Online Communication I                                Technology, Theories & Frontiers                                    ...
Content   Technology   Theories   Internet   Energy   Frontiers   Brand & Comm. Tech.                                2Onli...
Q   What is Technology?   What is it for?                                3Online Communication Lesson 1
Technology     is the process by which humans modify     nature to meet their needs and wants.                            ...
Technology     Originates in the Greek words; technologia (τεχνολογία),     Techne (τέχνη, which means "craft"),     Logia...
Technology     - "science of the mechanical and industrial arts"       is first recorded 1859.     - High Technology attes...
Needs                                7Online Communication Lesson 1
Belongingness and Love Needs        Self-Actualization Needs                                          Aesthetic Needs     ...
MASLOW’S THEORY OF HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                                  Self-Transcendence Needs:          ...
Notice   Every needs come after when   previous needs have been met   Satisfied needs do not motivate   Needs are complex,...
MASLOW’S THEORY OF HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                                                        11Online Comm...
ONLINE COMMUNITY BUILDING                                    Self-                                Actualization           ...
Q   What is Communication?   Why do we need this?                                13Online Communication Lesson 1
Communication     1                 : an act or instance of transmitting     2                 : information transmitted o...
Communication     3                   : a process by which information is exchanged between                   individuals ...
Theories     Structural and Functional Theories:     Believe that social structures are real and function in ways that    ...
Theories     Cognitive and Behavioral Theories:     Tend to focus on psychology of individuals;     Interactionist Theorie...
Theories     Interpretive Theories:     Uncover the ways people actually understand their own experience;                 ...
Theories    Critical Theories:    are concerned with the conflict of interests in society and the way    communication per...
Barriers to Communication                                          SenderMessage is not received                          ...
THE OSGOOD & SCHRAMM CIRCULAR MODEL                                                    Message       Interpreter          ...
PROCESS of COMMUNICATION or COMMUNICATION LOOP         Encoder         chooses             Sender                         ...
THE SHANNON-WEAVER MODEL                                                      Noise                                       ...
THE SHANNON-WEAVER MATHEMATICAL MODEL     Information                Transmitter               Channel                    ...
CONCEPTUAL MODEL                                                                                    Continued Adoption    ...
CONCEPTUAL MODEL      ANTECEDENTS                                                                             CONSEQUENCES...
SENSEMAKING CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK                                                                                          ...
BERLO’S SMCR MODEL                       Encodes                             Decodes    Source                       Messa...
Q   What are missing in Berlo’s model?   Please criticise it.                                  29Online Communication Less...
Criticism of Berlo’s Model     -    No feedback / don’t know about the effect     -    Does not mention barriers to commun...
Criticism of Berlo’s Model     - It is a linear model of communication     - Needs people to be on same level for communic...
Q   What is Network?   What is the Internet?                                32Online Communication Lesson 1
Network     In information technology, a network is a series of points or     nodes interconnected by communication paths....
Network     The most common topology or general configurations of networks     include the bus, star, ring, and mesh topol...
BUS                      RING                                      STAR   35Online Communication Lesson 1
TREE                       MESH                                LINE                                              36Online ...
HYBRID                                         37Online Communication Lesson 1
Internet     The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net,"     is a worldwide system of computer networks .     A netwo...
Internet     It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)     of the U.S. government in 1969 and was f...
Your browser connects to a server                                       and request a page                                ...
Internet     A side benefit of ARPANets design was that, because messages     could be routed or rerouted in more than one...
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority                                       Regional Internet Registries                    ...
Energy                                          43Online Communication Lesson 1   Aleksandar Rodic
Q   What is energy?   What types of energy forms …                                  44Online Communication Lesson 1
Energy     A measure of the capacity of a physical system to do work.                                                     ...
Energy     Sound is a form of energy, just like electricity and light.     Sound is made when air molecules vibrate and mo...
