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The ABCs Approach to Goal Setting and Implementation

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Presented by: Dr. Christine Harrington - Director for the Center for the Enrichment of Learning and Teaching, Middlesex County College

Despite its' widespread use, you may be surprised to discover the research supporting the SMART goal setting framework is lacking. In fact, the SMART model is missing the most important factor in goal setting. Come discover a research-based framework (and the most important goal setting factor!) that will assist your students with setting and implementing effective goals that will lead to high levels of success.

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The ABCs Approach to Goal Setting and Implementation

  1. 1. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 1 The ABCS of Setting and Implementing Effective Goals Christine Harrington Ph.D. November 10, 2014 Cengage Learning Webinar © marekuliasz/shutterstock.com
  2. 2. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 2 Before we begin, let’s CHAT… What are you hoping to get out of today’s webinar?
  3. 3. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 3 Agenda Importance of Goals Mixed Research on SMART goals New Goal Framework: ABCS
  4. 4. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 4 IMPORTANCE OF GOALS
  5. 5. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 5 Importance of Goals Goals Success Locke & Latham (2002)
  6. 6. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 6 Exploring the Research Morisano, Hirsh, Peterson, Pihl & Shore (2010) Research Question: Does a goal setting intervention help students stay in college and perform better academically? iQoncept/Shutterstock.com
  7. 7. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 7 The Study Morisano, Hirsh, Peterson, Pihl & Shore (2010) 85 college students who were struggling academically Goal setting intervention (2 ½ hours) Generic intervention GPA, Survey questions about withdrawal rates and emotions
  8. 8. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 8 The Results Morisano, Hirsh, Peterson, Pihl & Shore (2010) 2.91 2.25 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Received Goal Setting Training Did not receive Goal Setting Training GPA GPA
  9. 9. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 9 The Results Morisano, Hirsh, Peterson, Pihl & Shore (2010) Goal group less likely to drop classes Goal group had fewer negative emotions
  10. 10. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 10 The So What Factor Morisano, Hirsh, Peterson, Pihl & Shore (2010) Learning about goals is valuable! © Filipe Frazao/shutterstock.com
  11. 11. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 11 But…. WHAT should we be teaching students about goals?
  12. 12. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 12 Poll Question: Do you teach students the SMART goal framework? a) Yes always! b) Sometimes c) No
  13. 13. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 13 Poll Question: Are you familiar with other goal frameworks? a) Yes (please write down the framework in the chat box) b) No
  14. 14. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 14 CHAT TIME: What do you think is the MOST IMPORTANT characteristic of a goal?
  15. 15. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 15 SMART GOALS
  16. 16. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 16 SMART Goals SMART GOALS Specific Measureable Achievable Realistic/Relevant Time-based/Trackable
  17. 17. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 17 Limited Research Support “there is a dearth of recent reported research on the conceptual robustness or effectiveness of heuristic goal- setting devices such as SMART” (Day & Tosey, 2011, p. 530)
  18. 18. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 18 Do goals need to be realistic? Maybe not! •Unrealistic goals do NOT appear to be detrimental • (Linde, Jeffrey, Finch, Ng, & Rothman, 2004)
  19. 19. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 19 Redundancy in SMART Goals? Specific- Measurable Achievable- Realistic
  20. 20. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 20 What’s Missing in SMART Goals? Challenge!
  21. 21. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 21 The MOST Important Goal Characteristic! Challenging Goals, Better Results Locke and Latham (2002) Wicker, Hamman, Reed, McCann, & Turner (2005)
  22. 22. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 22 THE ABCS APPROACH TO GOAL SETTING AND MONITORING
  23. 23. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 23 ABCS Framework Aim High Believe in Yourself Care and Commit Specify and Self-Reflect
  24. 24. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 24 AIM HIGH: Challenging Goals “the highest or most difficult goals produced the highest levels of effort and performance” (Locke & Latham, 2002, p. 706)
  25. 25. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 25 Depression: Is there a Downside to Challenging Goals? Reynolds & Baird (2010) 1979 • Ages 14-22 • 12,686 participants 1992 • 9,016 participants Highest Degree • 4,892 participants © Jochen Schoenfeld/shutterstock.com
  26. 26. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 26 Goal Attainment? Reynolds & Baird (2010) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Fell Short of Goal Achieved Goal Exceeded Goal Percentage Percentage
  27. 27. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 27 Results… Go Ahead Challenge Yourself Reynolds & Baird (2010) • No evidence of “emotional cost” (depression) for unrealized goals • Higher expectations were associated with lower levels of depression © Marilyn Volan/shutterstock.com
  28. 28. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 28 BELIEVE IN YOURSELF Self-Efficacy
  29. 29. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 29 Self-Efficacy More likely to persevere when faced with setbacks or difficulties Komarraju & Nadler (2013)
