Are Nothing New
“What does education often do?
It makes a straight-cut ditch of a
free, meander...
From the Early 20th Century . . .
“It‟s a miracle that curiosity survives
formal education.”
----Albert Einstein
And more recently. . .
“We spend the first twelve months of our
children's lives teaching them to walk and
talk and the ne...
Though the brain has not changed. . .
The ways that students use their brains have
changed
Adapting the Classroom to
Today’s Students
Talk Less, Interact More. . .
 Use demonstrations
 Use videos and clips from ...
Moving Toward Evidence-Based Pedagogy :
Grounding Pedagogy in
Psychological Science
Pedagogical aids in textbooks develop...
Pedagogy Research Program
at St. John’s University
 Conducted laboratory and classroom-based studies on
effective pedagog...
Sample of Prior Research
Project Design Key Finding(s)
Textbook modularization
study
(comparing traditional text with
modu...
Project Design Key Finding(s)
Mastery Quizzing
(pre-post quizzes in class tied to
specific concepts discussed
during class...
Using Psychology to Teach Psychology
Helping students become more effective learners involves
The Four E’s of Effective Le...
The Four E‟s of Effective Learning:
A Useful Heuristic for Teaching
The 1st “E”
Engaging Interest
 Learning begins with focused
attention
 We can capture and hold student
attention through...
The Brain Loves a Puzzle
Puzzles Challenge the Mind to Think
Pose puzzling questions at the beginning of class:
 Most of ...
1st E: Engaging Attention:
---Tips For Students
The brain does not passively soak up information like a sponge. When
your ...
The 2nd “E”
Encoding Information
 Information must first be
encoded to be retained
Question:
What image appears on the ba...
Everyone Recognizes This
But how many people
know what image
appears on the back of
the $10 bill?
Do you?
Answer: The U.S. Treasury
(But you already knew that, right?
How to Use
Concept Boxes:
Step 1: Read the
Concept Boxes
Concept boxes should be
read prior to reading the
corresponding p...
Concept Signaling Study
 Participants: 80 introductory psychology students
 Design : A randomized, counterbalanced desig...
Learning Benefits of Concept Signaling
Concept Signaling Study
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
Total Signaled Content Nonsignal...
Getting Our Signals Straight:
Applying Concept Signaling in the Classroom
 Use signaling to help students identify key
le...
Podcasting
2nd E: Encoding Information
----Tips for Students
 When reading the text, stop and ask yourself after
every paragraph or ...
The 3rd “E”
Elaborating Meaning to Strengthen New Learning
Memory is strengthened through two
forms of rehearsal:
 In mai...
My Aunt Edna’s Two Simple Rules for
Effective Teaching . . .
 Make it interesting
 Bring in personal
examples, stories, ...
Elaborative Rehearsal Leads to
More Enduring Memories
Keys to Elaborative Rehearsal:
 Relate information to personal expe...
Contextualizing Meaning
 Context creates meaning
 Encourage deeper processing by forming links
between concepts and life...
“Let Me Tell You a Story”
Stories are remembered long after
facts are forgotten. remembered
long after facts are forgotten...
Piaget‟s Principle of Conservation
The Pizza Incident
 Keeping Peace at the
Dinner Table
Source: Nevid, J. S. (2007). Psychology: Concepts and applications. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
DIAGRAMMING PSYCH...
Writing to Learn:
Journaling Encourages Deeper Processing
What is Writing to Learn?
 Low stakes (nongraded) writing or jo...
 Another concept that was easily relatable to me
in this chapter was conditioning. In my
house, there are always lavender...
 My mom is a secretary and I asked her
to name the letters of the keyboard for
me and she was surprised that she
couldn't...
Prompts for Writing Assignments: Reflective vs.
Generic Writing
 Prompt for writing assignment: “Each journal entry shoul...
Outcome Measures
 Proportion correct on actual exam questions for
items matched to writing topics vs. unrelated
(unmatche...
Learning Benefits of Journaling
Source: Nevid, J.S., Pastva, A., & McClelland, N. (2012). Writing-to-learn assignments in
...
General Conclusions
1. Our findings provide support for the learning benefits
of brief writing assignments in introductory...
