Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi  Patricia Cannizzaro  Elizabeth Che  Michael Dibenedetto  John Troino FRESH KILLS LAND...
Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi  Patricia Cannizzaro  Elizabeth Che  Michael Dibenedetto  John Troino FRESH KILLS LAND...
Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, ori...
Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi  Patricia Cannizzaro  Elizabeth Che  Michael Dibenedetto  John Troino FRESH KILLS LAND...
<ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li>...
Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi  Patricia Cannizzaro  Elizabeth Che  Michael Dibenedetto  John Troino FRESH KILLS LAND...
<ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li...
Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and D...
Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi  Patricia Cannizzaro  Elizabeth Che  Michael Dibenedetto  John Troino FRESH KILLS LAND...
<ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills ...
<ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill ...
Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi  Patricia Cannizzaro  Elizabeth Che  Michael Dibenedetto  John Troino FRESH KILLS LAND...
 
Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi  Patricia Cannizzaro  Elizabeth Che  Michael Dibenedetto  John Troino FRESH KILLS LAND...
Future Plans:  The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others bu...
 
Citations and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/
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Freshkills Presentation

  1. 1. Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi Patricia Cannizzaro Elizabeth Che Michael Dibenedetto John Troino FRESH KILLS LANDFILL <ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill opened in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “Temporary Landfill” for 20 year operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became one of the largest landfill in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 20200 acres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen with the naked eye from space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller than the Statue of Liberty at a height of 225ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the peak of operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twenty barges, each carrying 650 tons of garbage, were added to the site daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated leachate from the landfill flowed directly into local surface waters and groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals in the waste dissolved into the rainwater and snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxins released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed on December 31, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political and community pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshkills was temporarily used as a sorting ground for roughly one-third of the rubble from Ground Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The landfill has not been in operation since that time. </li></ul><ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Department of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill capping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts surface water infiltration into the contaminated subsurface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill gas daily (GFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified at the onsite facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5million cubic feet of pipeline quality gas sold to National Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of heating 22,000 homes on Staten Island. </li></ul></ul>Future Plans: The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others but the entire park is expected to take approximately 30 years to complete. Fresh kills Park will have five main areas: the Confluence, North Park, South Park, East Park and West Park. Each of these areas will have unique characteristics. Some of the fun and adventurous activities offered in the park will include horseback riding, mountain biking, nature trails, kayaking, and large–scale public art. Fresh kills Park will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, birds and plant communities. Settings of immense recreation will allow for some of the best camping sites in all of New York. Sources and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/ Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, originally as a temporary landfill, but remained in operation for 50 years. Like most landfills constructed in the 1940s, Fresh Kills was not designed with liners or any other form of lechate control. Other problems such as local water contamination, hazardous chemical release, and local opposition lead to the closing of the landfill on December 31, 2001. Today, Fresh Kills landfill is being turned into a park over the span of 30 years. Landfill caps and other gas collection and treatment systems are used to ensure proper containment of wastes and promote a safe environment. 2000 EPA Municipal Waste Composition Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Report (1995 Study) <ul><li>Why a Park? </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - 2006 – Draft Master Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of ideas including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active and passive recreational: mountain biking, golf, ball fields, tennis courts, hiking trails, kayaking and canoeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wildlife refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of extensive site analysis; community needs; assessment and outreach; landfill operations consideration; and studies and reviews of other landfill models </li></ul></ul>Tracing the Metamorphosis of the Fresh Kills Landfill
  2. 2. Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi Patricia Cannizzaro Elizabeth Che Michael Dibenedetto John Troino FRESH KILLS LANDFILL <ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill opened in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “Temporary Landfill” for 20 year operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became one of the largest landfill in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 20200 acres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen with the naked eye from space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller than the Statue of Liberty at a height of 225ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the peak of operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twenty barges, each carrying 650 tons of garbage, were added to the site daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated leachate from the landfill flowed directly into local surface waters and groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals in the waste dissolved into the rainwater and snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxins released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed on December 31, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political and community pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshkills was temporarily used as a sorting ground for roughly one-third of the rubble from Ground Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The landfill has not been in operation since that time. </li></ul><ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Department