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1
Models of Christian
Counseling, Coaching,
and Pastoral Care
By Robert H. Munson, ThD
Celia P. Munson, M.Div., BCPC
Bukal...
2
It is Kind of Confusing...

There are so many different terms for the care
that may be provided for Christians in need....
3
STRATEGY FOR THIS PRESENTATION
Divide PASTORAL CARE
into two categories:
models of Christian
COUNSELING (More on
repair/...
4
What is Pastoral Care?
• Pastor: A Latin word meaning “shepherd”
• Related to pastus meaning “feeding”
• A shepherd sees...
5
Pastoral Care
Even though pastoral care refers to the care
provided by the pastor/shepherd for his/her
flock (church or ...
6
Types of Historical Pastoral Care
Historically speaking, certain tasks of the pastor/ presbyter/
bishop were seen as “pa...
7
The Scope of Pastoral Care
Focusing on the four types
of pastoral care of
Clebsch and Jaekle,
“Sustaining” is seen as
mo...
8
Philosophy of Primary Pastoral Care
– Client Oriented. The client defines the
needs, desires, and agenda. Less on
talkin...
9
Philosophy of Pastoral Care
Pastoral Care can be divided into two broad
categories:

Historical Pastoral Care: Rooted i...
10
Clinical Pastoral Care
Rev.Anton Boisen, father of the
Clinical Pastoral Education/
Training movement in the 1920s.
He ...
11
Clinical Pastoral Care
General Traits:

Its focus has been in chaplaincy environments:
hospitals, jails, hospices, atb...
12
What About Spiritual Care?
Some people choose to use the term “Spiritual
Care” rather than “Pastoral Care.” For them it...
13
Christian Counseling
Many of the forms of counseling can be
understood in terms of four quadrants.
1. They may be ident...
14
Psychology and Theology
15
Levels of Explanation Model
Basic premise: Psychology deals with psychological
and natural problems in human behavior a...
16
Levels of Explanation Model
“The rich fabric of the total picture given to us in
Scripture brings to mind the similarly...
17
Integration Model
Basic premise: Psychology and biblical theology are
both looking at the same thing—human nature. Two
...
18
Integration Model
Built off of the concept, “The Unity of Truth.” That is, “All
truth is God's truth.” Thus, if psychol...
19
Christian Psychology Model
Basic premise: The Bible/Theology critiques
psychology at a foundational level.
Foundational...
20
Christian Psychology Model
“For the Christian psychologist, integration
involves a recognition of the ultimate
authorit...
21
Integrationist and Christian Psychology
Approaches
They may seem quite similar philosophically... and
they are.
However...
22
Biblical (Nouthetic) Counseling Model
Basic premise: A high level of distrust of
modern psychology and psychological
me...
23
Biblical (Nouthetic) Counseling Model
“Nouthetic Counseling helps by confronting sin,
praying for encouraging repentanc...
24
What About Pastoral Care?
The disciplines called Pastoral Care overlap with
the categories of Christian Counseling.
His...
25
Which One is Best?
Often it depends on the problem. Consider SIN for a
moment.

If the problem is “Sin I have done,” t...
26
Coaching. How is it different from
Counseling?

In coaching, there is commonly not the presumption of
“illness” in the...
27
Coaching
Coaching is... “the art and practice of guiding a person
or group from where they are to a greater
competence ...
28
Discipling versus Mentoring
It should be noted that Jesus may, in today's language,
be seen as more of a mentor than a ...
29
Christian Life Coaching

Think of it like Mentoring... except perhaps
more systematized, focused, and time-bound.

Th...
30
Spiritual Direction
Spiritual Direction is quite a bit like Christian Life
Coaching. However, its scope is generally mo...
31
What to Use?
Concern Treatment
I Relationship with God, prayer and prayer problems,
spiritual practices, discernment re...
32
Philosophical Counseling?
“You don’t try to tell people what philosophies to
adopt, but you show them what the competin...
33
So What is Best?

Use what you believe is right before God and in
the best interest of your client, coachee,
directee....
34
References
Much of this comes from our books:
The Art of Pastoral Care by Robert and Celia Munson
And the soon to be pu...
35
Additional References
“Pastoral Care in Historical Perspectives,” Book. by Clebsch and Jaekle, 1964.
“Care of Souls in ...
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Models of Pastoral Care and Counseling

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Look at different models of christian counseling, pastoral care, and coaching... with special attention to the perspectives regarding goal (repair versus growth) and relationship between theology and psychology.