3rd E: Elaborating Meaning
--Tips for Students
 For every concept you read about in this text or
learn in class, connect ...
The 4th “E”
Evaluating Progress
 Students should not wait until exam time
to find out what they don‟t know.
 Students sh...
Mastery Quizzing Study
 What is Mastery Quizzing?
 Ten, pre-post quizzes during the semester of specific concepts
discus...
 Results:
 Students showed significant improvement in knowledge of
mastery quiz content as assessed by pre vs. post
comp...
Bloom‟s Taxonomy: Original vs.
Revised
The IDEA MODEL. . .
A Simpler Model Based on Four Key Skills:
Identify . . .Key figures in psychology and parts of
the bod...
The IDEA Model of Course Assessment
Identify. . key figures in psychology, parts of the nervous system, etc.
Define or Des...
What’s the NEW IDEA in Course Assessment?
 Source: Center for Teaching and Learning, Brigham Young University
THE IDEA MODEL OF COURSE ASSESSMENT
Integrating APA Learning Goals with Bloom’s Taxonomy
Skill Level in Bloom
Taxonomy
(Or...
Bloom Instructional Units (BIUs)
Objective Example (Classical Conditioning)
Remembering Define the terms conditioned stimu...
Examples of Coded Test Items:
Foundations of Modern Psychology
Identify. . .
Wundt is to ______ as James is to ______.
A) ...
Item Difficulty
Item Type M SD
Identify .60 .14
Define/Describe .64 .15
Evaluate/Explain .53 .15
Apply .60 .12
Item Discri...
4th E: Evaluating Progress
----Tips for Students
 Keep track of your progress in the course—your performance on
exams, qu...
Sample References from the
St. John‟s University Pedagogy Research Program
 Nevid, J. S., & Carmony, T. M. (2002). Tradit...
Sample References (contd.)
 Nevid, J. S., & Forlenza, N. (2005). Graphing psychology: An analysis of the most commonly
us...
3 / 63
Thank you!
For a copy of this PPT or to share your ideas about
teaching psychology, please contact:
jeffnevid@gmail...
The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner
The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner
The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner
The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner
The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner
The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner
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The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner

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The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner
4/29/2014
Presenter: Jeffrey S. Nevid, St. John's University of New York

“Hey, Prof, I read the text but I just don’t get it.” Students who do poorly on exams may be motivated to succeed, but lack the effective learning skills they need to grasp key concepts in psychology and understand how these concepts apply in daily life. Effective learning takes work, but it also involves the development of four key skills that comprise the Four E’s of effective learning: (1) Engaging interest; (2) Encoding important information; (3) Elaborating meaning; and (4) Evaluating progress.

Join Dr. Nevid for a one-hour webinar focusing on how you can help students become more effective learners. Examples of classroom-based instructional techniques and textbook pedagogical tools will be discussed, as well as effective study tips students can use when preparing for exams. The presentation is informed by evidence-based pedagogy based on research Dr. Nevid has conducted on concept signaling, mastery quizzing, journaling, and the retrieval effect, as well as research on processes of learning and memory.

