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Emerald Day
September 26, 2017
Beirut Arab University
Beirut - Lebanon
War of Information Era:
How to Detect “Fake News”
b...
Outline
Emerald_BAU 2
• What is “Fake News”
• What are “Alternative Facts/Misinformation”?
• Word of the Year 2016
• Unrel...
What is “Fake News”
• Fake News “is information that is deliberately fake, biased, or
incomplete; used to mislead readers;...
Alternative Facts/Misinformation
• Alternative Facts “a misstatement of the truth, a lie;
most any statement of fact issue...
Word of the Year 2016
Post-truth: An adjective defined as “relating
to or denoting circumstances in which
objective facts ...
Unreliable News Sites
• “Fake News: Sources that entirely fabricate information,
disseminate deceptive content, or grossly...
Unreliable News Sites (cont.)
• Junk Science: Sources that promote pseudoscience,
metaphysics, naturalistic fallacies, and...
Fake News_Social Media
Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 8
Junk Science_Hurricane Irma
Emerald_BAU 8Sept. 26, 2017
Emerald_BAU 10
Rumor
Sept. 26, 2017
Emerald_BAU 11
False Headline
Sept. 26, 2017
Factors
Emerald_BAU 12Sept. 26, 2017
Trigger
Emerald_BAU 13Sept. 26, 2017
TRUMP
Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 14
Emerald_BAU 15Sept. 26, 2017
Super Librarians to the Rescue
Emerald_BAU 16Sept. 26, 2017
Yellow Newspapers
Emerald_BAU 17Sept. 26, 2017
INFOLIT
Emerald_BAU 18Sept. 26, 2017
IFLA
• Oxford
Dictionaries
announced post-
truth was
Word of the Year 2016
, we
• Librarians realize
action is needed to
e...
CRAAP Test
• Designed by the
Meriam Library
(CSU) in 2010
• Questions to help
patrons
determine
whether a source
is trustw...
Fast Checking Links
Emerald_BAU 21
• LinkedIn A professional networking website where you
can look up the authors of artic...
Fast Checking Links (cont.)
Emerald_BAU 22
•Hoax-Slayer Similar to Snopes but tighter in scope.
Focuses on email hoaxes, i...
Google/Facebook/Twitter
• Facebook has already made efforts to
drown out fake sites and prevent fake
stories from being li...
Any Questions?
Emerald_BAU 24Sept. 26, 2017
References
Abdallah, F. (2017). The challenges facing information specialists in the era of social
media and fake news. Un...
References (cont.)
Lefkowitz, M. (2017, March 8). Library tackles fake news with workshops, resources,
advice. Cornell Chr...
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Fake news