Published in: Spiritual, Technology

Models of Pastoral Care and Counseling

  1. 1. 1 Models of Christian Counseling, Coaching, and Pastoral Care By Robert H. Munson, ThD Celia P. Munson, M.Div., BCPC Bukal Life Care, 2014
  2. 2. 2 It is Kind of Confusing...  There are so many different terms for the care that may be provided for Christians in need.  Some methods “claim” they are Christian while they claim others are “not”  Some methods “claim” to be Biblical while they claim others are “not” THERE IS NO WAY WE WILL FIGURE THIS ALL OUT IN A COUPLE OF HOURS... BUT HOPEFULLY WE CAN GET A START ON UNDERSTANDING SOME OF THIS.
  3. 3. 3 STRATEGY FOR THIS PRESENTATION Divide PASTORAL CARE into two categories: models of Christian COUNSELING (More on repair/ recovery) and models of Christian COACHING (more on directed growth) “Kintsugi” Art Topiary
  4. 4. 4 What is Pastoral Care? • Pastor: A Latin word meaning “shepherd” • Related to pastus meaning “feeding” • A shepherd sees to the feeding, well being, and growth of the flock – Pastoral Care: To be concerned for and give watchful attention (feeding, well being, and growth) for the “flock.” (See Psalm 23 and Ezekiel 34) – Also known as pastoral counseling, pastoral psychology, and spiritual care. – Gregory the Great, Cyprian,Tertullian, John Chrysostom, Ambrose, Augustine, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, Bucer, More, Herbert, Burnet, Baxter, etc.
  5. 5. 5 Pastoral Care Even though pastoral care refers to the care provided by the pastor/shepherd for his/her flock (church or parish family), some forms of care are not considered part of pastoral care. Ministry areas that are not classically considered pastoral care include evangelism, preaching, sacraments, and social ministry. <Note: Pastoral Care is NOT care for one's pastor.>
  6. 6. 6 Types of Historical Pastoral Care Historically speaking, certain tasks of the pastor/ presbyter/ bishop were seen as “pastoral care” and some not. Ones that are identified as: • Seward Hiltner (1958). Healing, Guiding, Sustaining • Clebsch and Jaeckle (1964). Healing, Guiding, Sustaining, Reconciling • Howard Clinebell (1966). Healing, Guiding, Sustaining, Reconciling, Nurturing. • Andrew Lester (1995). Healing, Guiding, Sustaining, Reconciling, Liberating. • Emmanuel Lartey (2003). Healing, Guiding, Sustaining, Reconciling, Nurturing, Liberating, Empowering.
  7. 7. 7 The Scope of Pastoral Care Focusing on the four types of pastoral care of Clebsch and Jaekle, “Sustaining” is seen as most typifying what is thought of as Primary Pastoral Care, and Reconciling as most typifying Pastoral Psychology or Psychotherapy.
  8. 8. 8 Philosophy of Primary Pastoral Care – Client Oriented. The client defines the needs, desires, and agenda. Less on talking and directing. More on listening (Ministry of Presence. Ministry of Silence). – Support and Comfort-Focused. Not focused on changing the client, in belief or action. TRY to understand and empathize.
  9. 9. 9 Philosophy of Pastoral Care Pastoral Care can be divided into two broad categories:  Historical Pastoral Care: Rooted in the Church with its roles defined in the first 1900 years of the church. Tends to be more theological and historical in its methods.  Clinical Pastoral Care: Rooted in the 20th century. Incorporates more from the social sciences, particularly psychology and sociology.
  10. 10. 10 Clinical Pastoral Care Rev.Anton Boisen, father of the Clinical Pastoral Education/ Training movement in the 1920s. He saw the need for pastoral care in mental hospitals after being a patient there himself. He placed theological students in supervised contact with patients in mental hospitals. He gave strong emphasis on the role of theology in pastoral care. FAITH and MENTAL HEALTH-- THEOLOGY and PSYCHOLOGY
  11. 11. 11 Clinical Pastoral Care General Traits:  Its focus has been in chaplaincy environments: hospitals, jails, hospices, atbp. More recently, there has been growing focus in churches, parishes, communities.  Clinical Pastoral Care often tends to focus more on psychological principles than theological principles... but it depends on the practitioner.
  12. 12. 12 What About Spiritual Care? Some people choose to use the term “Spiritual Care” rather than “Pastoral Care.” For them it may emphasize more the focus of care in terms of meaning and ethics. It may also be seen as more interfaith. On the other hand, “Pastoral Care” has a long history, is tied to a more useful metaphor (the shepherd), and suggests a more holistic view of care. In the end, one can use the term one prefers.
  13. 13. 13 Christian Counseling Many of the forms of counseling can be understood in terms of four quadrants. 1. They may be identified in whether they focus more on theology or more on psychology. 2. They may be identified in whether they seek to integrate theology and psychology more, or tend to keep the two separate. <Note: Descriptions of the four major models here are based generally on Timothy Keller's article “Four Models of Counseling in Pastoral Ministry”>
  14. 14. 14 Psychology and Theology