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The Four E's of Effective Learning: Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learner

  1. 1. The Four E’s of Effective Learning Teaching Tips for Helping Students Become More Effective Learners Jeff Nevid St. John‟s University To contact: jeffnevid@gmail.com © 2014 Jeffrey S. Nevid All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. “A Mind Must Work to Grow” Charles W. Eliot, President Harvard University 1869-1909
  3. 3. Complaints About Education Are Nothing New “What does education often do? It makes a straight-cut ditch of a free, meandering book.” ---- Henry David Thoreau
  4. 4. From the Early 20th Century . . . “It‟s a miracle that curiosity survives formal education.” ----Albert Einstein
  5. 5. And more recently. . . “We spend the first twelve months of our children's lives teaching them to walk and talk and the next twelve telling them to sit down and shut up.” ----Phyllis Diller
  6. 6. Though the brain has not changed. . . The ways that students use their brains have changed
  7. 7. Adapting the Classroom to Today’s Students Talk Less, Interact More. . .  Use demonstrations  Use videos and clips from popular movies as lecture starters, etc.  Invite discussion about issues that matter (Why do people use and abuse drugs? What are the drawbacks of using punishment in disciplining children?)  Encourage collaborative learning exercises, such as building class wikis  Wikis provide a platform for students to build knowledge structures inclusively
  8. 8. Moving Toward Evidence-Based Pedagogy : Grounding Pedagogy in Psychological Science Pedagogical aids in textbooks development are driven more by marketing concerns, rather than scientific research To date, little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of pedagogical techniques used in class and textbooks Textbook developers and instructors need to draw upon the knowledge base in cognitive psychology and empirical research
  9. 9. Pedagogy Research Program at St. John’s University  Conducted laboratory and classroom-based studies on effective pedagogy, including modularization of text material, concept signaling, mastery quizzing, journaling, and concept mapping.  Supplemented by field tests in classroom uses  Survey research focusing on use of learning aids in textbooks, such as uses of graphs and diagrams
  10. 10. Sample of Prior Research Project Design Key Finding(s) Textbook modularization study (comparing traditional text with modular format) Source: Nevid & Carmony, 2002, Teaching of Psychology A randomized, counterbalanced design in which students read two text passages, one presented in a modularized format and the other presented in a narrative format. Students who preferred the modular approach performed significantly better on the accompanying quiz when they had read the material in their preferred format . Concept Signaling Study (highlighting key concepts in margins of text) Source: Nevid & Lampmann, 2003, Teaching of Psychology A randomized, counterbalanced design in which students read two text passages, one with concept signaling and the other without. Concept signaling improved student performance on test items measuring knowledge of key concepts. No differences were found for non-signaled (surrounding) material. 10
  11. 11. Project Design Key Finding(s) Mastery Quizzing (pre-post quizzes in class tied to specific concepts discussed during class) Source: Nevid & Mahon, 2009, Teaching of Psychology Analyzed student performance on course exams, disaggregated by signaled concepts (concepts tested in mastery quizzes), related concepts (other concepts discussed on mastery quiz days), and non-signaled concepts (control concepts discussed on other days). Students showed significant improvement in knowledge of mastery quiz content as assessed by pre-post lecture comparisons. Mastery quizzing cues students to attend to important concepts discussed in class, and provides incentives for coming to class, coming on time, and paying attention. 11
  12. 12. Using Psychology to Teach Psychology Helping students become more effective learners involves The Four E’s of Effective Learning: 1. Engage student interest & attention 2. Encode important information 3. Elaborate meaning 4. Evaluate progress Source: Nevid, J. S. (2006, February). In pursuit of the “perfect lecture.” APS Observer, Teaching Tips, Vol. 19(2).
  13. 13. The Four E‟s of Effective Learning: A Useful Heuristic for Teaching
  14. 14. The 1st “E” Engaging Interest  Learning begins with focused attention  We can capture and hold student attention through use of:  Personal vignettes  Real-life examples  Interactive exercises  Lecture starters that pique interest, such as movie clips
  15. 15. The Brain Loves a Puzzle Puzzles Challenge the Mind to Think Pose puzzling questions at the beginning of class:  Most of us are ticklish, but did you know that it is impossible to tickle yourself? The question is, why?  Did you know that the ability to „„hold your liquor‟‟ puts you at greater risk of developing serious problems with alcohol? Why do you suppose this is so?
  16. 16. 1st E: Engaging Attention: ---Tips For Students The brain does not passively soak up information like a sponge. When your attention is divided, it is difficult to process new information at a level needed to understand the complex material required in college-level courses and to retain this newly acquired knowledge.  If you mind wanders during class or while studying, bring your attention back to the lecture or study material. It‟s normal for the mind to wander, but avoid spacing out.  Becoming an active note taker during class and while reading the text can help you remain alert and focused and avoid spacing out.  Keep a notepad handy while reading the text and jot down key points as you read through the material.
  17. 17. The 2nd “E” Encoding Information  Information must first be encoded to be retained Question: What image appears on the back of a $10 bill?  Signaling is a pedagogical aid that directs attention to material that is important to encode in memory.
  18. 18. Everyone Recognizes This
  19. 19. But how many people know what image appears on the back of the $10 bill? Do you?