Q   What types of wave that we use   in everyday life?                                    48Online Communication Lesson 1
Radio waves       Infrared                     Micro waves       Ultraviolet                     Terahertz waves   X-rays ...
Q   What do you think about the future of technology?                                                       50Online Commu...
FRONTIERS                                51Online Communication Lesson 1
52Online Communication Lesson 1
53Online Communication Lesson 1
Thank you.  Please kindly find the presentation :  www.slideshare.net/cemcinlar                                          F...
Terms•   Mass-media:    It is a collective phrase that represents not only the press, cinema, radio, television and intern...
Terms•   Feedback: The whistling sound made when amplified sound goes back into the microphone. In a hearing aid, feedback...
Online Communication Lesson1 / Technology, Communication Theories, Communication Models, The Internet, Online Communicatio...
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Online Communication Lesson1 / Technology, Communication Theories, Communication Models, The Internet, Online Communication, Energy and Frontiers

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The first lesson of Online Communication. Understanding the technology. Online communication basics. Communication theories. Communication models. Networking types. Understandig the Internet. Online communication. Energy forms. Waves. Frontiers. Flash metarials,videos and some critical pages are not included. Educational use only!

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Online Communication Lesson1 / Technology, Communication Theories, Communication Models, The Internet, Online Communication, Energy and Frontiers

  1. 1. Online Communication I Technology, Theories & Frontiers Dr. Cem Cinlar 12.11.12 1Online Communication Lesson 1
  2. 2. Content Technology Theories Internet Energy Frontiers Brand & Comm. Tech. 2Online Communication Lesson 1
  3. 3. Q What is Technology? What is it for? 3Online Communication Lesson 1
  4. 4. Technology is the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. 4Online Communication Lesson 1
  5. 5. Technology Originates in the Greek words; technologia (τεχνολογία), Techne (τέχνη, which means "craft"), Logia (λογία, which is "saying" or "ordering", in the sense of arranging). "systematic treatment of an art, craft, or technique" 5Online Communication Lesson 1 http://bit.ly/WmzYYM
  6. 6. Technology - "science of the mechanical and industrial arts" is first recorded 1859. - High Technology attested from 1964; High-Tech 1972, - Technophobe from 1965, - Technophile 1968, 6Online Communication Lesson 1
  7. 7. Needs 7Online Communication Lesson 1
  8. 8. Belongingness and Love Needs Self-Actualization Needs Aesthetic Needs Self-Transcendence Needs Biological and Physiological Needs Safety Needs Esteem Needs Cognitive Needs 8Online Communication Lesson 1
  9. 9. MASLOW’S THEORY OF HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Self-Transcendence Needs: Feelings of integrity Self-Actualization Needs: Realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. Aesthetic Needs: Presence and beauty, feeling of intimacy Cognitive Needs: Learn, explore, discover and create, (confusion and identity crisis) Esteem Needs: Self-esteem, achievement, Mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. Belongingness and Love Needs: Work group, family, affection, relationships, etc. Safety Needs: Protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. Biological and Physiological Needs: Air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. 9Online Communication Lesson 1 http://bit.ly/RCbvZv
  10. 10. Notice Every needs come after when previous needs have been met Satisfied needs do not motivate Needs are complex, they can appear at any moment 10Online Communication Lesson 1
  11. 11. MASLOW’S THEORY OF HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 11Online Communication Lesson 1
  12. 12. ONLINE COMMUNITY BUILDING Self- Actualization To take a role Self- To contribute Esteem Social Belonging Security & Safety Protection Physiological System access 12Online Communication Lesson 1 Amy Jo Kim
  13. 13. Q What is Communication? Why do we need this? 13Online Communication Lesson 1
  14. 14. Communication 1 : an act or instance of transmitting 2 : information transmitted or conveyed : a verbal or written message 14c. – O. Fr. Comunicacion >> L. Communicatio >> Noun To Share 14Online Communication Lesson 1