  15. 15. 15 Levels of Explanation Model Basic premise: Psychology deals with psychological and natural problems in human behavior and relationships. The Bible looks at spiritual problems and our relationship with God. As such they are separate disciplines that deal with unrelated problems. It may separate (theology for spiritual issues, psychology for psychoemotional issues, etc.) or may bring in both perspectivally (each provide an important viewpoint, but don't really inform each other.)
  16. 16. 16 Levels of Explanation Model “The rich fabric of the total picture given to us in Scripture brings to mind the similarly rich complexity of the total picture of human nature given to us through the scientific endeavor today. Both emphasize the complexity of human nature, the need to understand and study it from many diverse aspects or perspectives, and the need to recognize that human nature is a unity – a unity now in this present life and, by the grace of God, a unity in the life to come.” -David Myers and Malcolm Jeeves
  17. 17. 17 Integration Model Basic premise: Psychology and biblical theology are both looking at the same thing—human nature. Two different tools to study human beings, “general revelation” and “special revelation.” They give priority to the Bible (foundational role) when there is conflict, but may give science priority in common practice.
  18. 18. 18 Integration Model Built off of the concept, “The Unity of Truth.” That is, “All truth is God's truth.” Thus, if psychological principles are not seen to be contradictory to God's Word, one should be open to the possibility that they are true. In integrating the two, there is (1) the possibility for theology to challenge the social sciences, and (2) allow the social sciences to challenge our theology. (Some may be bothered by this second part until one realizes that this is not about challenging the Bible, but rather challenging our contextualized interpretation of the Bible.)
  19. 19. 19 Christian Psychology Model Basic premise: The Bible/Theology critiques psychology at a foundational level. Foundationally, theology dominates, but psychological techniques may be brought in as part of the therapy. In practice, tends to be counselor driven rather than theory- driven.
  20. 20. 20 Christian Psychology Model “For the Christian psychologist, integration involves a recognition of the ultimate authority of the Bible, a willingness to learn what God has allowed humans to discover through psychology and other fields of knowledge, and a desire to determine how both scriptural truths and psychological data can enable us better to understand and help people.” -Gary R. Collins
  21. 21. 21 Integrationist and Christian Psychology Approaches They may seem quite similar philosophically... and they are. However, one will tend to take a more rigorously psychological approach, while the other may tend to use psychological tools eclectically. Both however, would generally see God's revelation as canon, or the standard by which care is to be grounded upon.
  22. 22. 22 Biblical (Nouthetic) Counseling Model Basic premise: A high level of distrust of modern psychology and psychological methodology. Psychological insights should be used with extreme caution. The older approach, formulated by Jay Adams, put great emphasis on behavioral change and the adoption of patterns of biblical living. Much emphasis on sin, repentance, and redemption.
  23. 23. 23 Biblical (Nouthetic) Counseling Model “Nouthetic Counseling helps by confronting sin, praying for encouraging repentance, renewing the mind, identifying idols, pointing them to the sufficient Scriptures. Lastly, Nouthetic counseling helps to battle against the current Christian counseling movement that seeks to rename sin, omit sorrow/repentance, remain man-centered and felt needs oriented.” -www.calebcounseling.org
  24. 24. 24 What About Pastoral Care? The disciplines called Pastoral Care overlap with the categories of Christian Counseling. Historical Pastoral Care tends to line up with the Christian Psychology quadrant as primacy is placed on theology, although secular sciences were not devalued. Clinical Pastoral Care tends to line up more with the Integrationist quadrant, as there is a stronger emphasis on the social sciences.
  25. 25. 25 Which One is Best? Often it depends on the problem. Consider SIN for a moment.  If the problem is “Sin I have done,” then Biblical Counseling may be best.  If the problem is “Sin done unto me,” then the Integrationist or Christian Psychology may be more helpful.  If the problem is more related to “Living in a Sin- damaged world,” such as organic or deep seated psychopathologies, Integrationist or Levels of Explanation, may assist better.
  26. 26. 26 Coaching. How is it different from Counseling?  In coaching, there is commonly not the presumption of “illness” in the client/coachee. Counseling more about healing... coaching more about growth. Coaching is commonly more directive than counseling.  Counseling often more past oriented... coaching more present and future. Counseling is more on feeling... coaching is more on results.