  20. 20. Answer: The U.S. Treasury (But you already knew that, right?
  21. 21. How to Use Concept Boxes: Step 1: Read the Concept Boxes Concept boxes should be read prior to reading the corresponding passage in detail. Step 2: Become Alert to the Main Points This preview of the major points in the text helps you focus on them as you read the material. Step 3: Think About the Concepts Think about each concept before you read the corresponding text. This will provide a framework that helps you integrate the material. VISION: SEEING THE LIGHT Light abounds. It is generated by the sun and by billions of other suns. It filters down through the Earth’s atmosphere and strikes our eyes. Some light is also generated from closer distances – as in the lightening in thunderstorms, fire, or human-made electric light. When light strikes our eyes, an incredibly intricate process occurs that allows people who are sighted to perceive color, movement, shape, and form of objects that inhabit the world and heavens about them. Our sense of vision allows us to receive information from a mere few inches away from us, as in reading words in a book held close to your eyes, to many billions of miles away, as in twinkling stars seen on a clear night many billions of miles away. To understand the sense of vision, we begin by discussing the source of physical energy that gives rise to vision: light. Light: The Better to See You With Light is physical energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation (electrically charged particles). X-rays, radar waves, and radio waves are other forms of electromagnetic energy. Light is the portion of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation that is visibly detectable to humans. Light energy is released in the form of waves and particles. They just differ in wavelength from visible light. CONCEPT 1 Vision involves the process by which light energy is converted into electrical signals the brain interprets to produce the experience of sight. CONCEPT 2 Light, a form of physical energy, is the raw material that the eyes use to allow us to see the world around us.
  22. 22. Concept Signaling Study  Participants: 80 introductory psychology students  Design : A randomized, counterbalanced design in which students read two text passages, one with concept signaling and the other without.  Outcome measure: A 20-item multiple choice quiz measuring content acquisition.  Student Preference Measure: Students indicated which format they preferred with respect to readability, clarity, and overall preference. Citation: Nevid, J. S., & Lampmann, J. L. (2003). Effects on content acquisition of signaling key concepts in text material. Teaching of Psychology, 30, 227- 229.
  23. 23. Learning Benefits of Concept Signaling Concept Signaling Study 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Total Signaled Content Nonsignaled Content Note. Differences significant (p < .05) for signaled conten t and total score only. PercentageCorrect Signaled Text Nonsignaled Text
  24. 24. Getting Our Signals Straight: Applying Concept Signaling in the Classroom  Use signaling to help students identify key lecture points. “Take five “ at the beginning of the lecture to outline key lecture points.  Present key lecture points using blackboard notes, handouts, overhead transparencies, or PowerPoint presentations.  Encourage students to use signaling cues in the accompanying text, such as highlighted terms and concepts, and headings as an
  25. 25. Podcasting
  26. 26. 2nd E: Encoding Information ----Tips for Students  When reading the text, stop and ask yourself after every paragraph or two, What‟s the main point or idea? What am I expected to know?  Jot down the major concepts or ideas and review them later.  Use built-in study tools in your textbook, such as headers, highlighted key terms and concepts, and review sections and summaries, to encode the main points and concepts you need to learn.
  27. 27. The 3rd “E” Elaborating Meaning to Strengthen New Learning Memory is strengthened through two forms of rehearsal:  In maintenance rehearsal, or rote memorization, we repeat words or phrases  In elaborative rehearsal, we reflect on the meaning of the material and relate it our own life experiences.
  28. 28. My Aunt Edna’s Two Simple Rules for Effective Teaching . . .  Make it interesting  Bring in personal examples, stories, anecdotes, teasers, to pique interest  For every concept, give an example  Think “concept, example, concept example”
  29. 29. Elaborative Rehearsal Leads to More Enduring Memories Keys to Elaborative Rehearsal:  Relate information to personal experiences  Present information in different modalities (text, film, discussion)  Present information in different formats (narrative text, concept charts, keyed concepts, review sections, spatial diagrams, etc.)  Encourage deeper processing through interactive exercises, self-assessment exercises, classroom projects, etc.