  30. 30. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 30 To Build Self-Efficacy Have courage to take risks Identify action steps Reflect on experiences Expect mistakes to happen sometimes Access help as needed
  31. 31. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 31 CARE AND COMMIT: Motivation Matters! © Phase4Studios/shutterstock.com
  32. 32. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 32 Intrinsic Motivation “ intrinsic motivation is the strongest predictor of academic performance, followed by effort” (Goodman et al., 2011, p.353)
  33. 33. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 33 High Commitment- High Success 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Low Goal High Goal Low Commitment High Commitment Seijts & Latham (2011)
  34. 34. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 34 SPECIFY “Do Your Best” Goals DON’T Work Locke and Latham (2002)
  35. 35. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 35 Benefits of Specific Goals Increased Effort Easier Monitoring of Progress (Roney & Connor, 2008; Locke & Latham, 2006)
  36. 36. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 36 SELF REFLECT How are you Doing? • “Check up” on yourself • Monitor progress made thus far • Make adjustments as needed © Dragan Grkic/Shutterstock.com
  37. 37. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 37 The Academic Self-Regulation Process
  38. 38. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 38 The Academic Self-Regulation Process
  39. 39. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 39 Research on Self-Reflection Dietz-Uhler & Lanter (2009) Will students who complete a four question self-reflection activity before a quiz perform better than students who complete this activity after the quiz?
  40. 40. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 40 The Study Dietz-Uhler & Lanter (2009) 107 undergraduate students Reflection First Self-enhancement topic Prisoner’s dilemma topic Quiz First Self-enhancement topic Prisoner’s dilemma topic
  41. 41. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 41 The 4 Questions 1. Identify one important concept, research finding, theory or idea in psychology that you learned while completing the activity. 2. Why do you believe that this concept, research finding, or idea in psychology is so important? 3. Apply what you have learned from this activity to some aspect of your life. 4. What question(s) has the activity raised for you? What are you still wondering about? Direct from Dietz-Uhler & Lanter (2009) p. 40
  42. 42. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 42 The Results! Dietz-Uhler & Lanter (2009) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Reflection first Quiz first Quiz Performance Quiz Performance
  43. 43. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 43 A PROBLEM: Illusions of Competence Students who simply studied thought they did the best but they did not! Direct from Karpicke & Blunt (2011)
  44. 44. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 44 The Problem with Over-Confidence Students may stop studying too soon!
  45. 45. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 45 Exploring the Research Dunlosky & Rawson (2012) Research Questions: 1. What happens when students are over-confident? 2. Does overconfidence lead to lower levels of achievement?
  46. 46. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 46 The First Study Dunlosky & Rawson (2012) 48 students No Standard Idea-Unit- check section of text Task: Read a passage and learn key words; Had to make judgment about their accuracy
  47. 47. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 47 The First Study: Results! Dunlosky & Rawson (2012) Students who were over-confident stopped practicing and performed more poorly. Students who checked their answers were more accurate
  48. 48. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 48 The Second Study Dunlosky & Rawson (2012) 158 college students read passage to learn key words All in Idea Unit- compared their answer to information in the text Confidence level assessed
  49. 49. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 49 The Second Study: Results! Dunlosky & Rawson (2012) Over-confidence associated with poor performance
  50. 50. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 50 The So What Factor Dunlosky & Rawson (2012) • Accurate judgments are important • Seek external information to increase accuracy
  51. 51. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 51 CHAT TIME… How can YOU help students increase accuracy when making judgments about their progress?
  52. 52. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 52 Understanding How Much Assignments “Count” Final Grade: 87 B + Assignment Grade Percentage Research Paper 90 60 Quizzes 70 70 70 70 10 Final Exam 87 30 Final Grade: 79 C+ Assignment Grade Percentage Research Paper 90 15 Quizzes 70 70 70 70 45 Final Exam 87 40
  53. 53. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 53 ONLINE PUBLISHER SUPPORT
  54. 54. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 54 Poll Question: Do you ask your students to use online publisher tools? a) Yes I require students to use the online supports (it’s part of their final grade) b) Yes I encourage students to use the online supports (it’s extra credit) c) Yes I encourage students to use the online supports but it doesn’t “count” d) No I don’t ask students to use the online publisher tools
  55. 55. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 55 Let’s Review… ABCS Framework Aim High Believe in Yourself Care and Commit Specify and Self-Reflect
  56. 56. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 56 Teaching Tips • Creating Goals • Jigsaw Classroom • Evaluate Your Goals • Social Media Campaign
  57. 57. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 57 Celebrating Progress and Achievement © Andresr/Shutterstock.com
  58. 58. Copyright 2016 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 58 Thank You! Questions? Contact Christine Harrington at charrington@middlesexcc.edu 732.690.2090 Join me at Connect Yard

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