  15. 15. Communication 3 : a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior; also : exchange of information : personal rapport <a lack of communication between old and young persons> 15Online Communication Lesson 1 http://bit.ly/SlMTTD
  16. 16. Theories Structural and Functional Theories: Believe that social structures are real and function in ways that can be observed objectively; 16Online Communication Lesson 1 http://bit.ly/RIueAU
  17. 17. Theories Cognitive and Behavioral Theories: Tend to focus on psychology of individuals; Interactionist Theories: View social life as a process of interaction; 17Online Communication Lesson 1
  18. 18. Theories Interpretive Theories: Uncover the ways people actually understand their own experience; 18Online Communication Lesson 1
  19. 19. Theories Critical Theories: are concerned with the conflict of interests in society and the way communication perpetuates domination of one group over another . 19Online Communication Lesson 1
  20. 20. Barriers to Communication SenderMessage is not received Message is received Encode but not understoodMessage is understood Message FEEDBACK but not accepted DecodeMessage is understoodbut action is not taken Receiver 20Online Communication Lesson 1 Dr. Cem Cinlar - Educational purposes only
  21. 21. THE OSGOOD & SCHRAMM CIRCULAR MODEL Message Interpreter Encoder Decoder Interpreter Decoder Encoder Message 21Online Communication Lesson 1 Dr. Cem Cinlar - Educational purposes only
  22. 22. PROCESS of COMMUNICATION or COMMUNICATION LOOP Encoder chooses Sender Decodes Receiver medium (Encoder) Transmission interprets (Decoder) encodes Medium Attitude / Verbal / Non Verbal Attitude / Experience / Experience / Perception Perception Feedback (response / reaction) 22Online Communication Lesson 1 Dr. Cem Cinlar - Educational purposes only
  23. 23. THE SHANNON-WEAVER MODEL Noise Receive Send message Message Encode Encode Sender / / Receiver Decode Channel Decode Send Receive Message message Noise 23Online Communication Lesson 1 Dr. Cem Cinlar - Educational purposes only
  24. 24. THE SHANNON-WEAVER MATHEMATICAL MODEL Information Transmitter Channel Receiver Source (Encoder) (Decoder) Destination Concepts: Noise Entropy Source Redundancy Noise Channel Capacity 24Online Communication Lesson 1 Dr. Cem Cinlar - Educational purposes only
  25. 25. CONCEPTUAL MODEL Continued Adoption Receiver Variable Adoption Discontinuance Knowledge Persuasion Decision Confirmation Rejection Later Adoption Continued Rejection 25Online Communication Lesson 1 Dr. Cem Cinlar - Educational purposes only
  26. 26. CONCEPTUAL MODEL ANTECEDENTS CONSEQUENCES PROCESS Receiver Continued Adoption Variable Adoption1. Personality characteristics Discontinuance2. Social characteristics 1. Replacement3. Perceived need for innovation 2. Disenchantment4. Other Communication Sources (Channels) Knowledge Persuasion Decision Confirmation Percieved Characteristics Later Adoption Social System Variables Rejection of Innovation 1. Social system norms 1. Telative adventage Continued 2. Tolerance of deviancy 2. Compatibility Rejection 3. Communication 3. Complexity integration 4. Triability 4. Others 5. Observability 26 Online Communication Lesson 1 http://bit.ly/SKk8To Dr. Cem Cinlar - Educational purposes only
  27. 27. SENSEMAKING CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK J U PRIORDecision Shared Shared D SharedProcess KNOWLEDGE G MENTAL DEEP COMMAND SENSEMAKING M MODELS UNDERSTANDING INTENT E N T Cognitive EMOTIONS Domain Shared PLANNING PHYSIOLOGY SITUATION BELIEFS AWARENESS PERCEPTIONS DIRECTIVES INFORMATION (Data in context) DECISION SUPPORT Information MODELS & TOOLS Domain DATA (Representation) SYNCHRONIZATION Physical OBJECTS / EVENTS ACTIONS Domain 27 Online Communication Lesson 1 Dr. Cem Cinlar - Educational purposes only http://1.usa.gov/Ttd6ic
  28. 28. BERLO’S SMCR MODEL Encodes Decodes Source Message Channel ReceiverCommunication Communication Content Hearing Skills Skills Attitudes Elements Seeing Attitudes Knowledge Treatment Touching Knowledge Social System Structure Smelling Social System Culture Code Tasting Culture 28Online Communication Lesson 1
  29. 29. Q What are missing in Berlo’s model? Please criticise it. 29Online Communication Lesson 1
  30. 30. Criticism of Berlo’s Model - No feedback / don’t know about the effect - Does not mention barriers to communication - No room for noise - Complex model 30Online Communication Lesson 1