  27. 27. 27 Coaching Coaching is... “the art and practice of guiding a person or group from where they are to a greater competence and fulfillment they desire.” -Gary R. Collins God, through the Holy Spirit, initiates change, the coachee discovers change through action, experience and motivation. Coaches help facilitate that process. Types include: Mentoring, Discipling (group / intentional one-on-one), Christian Life Coaching, Spiritual Direction
  28. 28. 28 Discipling versus Mentoring It should be noted that Jesus may, in today's language, be seen as more of a mentor than a discipler. Discipleship Mentoring Models Paul with Timothy Barnabas and John Mark Primary focus Content Relationship Type of role Teaching new spiritual truths Caring for and helping a person in all aspects of life. Whose agenda? Discipler's agenda (spiritual disciplines) Protege's agenda (goals/problems) Training? Training and mastery of spiritual disciplines Practical life experience relevant to the protege Chemistry? Respect Repect and personal chemistry Essential message To mature spiritually, here is what you need to know, do, or become How can I help you get where you are going?
  29. 29. 29 Christian Life Coaching  Think of it like Mentoring... except perhaps more systematized, focused, and time-bound.  The life coach helps the coachee identify areas of growth (spiritual, behavioral, or otherwise), comes up (mutually) with strategies and concrete plans/steps to grow, and then assists the coachee with accountability, evaluation, and adjustment.
  30. 30. 30 Spiritual Direction Spiritual Direction is quite a bit like Christian Life Coaching. However, its scope is generally more narrow as it focuses on developing a deeper relationship with God. While the work that spiritual directors do with their directees vary... much of the work tends to be in areas of prayer, meditation, and ritual.
  31. 31. 31 What to Use? Concern Treatment I Relationship with God, prayer and prayer problems, spiritual practices, discernment regarding spiritual experiences, spiritual emergencies Spiritual Direction II Issues involving the meaning and purpose of life, discernment regarding major life decisions, issues involving self-development. Spiritual Direction, Pastoral Care/Counseling III Moral/ethical issues involving oneself; moral and/or ethical issues involving relationships; moral and/or ethical issues involving work or social justice Philosophical Counseling IV Losses/grieving, relational conflicts, work, family, self imbalances, work/school problems, failed expectations, mild to moderate symptoms or impairment. Pastoral Counseling V Moderate to severe symptoms or impairments, characterological or personality-disordered behavior, addictions, sequelae of early life trauma Psychological Counseling, Psychotherapy -Source: Len Sperry
  32. 32. 32 Philosophical Counseling? “You don’t try to tell people what philosophies to adopt, but you show them what the competing ethical interests are.” -Elliot Cohen Len Sperry has noted that in counseling and psychology, even in Christian varieties, there has been a reluctance to deal with ethics. Ethics can be ignored by either: (1) being too non- judgmental so as not to deal with ethical concerns, or (2) being too directive, “Do this” or “Don't do that” rather than assisting in developing an ethical/moral perspective.
  33. 33. 33 So What is Best?  Use what you believe is right before God and in the best interest of your client, coachee, directee.  Remember theology is the intersection of revelation and culture... so a relevant theology without ZERO psychology is probably not possible.  Remember also to be humble (none of us know all truth) and remember God is the true healer.
  34. 34. 34 References Much of this comes from our books: The Art of Pastoral Care by Robert and Celia Munson And the soon to be published: The Dynamics of Pastoral Care also by Robert and Celia Munson
  35. 35. 35 Additional References “Pastoral Care in Historical Perspectives,” Book. by Clebsch and Jaekle, 1964. “Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition,” Book. by Thomas Oden “Skillful Shepherds: An Introduction to Pastoral Theology,” Book, by Derek J. Tidball. “Preface to Pastoral Theology,” Book. by Seward Hiltner, 1958. “Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling,” Book. by Howard Clinebell, 1966. “Hope in Pastoral Care & Counseling,” Book. by Andrew Lester, 1995. “The Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling,” Book. by Rodney J. Hunter, Ed., “Six Functions of Pastoral Care,” Internet Resource, by Jan Corbett-Jones. “Four Models of Counseling in Pastoral Ministry,” Article. By Timothy Keller, “Would you ditch your therapist for a “philosophical counselor”?” Article, by Olivia Goldhill “Christian Counseling: A Comprehensive Guide” by Gary R. Collins, 2007. “Transforming Self and Community” by Len Sperry, 2005. “Integrating Spiritual Direction Functions in the Practice of Psychotherapy” by Len Sperry, 2005. Vriend, Gillian. Lecture notes “Coach, Counsel, Change” (May 2014, Baguio City, Philippines) Biehl, Bobb. “Mentoring: Confidence in Finding a Mentor and Becoming One” (1997) Comparing the Five Views Christians Take to Psychology, Eric Johnson, ppt

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