  30. 30. Contextualizing Meaning  Context creates meaning  Encourage deeper processing by forming links between concepts and life experiences  Use personal examples and storytelling as teaching devices  Hyperlink information:  How is this concept put into practice?  Can you give me an example?  Why does it matter?
  31. 31. “Let Me Tell You a Story” Stories are remembered long after facts are forgotten. remembered long after facts are forgotten You Don‟t Need to be a Master Storyteller to Tell a Good Story
  32. 32. Piaget‟s Principle of Conservation The Pizza Incident  Keeping Peace at the Dinner Table
  33. 33. Source: Nevid, J. S. (2007). Psychology: Concepts and applications. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. DIAGRAMMING PSYCHOLOGY: HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE
  34. 34. Writing to Learn: Journaling Encourages Deeper Processing What is Writing to Learn?  Low stakes (nongraded) writing or journaling assignments that can be submitted on Blackboard or by email, or posted on blogs  Unlike “writing to earn” term papers, these writing exercises do not encumber instructors with the need to grade hundreds of writing assignments  Helps bring “writing across the curriculum” down to the introductory level, even with large classes  Examples: How does ____ relate to your experiences? Can you give an example of ____from your life experiences or those of people you know? What does ____ mean to you? What did you learn that you didn‟t know before?
  35. 35.  Another concept that was easily relatable to me in this chapter was conditioning. In my house, there are always lavender candles burning in my living room because those are my mother's favorite and she likes visitors to smell a nice aroma when they first walk in. So every time when I smell this lavender scent even when I am not at home, I think of my Mom and I feel like I am at home and I also feel really bubbly on the inside because I love to be home.
  36. 36.  My mom is a secretary and I asked her to name the letters of the keyboard for me and she was surprised that she couldn't. Memory works in so many funny ways, like how you see money every single day and cannot identify the correct drawing of a penny.
  37. 37. Prompts for Writing Assignments: Reflective vs. Generic Writing  Prompt for writing assignment: “Each journal entry should be one- to two-paragraphs and consist of either (a) a real-life example of the concept or topic you are asked to write about (e.g., „An example of the concept of _________ in my life is…‟), or (b) what you learned about the topic that you hadn‟t known before.”
  38. 38. Outcome Measures  Proportion correct on actual exam questions for items matched to writing topics vs. unrelated (unmatched) content  Exam performance aggregated across three course exams (Midterm, Unit Exam, Final)  All multiple choice exams
  39. 39. Learning Benefits of Journaling Source: Nevid, J.S., Pastva, A., & McClelland, N. (2012). Writing-to-learn assignments in introductory psychology: Is there a learning benefit? Teaching of Psychology, 39, 272-275.
  40. 40. General Conclusions 1. Our findings provide support for the learning benefits of brief writing assignments in introductory psychology 2. Students performed significantly better on course examination questions testing knowledge of concepts linked to writing assignments than those measuring knowledge of unrelated content. 3. Journaling effects were robust for type of writing assignment (generic and reflective writing) and assigned versus student-selected topics
  41. 41. 3rd E: Elaborating Meaning --Tips for Students  For every concept you read about in this text or learn in class, connect it to a real-life example or life experience.  Your textbook authors and instructors use many examples of concepts, but you can take this a step further by connecting these concepts to your own life experiences.  Keep a journal, using one side of the page to list and define concepts and the other to provide examples
  42. 42. The 4th “E” Evaluating Progress  Students should not wait until exam time to find out what they don‟t know.  Students should be able to gauge their progress as they read through the text.  Use spot quizzes early in semester to diagnose problems.
  43. 43. Mastery Quizzing Study  What is Mastery Quizzing?  Ten, pre-post quizzes during the semester of specific concepts discussed during class  Students have two chances to get the right answer and earn credit toward final grade—at the very beginning of class and at the end  Mastery quizzing provides incentives for attendance, punctuality, and attention  Participants: Introductory psychology class comprising 61 students, 44 women, 17 men, mostly freshmen  Method: Analyzed student performance on course exams, disaggregated by signaled concepts (concepts tested in mastery quizzes), related concepts (other concepts discussed on mastery quiz days), and non-signaled concepts (control concepts discussed on other days).