  31. 31. Criticism of Berlo’s Model - It is a linear model of communication - Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real life - Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a channel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding, analyzing etc). 31Online Communication Lesson 1 http://bit.ly/PQ8TKJ
  32. 32. Q What is Network? What is the Internet? 32Online Communication Lesson 1
  33. 33. Network In information technology, a network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths. Networks can interconnect with other networks and contain sub-networks. 33Online Communication Lesson 1 http://bit.ly/VuqB7U
  34. 34. Network The most common topology or general configurations of networks include the bus, star, ring, and mesh topologies. Networks can also be characterized in terms of spatial distance as local area networks (LANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs), and wide area networks (WANs). 34Online Communication Lesson 1
  35. 35. BUS RING STAR 35Online Communication Lesson 1
  36. 36. TREE MESH LINE 36Online Communication Lesson 1
  37. 37. HYBRID 37Online Communication Lesson 1
  38. 38. Internet The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks . A network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers). 38Online Communication Lesson 1
  39. 39. Internet It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. government in 1969 and was first known as the ARPANET. The original aim was to create a network that would allow users of a research computer at one university to be able to "talk to" research computers at other universities. 39Online Communication Lesson 1
  40. 40. Your browser connects to a server and request a page The server sends back the requested page Client machine Server machine Runs a web browser Runs a web server 40Online Communication Lesson 1
  41. 41. Internet A side benefit of ARPANets design was that, because messages could be routed or rerouted in more than one direction, the network could continue to function even if parts of it were destroyed in the event of a military attack or other disaster. 41Online Communication Lesson 1
  42. 42. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Regional Internet Registries National Internet Registries Local Internet Registries End User 42Online Communication Lesson 1
  43. 43. Energy 43Online Communication Lesson 1 Aleksandar Rodic
  44. 44. Q What is energy? What types of energy forms … 44Online Communication Lesson 1
  45. 45. Energy A measure of the capacity of a physical system to do work. 45Online Communication Lesson 1
  46. 46. Energy Sound is a form of energy, just like electricity and light. Sound is made when air molecules vibrate and move in a pattern called waves, or sound waves. 46Online Communication Lesson 1
  47. 47. Q What types of wave that we use in everyday life? 48Online Communication Lesson 1
  48. 48. Radio waves Infrared Micro waves Ultraviolet Terahertz waves X-rays 49Online Communication Lesson 1
  49. 49. Q What do you think about the future of technology? 50Online Communication Lesson 1
  50. 50. FRONTIERS 51Online Communication Lesson 1
  51. 51. 52Online Communication Lesson 1
  52. 52. 53Online Communication Lesson 1
  53. 53. Thank you. Please kindly find the presentation : www.slideshare.net/cemcinlar Facebook.com/cemcinlar Twitter.com/cemcinlar Foursquare.com/cemcinlar Linkedin.com/in/cemcinlar 54Online Communication Lesson 1
  54. 54. Terms• Mass-media: It is a collective phrase that represents not only the press, cinema, radio, television and internet, but also to some extent, books magazines, pamphlets , direct mail literature, posters, folk media, and natural communication methods such as rumours, education and preaching. It is so termed because its reach extends to vast heterogeneous populations. Generally the mass media employ technological means to communicate to the masses. They are founded on the idea of mass production and distribution. Wiebe defined mass media as those readily available to the general public.• Selective attention: The media are full of competing messages. The process of screening vast amount of information in which one has no interest through mental filters is called selective attention, for example, an adult will be more tuned to listening to the news while a child would rather watch a cartoon show.• Selective perception: This is the tendency to interpret communication messages in terms of one"s existing attitudes. People of distinct psychological character same media content in different ways. This depends on factors such as age, values, family, opinions etc. Selective perception is influenced by social relationships.