of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill capping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts surface water infiltration into the contaminated subsurface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill gas daily (GFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified at the onsite facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5million cubic feet of pipeline quality gas sold to National Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of heating 22,000 homes on Staten Island. </li></ul></ul>Future Plans: The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others but the entire park is expected to take approximately 30 years to complete. Fresh kills Park will have five main areas: the Confluence, North Park, South Park, East Park and West Park. Each of these areas will have unique characteristics. Some of the fun and adventurous activities offered in the park will include horseback riding, mountain biking, nature trails, kayaking, and large–scale public art. Fresh kills Park will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, birds and plant communities. Settings of immense recreation will allow for some of the best camping sites in all of New York. Sources and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/ Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, originally as a temporary landfill, but remained in operation for 50 years. Like most landfills constructed in the 1940s, Fresh Kills was not designed with liners or any other form of lechate control. Other problems such as local water contamination, hazardous chemical release, and local opposition lead to the closing of the landfill on December 31, 2001. Today, Fresh Kills landfill is being turned into a park over the span of 30 years. Landfill caps and other gas collection and treatment systems are used to ensure proper containment of wastes and promote a safe environment. 2000 EPA Municipal Waste Composition Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Report (1995 Study) <ul><li>Why a Park? </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - 2006 – Draft Master Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of ideas including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active and passive recreational: mountain biking, golf, ball fields, tennis courts, hiking trails, kayaking and canoeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wildlife refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of extensive site analysis; community needs; assessment and outreach; landfill operations consideration; and studies and reviews of other landfill models </li></ul></ul>Tracing the Metamorphosis of the Fresh Kills Landfill
  3. 3. Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, originally as a temporary landfill, but remained in operation for 50 years. Like most landfills constructed in the 1940s, Fresh Kills was not designed with liners or any other form of lechate control. Other problems such as local water contamination, hazardous chemical release, and local opposition lead to the closing of the landfill on December 31, 2001. Today, Fresh Kills landfill is being turned into a park over the span of 30 years. Landfill caps and other gas collection and treatment systems are used to ensure proper containment of wastes and promote a safe environment.
  4. 4. Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi Patricia Cannizzaro Elizabeth Che Michael Dibenedetto John Troino FRESH KILLS LANDFILL <ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill opened in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “Temporary Landfill” for 20 year operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became one of the largest landfill in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 20200 acres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen with the naked eye from space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller than the Statue of Liberty at a height of 225ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the peak of operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twenty barges, each carrying 650 tons of garbage, were added to the site daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated leachate from the landfill flowed directly into local surface waters and groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals in the waste dissolved into the rainwater and snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxins released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed on December 31, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political and community pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshkills was temporarily used as a sorting ground for roughly one-third of the rubble from Ground Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The landfill has not been in operation since that time. </li></ul><ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Department of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill capping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts surface water infiltration into the contaminated subsurface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill gas daily (GFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified at the onsite facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5million cubic feet of pipeline quality gas sold to National Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of heating 22,000 homes on Staten Island. </li></ul></ul>Future Plans: The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others but the entire park is expected to take approximately 30 years to complete. Fresh kills Park will have five main areas: the Confluence, North Park, South Park, East Park and West Park. Each of these areas will have unique characteristics. Some of the fun and adventurous activities offered in the park will include horseback riding, mountain biking, nature trails, kayaking, and large–scale public art. Fresh kills Park will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, birds and plant communities. Settings of immense recreation will allow for some of the best camping sites in all of New York. Sources and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/ Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, originally as a temporary landfill, but remained in operation for 50 years. Like most landfills constructed in the 1940s, Fresh Kills was not designed with liners or any other form of lechate control. Other problems such as local water contamination, hazardous chemical release, and local opposition lead to the closing of the landfill on December 31, 2001. Today, Fresh Kills landfill is being turned into a park over the span of 30 years. Landfill caps and other gas collection and treatment systems are used to ensure proper containment of wastes and promote a safe environment. 2000 EPA Municipal Waste Composition Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Report (1995 Study) <ul><li>Why a Park? </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - 2006 – Draft Master Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of ideas including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active and passive recreational: mountain biking, golf, ball fields, tennis courts, hiking trails, kayaking and canoeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wildlife refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of extensive site analysis; community needs; assessment and outreach; landfill operations consideration; and studies and reviews of other landfill models </li></ul></ul>Tracing the Metamorphosis of the Fresh Kills Landfill