  44. 44.  Results:  Students showed significant improvement in knowledge of mastery quiz content as assessed by pre vs. post comparisons.  Credits earned on mastery quizzes predicted performance on course examination questions measuring signaled concepts and other concepts from lectures on days mastery quizzes were administered, but not on unrelated concepts (control concepts)  Take-Away Message:  Mastery quizzing cues students to attend to important concepts discussed in class, and provides incentives for coming to class, coming on time, and paying attention  Citation: Nevid, J. S., & Mahon, K. (2009). Mastery quizzing as a signaling device to cue attention to lecture material. Teaching of Psychology, 36, 1-4.
  45. 45. Bloom‟s Taxonomy: Original vs. Revised
  46. 46. The IDEA MODEL. . . A Simpler Model Based on Four Key Skills: Identify . . .Key figures in psychology and parts of the body Describe or Define. . Key terms and concepts Evaluate or Explain. . . Underlying processes and mechanisms Apply. . . Concepts to examples
  47. 47. The IDEA Model of Course Assessment Identify. . key figures in psychology, parts of the nervous system, etc. Define or Describe. . . key concepts, key features of psychological theories, etc. Evaluate or Explain. . . underlying processes and mechanisms. Apply. . . psychological concepts to real-world examples. Bloom’s Taxonomy
  48. 48. What’s the NEW IDEA in Course Assessment?
  49. 49.  Source: Center for Teaching and Learning, Brigham Young University
  50. 50. THE IDEA MODEL OF COURSE ASSESSMENT Integrating APA Learning Goals with Bloom’s Taxonomy Skill Level in Bloom Taxonomy (Original/Revised Model) Learning Objectives Active Learning Verbs used to Measure Skills Acquired APA Learning Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology Examples: Memory Knowledge/Remembering Comprehension/Understanding Define key terms Describe key concepts Identify parts of the nervous system, key figures in psychology, etc. Define/Describe Identify Describe basic processes and stages of memory. Describe types of long-term memory. Identify methods of measuring memory. Identify key brain structures involved in memory. Application/Applying Apply concepts to examples Apply Apply knowledge of how memory works to powering up your memory. Analysis/Analyzing Synthesis/Evaluating Evaluation/Creating Evaluate theoretical concepts Explain underlying mechanisms or processes Evaluate scientific evidence Evaluate/Explain Evaluate the reliability of eyewitness testimony. Explain the difference between maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal. Explain why the concept of recovered memory is controversial. The IDEA Model Identify. . . Define or Describe. . . Evaluate or Explain. . . Apply . . . knowledge of psychology The IDEA Model of Course Assessment. . . Maps learning objectives to APA learning goals and Bloom’s taxonomy Uses active learning verbs to measure learning outcomes Keys test items to learning outcomes
  51. 51. Bloom Instructional Units (BIUs) Objective Example (Classical Conditioning) Remembering Define the terms conditioned stimulus and conditioned response Understanding Describe classical conditioning in your own words Applying Give examples of classical conditioning in daily life Analyzing What do you expect would happen if you lengthened the interval between CS and US? Or reverse the order of CS and US? Evaluating Why is it important to study classical conditioning? Why does it matter? Creating/Synthesizing What alternative explanations of classical conditioning can you propose? Propose a research study to test ways of strengthening or weakening conditioned responses
  52. 52. Examples of Coded Test Items: Foundations of Modern Psychology Identify. . . Wundt is to ______ as James is to ______. A) structuralism; Gestalt B) structuralism; functionalism C) behaviorism; Gestalt D) behaviorism; functionalism E) functionalism; psychoanalysis Define or Describe. . . Psychology is best described as a science that studies A) The role of the mind in explaining behavior B) How the mind controls our behavior C) Observable behavior only D) Mental processes only E) Behavior and mental processes Evaluate or Explain . . . . Psychology is a scientific discipline in that it focuses on A) the pursuit of truth, not simply opinion. B) testing opinions and assumptions in the light of evidence. C) systematically building theories to explain phenomena. D) behavioral, as opposed to mental, processes. E) accumulated wisdom of scholars. Apply . . . Animal trainer Bob Jeffers uses rewards to teach his animals to perform circus tricks. Jeffers's techniques are based on principles from which school of psychology? A) Behaviorism B) Structuralism C) Psychodynamic D) Functionalism E) Humanism
  53. 53. Item Difficulty Item Type M SD Identify .60 .14 Define/Describe .64 .15 Evaluate/Explain .53 .15 Apply .60 .12 Item Discrimination Index Item Type M SD Identify .29 .17 Define/Describe .32 .14 Evaluate/Explain .33 .15 Apply .27 .17 Note: Difficulty is based on the proportion of students answering items correctly, which is averaged by question type. The item discrimination index represents the difference between the proportion of students answering an item correctly in the top 27% of the class versus the bottom 27% of the class, averaged by question type. What We Found: Item difficulty and item discrimination by IDEA question types Nevid, J. S., & McClelland, N. (2013). Using action verbs as learning outcomes: Applying bloom‟s taxonomy in measuring instructional objectives in introductory psychology. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 1(2), 19-24.