• Selective retention: The ability of an individual to retain certain messages in his mind while ignoring others is called selective retention. This is influenced by various psychological and physiological factors such as choice, values, culture, emotions etc.• Selective exposure: Some individuals are exposed to certain media effects/messages while some are not. This screening aspect depends on many factors such as reach of media, accessibility, age, cultural acceptability, taboos, etc.• Opinion leaders/change agents: The opinions of people in a group are influenced by what they hear from "opinion leaders". An individual who is a member of a group manifests certain characteristics in his thinking and behaviour that contribute to the formation of "public opinion". The opinion of the leader is based on rational thinking due to education and experience. They weigh the pros and cons of the information they receive and then give their judgement on it.• Encoder: In the process of communication, the sender or source of the message is referred to as the encoder.• Decoder: The person receiving the message and decodes it is referred to as the decoder.• Cognitive: Refers to the ability to think, learn, and remember.• Communication: The exchange of information through verbal or non-verbal means. Communication can include gestures, facial expressions, words, and/or signs.• Gesture: The movements of the hands or body that express an idea. Gestures include pointing, head nodding, waving good-bye and many others. Gestures can be used alone or in combination with words to communicate thoughts and ideas. 55
  55. 55. Terms• Feedback: The whistling sound made when amplified sound goes back into the microphone. In a hearing aid, feedback can occur when an ear mold does not fit well and the amplified sound goes back into the hearing aid microphone. There are additional causes for feedback and persistent feedback should be discussed with your parent advisor or audiologist. ideas.• Frequency: The number of vibrations per second of a sound. Frequency, expressed in Hertz (Hz) determines the pitch of the sound. Lower Hz numbers are low pitched sounds; higher Hz numbers are high pitched.• Wireless Devices: Small handheld devices that provide e-mail, instant messaging, telephone and speaker phone, games and web browsing. Individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing use these devices to chat online through instant messaging and to use internet based relay services. Wireless devices require a monthly service plan. This is an area of rapid change and rapidly improving products.• Bandwidth:• Bandwidth is one factor that affects information transfer rate over a communication channel and is designated as a frequency range in kilohertz or megahertz. For example, WiFi signals have a much wider bandwidth than narrowband AM radio. Comparing the information payload capacity of the two in terms of bandwidth, the former lies on the scale of a tractor-trailer rig while the latter is like a compact car.• Noise:• Noise is inherent to any communications system and can originate from natural or man-made sources. Examples include radio-frequency interference from electronic devices, static from lightning and electrical equipment and electromagnetic interference from sun spot activity. Noise introduces errors and alters the original form of the message by the time it reaches its destination. The strength of the message signal relative to noise, also known as the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, is another key aspect that affects the speed of information transfer. Imagine having a conversation in a quiet restaurant and then at a wild sporting event. In the second case, you need to repeat yourself several times because the noise of the crowd overwhelms the message.• Channel Capacity:• Information theory defines channel capacity as the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted through a channel, measured in bits per second or kilobits per second. Channel capacity is a function of both bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio and one can be exchanged for the other. Decreasing bandwidth and boosting S/N ratio can preserve channel capacity. However, Shannons information theory further states that efficient message and channel coding techniques also play key roles in establishing theoretical limit. 56

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