  5. 5. <ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill opened in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “Temporary Landfill” for 20 year operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became one of the largest landfill in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 20200 acres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen with the naked eye from space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller than the Statue of Liberty at a height of 225ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the peak of operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twenty barges, each carrying 650 tons of garbage, were added to the site daily </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi Patricia Cannizzaro Elizabeth Che Michael Dibenedetto John Troino FRESH KILLS LANDFILL <ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill opened in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “Temporary Landfill” for 20 year operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became one of the largest landfill in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 20200 acres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen with the naked eye from space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller than the Statue of Liberty at a height of 225ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the peak of operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twenty barges, each carrying 650 tons of garbage, were added to the site daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated leachate from the landfill flowed directly into local surface waters and groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals in the waste dissolved into the rainwater and snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxins released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed on December 31, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political and community pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshkills was temporarily used as a sorting ground for roughly one-third of the rubble from Ground Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The landfill has not been in operation since that time. </li></ul><ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Department of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill capping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts surface water infiltration into the contaminated subsurface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill gas daily (GFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified at the onsite facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5million cubic feet of pipeline quality gas sold to National Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of heating 22,000 homes on Staten Island. </li></ul></ul>Future Plans: The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others but the entire park is expected to take approximately 30 years to complete. Fresh kills Park will have five main areas: the Confluence, North Park, South Park, East Park and West Park. Each of these areas will have unique characteristics. Some of the fun and adventurous activities offered in the park will include horseback riding, mountain biking, nature trails, kayaking, and large–scale public art. Fresh kills Park will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, birds and plant communities. Settings of immense recreation will allow for some of the best camping sites in all of New York. Sources and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/ Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, originally as a temporary landfill, but remained in operation for 50 years. Like most landfills constructed in the 1940s, Fresh Kills was not designed with linters or any other form of lechate control. Other problems such as local water contamination, hazardous chemical release, and local opposition lead to the closing of the landfill on December 31, 2001. Today, Fresh Kills landfill is being turned into a park over the span of 30 years. Landfill caps and other gas collection and treatment systems are used to ensure proper containment of wastes and promote a safe environment. 2000 EPA Municipal Waste Composition Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Report (1995 Study) <ul><li>Why a Park? </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - 2006 – Draft Master Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of ideas including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active and passive recreational: mountain biking, golf, ball fields, tennis courts, hiking trails, kayaking and canoeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wildlife refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of extensive site analysis; community needs; assessment and outreach; landfill operations consideration; and studies and reviews of other landfill models </li></ul></ul>Tracing the Metamorphosis of the Fresh Kills Landfill
  7. 7. <ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated leachate from the landfill flowed directly into local surface waters and groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals in the waste dissolved into the rainwater and snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxins released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed on December 31, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political and community pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshkills was temporarily used as a sorting ground for roughly one-third of the rubble from Ground Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The landfill has not been in operation since that time. </li></ul>2000 EPA Municipal Waste Composition
  8. 8. Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Report (1995 Study) <ul><li>Acetone: Exposure: breathing air, drinking water, or coming in contact with products or soil that contain acetone. Exposure to moderate-to-high amounts of acetone can irritate your eyes and respiratory system, and make you dizzy. Very high exposure may cause you to lose consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Sulfide: Just a few breaths of air containing high levels of hydrogen sulfide gas can cause death. Lower, longer-term exposure can cause eye irritation, headache, and fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>p-Dichlorobenzene: Repeated exposure to p-dichlorobenzene may induce  anorexia, weight loss, and liver and kidney damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Toluene: Toluene is a central nervous system depressant and an irritant of the eyes, mucous membranes, and skin in humans. In contact with the eyes, toluene causes reversible corneal injury;  prolonged skin contact causes defatting and dermatitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Xylene: Chronic exposure to xylene may cause central  nervous system depression, anemia, mucosal hemorrhage, bone  marrow hyperplasia, liver enlargement, liver necrosis, and nephrosis. </li></ul><ul><li>1997 : 2,650 Tons of methane gas was released daily — which is 5.7% of all U.S. methane emissions and 1.8% of the world’s total methane production. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi Patricia Cannizzaro Elizabeth Che Michael Dibenedetto John Troino FRESH KILLS LANDFILL <ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill opened in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “Temporary Landfill” for 20 year operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became one of the largest landfill in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 20200 acres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen with the naked eye from space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller than the Statue of Liberty at a height of 225ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the peak of operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twenty barges, each carrying 650 tons of garbage, were added to the site daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated leachate from the landfill flowed directly into local surface waters and groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals in the waste dissolved into the rainwater and snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxins released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed on December 31, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political and community pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshkills was temporarily used as a sorting ground for roughly one-third of the rubble from Ground Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The landfill has not been in operation since that time. </li></ul><ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Department of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill capping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts surface water infiltration into the contaminated subsurface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill gas daily (GFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified at the onsite facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5million cubic feet of pipeline quality gas sold to National Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of heating 22,000 homes on Staten Island. </li></ul></ul>Future Plans: The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others but the entire park is expected to take approximately 30 years to complete. Fresh kills Park will have five main areas: the Confluence, North Park, South Park, East Park and West Park. Each of these areas will have unique characteristics. Some of the fun and adventurous activities offered in the park will include horseback riding, mountain biking, nature trails, kayaking, and large–scale public art. Fresh kills Park will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, birds and plant communities. Settings of immense recreation will allow for some of the best camping sites in all of New York. Sources and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/ Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, originally as a temporary landfill, but remained in operation for 50 years. Like most landfills constructed in the 1940s, this Fresh Kills was not designed with liners or any other form of lechate control. Other problems such as local water contamination, hazardous chemical release, and local opposition lead to the closing of the landfill on December 31, 2001. Today, Fresh Kills landfill is being turned into a park over the span of 30 years. Landfill caps and other gas collection and treatment systems are used to ensure proper containment of wastes and promote a safe environment. 2000 EPA Municipal Waste Composition Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Report (1995 Study) <ul><li>Why a Park? </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - 2006 – Draft Master Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of ideas including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active and passive recreational: mountain biking, golf, ball fields, tennis courts, hiking trails, kayaking and canoeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wildlife refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of extensive site analysis; community needs; assessment and outreach; landfill operations consideration; and studies and reviews of other landfill models </li></ul></ul>Tracing the Metamorphosis of the Fresh Kills Landfill
  10. 10. <ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Department of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill capping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts surface water infiltration into the contaminated subsurface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site. </li></ul></ul>250 ml Gas Vent Layer
  11. 11. <ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill gas daily (GFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified at the onsite facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5million cubic feet of pipeline quality gas sold to National Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of heating 22,000 homes on Staten Island. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi Patricia Cannizzaro Elizabeth Che Michael Dibenedetto John Troino FRESH KILLS LANDFILL <ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill opened in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “Temporary Landfill” for 20 year operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became one of the largest landfill in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 20200 acres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen with the naked eye from space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller than the Statue of Liberty at a height of 225ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the peak of operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twenty barges, each carrying 650 tons of garbage, were added to the site daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated leachate from the landfill flowed directly into local surface waters and groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals in the waste dissolved into the rainwater and snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxins released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed on December 31, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political and community pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshkills was temporarily used as a sorting ground for roughly one-third of the rubble from Ground Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The landfill has not been in operation since that time. </li></ul><ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Department of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill capping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts surface water infiltration into the contaminated subsurface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill gas daily (GFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified at the onsite facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5million cubic feet of pipeline quality gas sold to National Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of heating 22,000 homes on Staten Island. </li></ul></ul>Future Plans: The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others but the entire park is expected to take approximately 30 years to complete. Fresh kills Park will have five main areas: the Confluence, North Park, South Park, East Park and West Park. Each of these areas will have unique characteristics. Some of the fun and adventurous activities offered in the park will include horseback riding, mountain biking, nature trails, kayaking, and large–scale public art. Fresh kills Park will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, birds and plant communities. Settings of immense recreation will allow for some of the best camping sites in all of New York. Sources and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/ Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, originally as a temporary landfill, but remained in operation for 50 years. Like most landfills constructed in the 1940s, Fresh Kills was not designed with liners or any other form of lechate control. Other problems such as local water contamination, hazardous chemical release, and local opposition lead to the closing of the landfill on December 31, 2001. Today, Fresh Kills landfill is being turned into a park over the span of 30 years. Landfill caps and other gas collection and treatment systems are used to ensure proper containment of wastes and promote a safe environment. 