  54. 54. 4th E: Evaluating Progress ----Tips for Students  Keep track of your progress in the course—your performance on exams, quizzes, homework, journal assignments, etc.  Test yourself on built-in quizzes in the text and online quizzing programs.  Use the review sections in the text to recite your knowledge of the learning objectives or answers to survey questions before glancing at the sample answers in the text. Recitation is an important study skill that demonstrates you have acquired new knowledge.  Jot down your answers to review questions in a notebook or computer file. Use the sample answers provided in the text as feedback to determine if you have achieved the learning objectives or need further review of the related material in the text. Once you are confident in you answers, use these as a study guide to prepare for exams.
  55. 55. Sample References from the St. John‟s University Pedagogy Research Program  Nevid, J. S., & Carmony, T. M. (2002). Traditional versus modular format in presenting textual material in introductory psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 29, 237 – 238.  Nevid, J. S. (2003, September). Helping students get the point: Concept signaling as a pedagogical aid. Paper presented at the conference, Taking Off: Best Practices in Teaching Introductory Psychology, Atlanta, GA.  Nevid, J. S., & Lampmann, J. L. (2003). Effects on content acquisition of signaling key concepts in text material Teaching of Psychology, 30, 227-229  Nevid, J. S. (2004, January). Graphing psychology: The effective use of graphs and figures in teaching introductory psychology. Invited address at the presented at the 26th Annual National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology, St. Petersburg, FL.  Nevid, J. S. (2004, February). Evidence-based pedagogy: Using research to find new ways to help students learn. Invited closing address presented at the 11th Midwest Institute for Students and Teachers of Psychology (MISTOP), Glen Ellyn, IL.
  56. 56. Sample References (contd.)  Nevid, J. S., & Forlenza, N. (2005). Graphing psychology: An analysis of the most commonly used graphs in introductory textbooks. Teaching of Psychology, 32, 253-256.  Nevid, J. S. (2006, February). In pursuit of the “perfect lecture.” APS Observer, Teaching Tips, Vol. 19(2).  Nevid, J. S., & Blitzer, J. R. (2006, August). Educational benefits of mastery quizzes as signaling devices. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.  Nevid, J. S., & Mahon, K. (2009). Mastery quizzing as a signaling device to cue attention to lecture material. Teaching of Psychology, 36, 29-32.  Nevid, J. S. (2009/2010, Winter). Reaching and teaching millennial students. Psychology Teacher Network, 19(4) pp. 1, 3, 4.  Nevid, J. S. (2011). Teaching the millennials. APS Observer, Teaching Tips, 24(5), in press.  Nevid, J.S., Pastva, A., & McClelland, N. (2012). Writing-to-learn assignments in introductory psychology: Is there a learning benefit? Teaching of Psychology, 39, 272-275.  Nevid, J. S., & McClelland, N. (2013). Using action verbs as learning outcomes: applying bloom’s taxonomy in measuring instructional objectives in introductory psychology. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 1(2), 19-24.
  57. 57. 3 / 63 Thank you! For a copy of this PPT or to share your ideas about teaching psychology, please contact: jeffnevid@gmail.com or nevidj@stjohns.edu

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