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Fake news

  1. 1. Emerald Day September 26, 2017 Beirut Arab University Beirut - Lebanon War of Information Era: How to Detect “Fake News” by Cendrella Habre University Librarian Lebanese American University
  2. 2. Outline Emerald_BAU 2 • What is “Fake News” • What are “Alternative Facts/Misinformation”? • Word of the Year 2016 • Unreliable News Sites • Examples • Factors • Trigger • “Fake News” is a Real Problem • Super Librarians to the Rescue • InfoLit • IFLA/ACRL • Fast Checking Links • Q&A • References Sept. 26, 2017
  3. 3. What is “Fake News” • Fake News “is information that is deliberately fake, biased, or incomplete; used to mislead readers; cannot be verified, and is without sources” (Filtering Fake News) • Fake News 1.”can be roughly defined as a knowingly false headline and story is written and published on a website that is designed to look like a real news site, and is spread via social media.” 2.“fake news is a provocative headline that is shared and believed at face value, with no thoughtful investigation” (Rochlin, 2017) 3. A study showed that 59% of the news articles that are shared on Twitter are not even read before they are shared (Gabielkov, 2016) Emerald_BAU 3Sept. 26, 2017
  4. 4. Alternative Facts/Misinformation • Alternative Facts “a misstatement of the truth, a lie; most any statement of fact issued by President Trump and his staff” “Trump's latest alternative facts are that over a million supporters attended his inauguration, and that the American people don't care whether or not he releases his tax records” (Source: Macmillan Dictionary) • Misinformation "false or incorrect information, especially when it is intended to trick someone” (Source: Macmillan Dictionary) Emerald_BAU 4Sept. 26, 2017
  5. 5. Word of the Year 2016 Post-truth: An adjective defined as “relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief” (Source: Oxford Living Dictionaries) Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 5
  6. 6. Unreliable News Sites • “Fake News: Sources that entirely fabricate information, disseminate deceptive content, or grossly distort actual news reports. • Satire: Sources that use humor, irony, exaggeration, ridicule, and false information to comment on current events. • Extreme Bias: Sources that come from a particular point of view and may rely on propaganda, decontextualized information, and opinions distorted as facts. • Conspiracy Theory: Sources that are well-known promoters of eccentric conspiracy theories. • Rumors: Sources that traffic in rumors, gossip, and unverified claims. Emerald_BAU 6Sept. 26, 2017
  7. 7. Unreliable News Sites (cont.) • Junk Science: Sources that promote pseudoscience, metaphysics, naturalistic fallacies, and other scientifically dubious claims. • Hate News: Sources that actively promote racism, homophobia (Islamophobia), and other forms of discrimination. • Clickbait: Sources that provide generally credible content, but use exaggerated, misleading, or questionable headlines, social media descriptions, and/or images”. (Rochlin, 2017) • False Headlines: Intentionally exaggerated or false to draw the reader in. The title of the headline may not match the content of the story, the headline may read one way or state something as fact, but then the body of the article says something different. (Source: Filtering Fake News) Emerald_BAU 7Sept. 26, 2017
  8. 8. Fake News_Social Media Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 8
  9. 9. Junk Science_Hurricane Irma Emerald_BAU 8Sept. 26, 2017
  10. 10. Emerald_BAU 10 Rumor Sept. 26, 2017
  11. 11. Emerald_BAU 11 False Headline Sept. 26, 2017
  12. 12. Factors Emerald_BAU 12Sept. 26, 2017
  13. 13. Trigger Emerald_BAU 13Sept. 26, 2017
  14. 14. TRUMP Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 14
  15. 15. Emerald_BAU 15Sept. 26, 2017
  16. 16. Super Librarians to the Rescue Emerald_BAU 16Sept. 26, 2017
  17. 17. Yellow Newspapers Emerald_BAU 17Sept. 26, 2017
  18. 18. INFOLIT Emerald_BAU 18Sept. 26, 2017
  19. 19. IFLA • Oxford Dictionaries announced post- truth was Word of the Year 2016 , we • Librarians realize action is needed to educate and advocate for critical thinking. • Result: IFLA made this infographic to spot “Fake News” Emerald_BAU 19Sept. 26, 2017
  20. 20. CRAAP Test • Designed by the Meriam Library (CSU) in 2010 • Questions to help patrons determine whether a source is trustworthy Emerald_BAU 20 Currency: Is the information still current? Always check the date. Relevance: How important is the information for your needs? Authority: Where is the information coming from? Accuracy: Is the information reliable? Purpose: Why does the information exist? Sept. 26, 2017
  21. 21. Fast Checking Links Emerald_BAU 21 • LinkedIn A professional networking website where you can look up the authors of articles and books to see if they're credible. • FactCheck A product of the Annenberg Public Policy Center; terrific for checking up on political claims. • Politifact The Pulitzer Prize-winning Politifact researches the claims of politicians and checks their accuracy. • Snopes.com One of the oldest debunking sites on the Internet; focuses on urban legends, news stories and memes; also cites sources at the end of each debunking. Sept. 26, 2017
  22. 22. Fast Checking Links (cont.) Emerald_BAU 22 •Hoax-Slayer Similar to Snopes but tighter in scope. Focuses on email hoaxes, identity theft scams and spam. •The Washington Post Fact-Checker While focused primarily on political facts, it covers specific claims in-depth and with plenty of cross-referencing. •Veracity (iPhone app) Double check image sources and see where they came from. (Source: How to identify and avoid fake news) Sept. 26, 2017
  23. 23. Google/Facebook/Twitter • Facebook has already made efforts to drown out fake sites and prevent fake stories from being liked or shared. • Google is tweaking its news algorithms to detect “Fake news” and fake sites. • Twitter is considering similar changes Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 23
  24. 24. Any Questions? Emerald_BAU 24Sept. 26, 2017
  25. 25. References Abdallah, F. (2017). The challenges facing information specialists in the era of social media and fake news. Unpublished manuscript, Lebanese University, Faculty of Information, Beirut, Lebanon. Anderson, R. (2017). Fake news and alternative facts: five challenges for academic libraries. Insights. 30(2), pp.4–9. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.356 Batchelor, O. "Getting out the truth: the role of libraries in the fight against fake news", Reference Services Review, 45(2), pp.143-148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/RSR-03-2017-0006 Cornell University Library. (2017). LibGuide: Identifying fake news. http://guides.library.cornell.edu/c.php?g=628240&p=4462313 Fernandez, P. (2017). "The technology behind fake news", Library Hi Tech News. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/LHTN-07-2017-0054 Emerald_BAU 25Sept. 26, 2017
  26. 26. References (cont.) Lefkowitz, M. (2017, March 8). Library tackles fake news with workshops, resources, advice. Cornell Chronicle. http://news.cornell.edu/print/44021 Lynch, M.P. (2016, March 9). Googling is believing: Trumping the informed citizen, The New York Times. https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/03/09/googling-is- believing-trumping-the-informed-citizen/?mcubz=0 Rochlin, N. (2017). Fake news: belief in post-truth. Library Hi Tech, 35(3), pp. 386-392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/LHT-03-2017-0062 Stanford History Education Group. (2016). Evaluating information: The cornerstone of civic online reasoning. https://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/V3LessonPlans/Executive%20Summary%2011.21. 16.pdf Emerald_BAU 26Sept. 26, 2017

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