2000 EPA Municipal Waste Composition Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Report (1995 Study) <ul><li>Why a Park? </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - 2006 – Draft Master Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of ideas including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active and passive recreational: mountain biking, golf, ball fields, tennis courts, hiking trails, kayaking and canoeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wildlife refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of extensive site analysis; community needs; assessment and outreach; landfill operations consideration; and studies and reviews of other landfill models </li></ul></ul>Tracing the Metamorphosis of the Fresh Kills Landfill
  13. 14. Trashy to Classy Katherine Brigandi Patricia Cannizzaro Elizabeth Che Michael Dibenedetto John Troino FRESH KILLS LANDFILL <ul><li>How Did the Landfill Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Was originally composed of tidal creeks and coastal marshes. </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill opened in 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a “Temporary Landfill” for 20 year operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became one of the largest landfill in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 20200 acres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen with the naked eye from space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller than the Statue of Liberty at a height of 225ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the peak of operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twenty barges, each carrying 650 tons of garbage, were added to the site daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Did the Landfill Close? </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed with a liner or any other form of leachate control </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated leachate from the landfill flowed directly into local surface waters and groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals in the waste dissolved into the rainwater and snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxins released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed on December 31, 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political and community pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshkills was temporarily used as a sorting ground for roughly one-third of the rubble from Ground Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The landfill has not been in operation since that time. </li></ul><ul><li>What Safety Measures Are Being Taken For This Transformation? </li></ul><ul><li>Active studies at the Fresh Kills Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Department of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill capping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts surface water infiltration into the contaminated subsurface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas Collection Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Sanitation collects ~10million cubic feet of landfill gas daily (GFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified at the onsite facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5million cubic feet of pipeline quality gas sold to National Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of heating 22,000 homes on Staten Island. </li></ul></ul>Future Plans: The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others but the entire park is expected to take approximately 30 years to complete. Fresh kills Park will have five main areas: the Confluence, North Park, South Park, East Park and West Park. Each of these areas will have unique characteristics. Some of the fun and adventurous activities offered in the park will include horseback riding, mountain biking, nature trails, kayaking, and large–scale public art. Fresh kills Park will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, birds and plant communities. Settings of immense recreation will allow for some of the best camping sites in all of New York. Sources and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/ Introduction The Fresh Kills Landfill was once the second largest landfill in the entire world. It was opened in 1947, originally as a temporary landfill, but remained in operation for 50 years. Like most landfills constructed in the 1940s, Fresh Kills was not designed with liners or any other form of lechate control. Other problems such as local water contamination, hazardous chemical release, and local opposition lead to the closing of the landfill on December 31, 2001. Today, Fresh Kills landfill is being turned into a park over the span of 30 years. Landfill caps and other gas collection and treatment systems are used to ensure proper containment of wastes and promote a safe environment. 2000 EPA Municipal Waste Composition Estimated Air Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill From The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Report (1995 Study) <ul><li>Why a Park? </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - 2006 – Draft Master Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of ideas including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active and passive recreational: mountain biking, golf, ball fields, tennis courts, hiking trails, kayaking and canoeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>environmental programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wildlife refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of extensive site analysis; community needs; assessment and outreach; landfill operations consideration; and studies and reviews of other landfill models </li></ul></ul>Tracing the Metamorphosis of the Fresh Kills Landfill
  14. 15. Future Plans: The park will be three times the size of Central Park. Parts of the park will be completed before others but the entire park is expected to take approximately 30 years to complete. Fresh kills Park will have five main areas: the Confluence, North Park, South Park, East Park and West Park. Each of these areas will have unique characteristics. Some of the fun and adventurous activities offered in the park will include horseback riding, mountain biking, nature trails, kayaking, and large–scale public art. Fresh kills Park will also support richly diverse habitats for wildlife, birds and plant communities. Settings of immense recreation will allow for some of the best camping sites in all of New York.
  15. 17. Citations and More Information: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/sigd/references/

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