The intent of this sort of fake news is to have as many people like and share the fake story as possible, because the more clicks a link receives, the more money in advertising it will generate. A primary driver in this newly problematic fake news is that the majority of people do not read beyond an article’s headline.
Nowadays we all live in a post-truth era
Social media has been awash with rumors that by the time Hurricane Irma hits the Florida coast This fake news image was widely distributed on social media. “Although there have been reports of tornados lifting (and later dropping) various animals, the scenario depicted in the Sharknado series, where a tornado causes dozens of great white sharks to rain from the sky, is far-fetched,
Justin Trudeau is Fidel Castro&apos;s son? Rumors floating about. They sure look alike & have the same Communist / Socialist ideas. #FidelCastro
By: May Warren Metro Published on Thu Dec 01 2016 Barak Obama wants to get rid of the Statue of Liberty. Those are just some examples of the fake headlines that have become all too common on social media sites like Facebook.
Current state of the political environment in the world. Democratization of information Recent stats prove that more than 62% of American adults treat their social media feeds as their sole source of news (Facebook is the leader) and more than 59% do not read any article on Twitter before sharing it. (Rochlin, 2017)
Fake news has always been around
Authority Accuracy Objectivity Currency Coverage
California State University, Chico
While these changes are unlikely to solve the core issue, they are admissions that the way news is structured in these systems matters.
September 26, 2017
Beirut Arab University
Beirut - Lebanon
War of Information Era:
How to Detect “Fake News”
Lebanese American University
• What is “Fake News”
• What are “Alternative Facts/Misinformation”?
• Word of the Year 2016
• Unreliable News Sites
• “Fake News” is a Real Problem
• Super Librarians to the Rescue
• Fast Checking Links
Sept. 26, 2017
What is “Fake News”
• Fake News “is information that is deliberately fake, biased, or
incomplete; used to mislead readers; cannot be verified, and is
without sources” (Filtering Fake News)
• Fake News
1.”can be roughly defined as a knowingly false headline and story
is written and published on a website that is designed to look like a
real news site, and is spread via social media.”
2.“fake news is a provocative headline that is shared and believed
at face value, with no thoughtful investigation”
3. A study showed that 59% of the news articles that are shared on
Twitter are not even read before they are shared (Gabielkov, 2016)
Emerald_BAU 3Sept. 26, 2017
• Alternative Facts “a misstatement of the truth, a lie;
most any statement of fact issued by President Trump
and his staff”
“Trump's latest alternative facts are that over a million
supporters attended his inauguration, and that the
American people don't care whether or not he
releases his tax records” (Source: Macmillan Dictionary)
"false or incorrect information, especially when it
is intended to trick someone” (Source: Macmillan Dictionary)
Emerald_BAU 4Sept. 26, 2017
Word of the Year 2016
Post-truth: An adjective defined as “relating
to or denoting circumstances in which
objective facts are less influential in shaping
public opinion than appeals to emotion and
(Source: Oxford Living Dictionaries)
Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 5
Unreliable News Sites
• “Fake News: Sources that entirely fabricate information,
disseminate deceptive content, or grossly distort actual
• Satire: Sources that use humor, irony, exaggeration,
ridicule, and false information to comment on current
• Extreme Bias: Sources that come from a particular point of
view and may rely on propaganda, decontextualized
information, and opinions distorted as facts.
• Conspiracy Theory: Sources that are well-known
promoters of eccentric conspiracy theories.
• Rumors: Sources that traffic in rumors, gossip, and
Emerald_BAU 6Sept. 26, 2017
Unreliable News Sites (cont.)
• Junk Science: Sources that promote pseudoscience,
metaphysics, naturalistic fallacies, and other scientifically
• Hate News: Sources that actively promote racism,
homophobia (Islamophobia), and other forms of
• Clickbait: Sources that provide generally credible content, but
use exaggerated, misleading, or questionable headlines,
social media descriptions, and/or images”.
• False Headlines: Intentionally exaggerated or false to draw
the reader in. The title of the headline may not match the
content of the story, the headline may read one way or state
something as fact, but then the body of the article says
something different. (Source: Filtering Fake News)
Emerald_BAU 7Sept. 26, 2017
Fake News_Social Media
Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 8
Word of the Year 2016
• Librarians realize
action is needed to
• Result: IFLA made
this infographic to
spot “Fake News” Emerald_BAU 19Sept. 26, 2017
• Designed by the
(CSU) in 2010
• Questions to help
whether a source
Currency: Is the
information still current?
Always check the date.
important is the
information for your
Authority: Where is the
Accuracy: Is the
Purpose: Why does the
Sept. 26, 2017
Fast Checking Links
• LinkedIn A professional networking website where you
can look up the authors of articles and books to see if
• FactCheck A product of the Annenberg Public Policy
Center; terrific for checking up on political claims.
• Politifact The Pulitzer Prize-winning Politifact researches
the claims of politicians and checks their accuracy.
• Snopes.com One of the oldest debunking sites on the
Internet; focuses on urban legends, news stories and
memes; also cites sources at the end of each debunking.
Sept. 26, 2017
Fast Checking Links (cont.)
•Hoax-Slayer Similar to Snopes but tighter in scope.
Focuses on email hoaxes, identity theft scams and spam.
•The Washington Post Fact-Checker While focused
primarily on political facts, it covers specific claims in-depth
and with plenty of cross-referencing.
•Veracity (iPhone app) Double check image sources and
see where they came from.
(Source: How to identify and avoid fake news)
Sept. 26, 2017
• Facebook has already made efforts to
drown out fake sites and prevent fake
stories from being liked or shared.
• Google is tweaking its news algorithms to
detect “Fake news” and fake sites.
• Twitter is considering similar changes
Sept. 26, 2017 Emerald_BAU 23
Abdallah, F. (2017). The challenges facing information specialists in the era of social
media and fake news. Unpublished manuscript, Lebanese University, Faculty of
Information, Beirut, Lebanon.
Anderson, R. (2017). Fake news and alternative facts: five challenges for academic
libraries. Insights. 30(2), pp.4–9. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.356
Batchelor, O. "Getting out the truth: the role of libraries in the fight against fake
news", Reference Services Review, 45(2), pp.143-148.
Cornell University Library. (2017). LibGuide: Identifying fake news.
Fernandez, P. (2017). "The technology behind fake news", Library Hi Tech News. DOI:
Emerald_BAU 25Sept. 26, 2017
Lefkowitz, M. (2017, March 8). Library tackles fake news with workshops, resources,
advice. Cornell Chronicle. http://news.cornell.edu/print/44021
Lynch, M.P. (2016, March 9). Googling is believing: Trumping the informed citizen, The
New York Times. https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/03/09/googling-is-
Rochlin, N. (2017). Fake news: belief in post-truth. Library Hi Tech, 35(3), pp. 386-392.
Stanford History Education Group. (2016). Evaluating information: The cornerstone of
civic online reasoning.
Emerald_BAU 26Sept. 26, 2017