Learning for Peace


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Peacebuilders work in highly-charged crisis settings. Deep-seated conflicts can suddenly spiral into unexpected violence. And yet, peacebuilding opens opportunities for learning.

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Learning for Peace

  1. 1. The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank, or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this presentation and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this presentation do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology. The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank, or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this presentation and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this presentation do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology. Learning for Peace Olivier Serrat 2011
  2. 2. On Fragile States and Situations DFID and OECD define fragile states by their (in)ability to provide basic services to the poor as a result of lack of political will or weak capacity, or both. CIDA, UNDP, and USAID define fragile states by the extent to which they are (un)able to provide basic functions for poverty reduction and development, including territorial authority and political legitimacy. The World Bank defines fragile situations in terms of a debilitating combination of weak governance, weak policies, and weak institutions. To ADB, states are fragile when their structures lack the political will and/or capacity to provide the basic functions needed for poverty reduction, development, and to safeguard the security and human rights of populations.
  3. 3. The Challenge of Peace-Building Peace-builders work in highly-charged crisis settings that require both immediate action and long-term efforts to produce change in root causes. Deep-seated conflicts can suddenly spiral into unexpected violence, destroying months or years of peace-building work. Peace is the outcome of a harmonious convergence of activities and actors in different spheres and at different levels. It hinges on relationships and trust.
  4. 4. Peace- and State-Building Peace-building agendas focus on peace processes. They give incentives to protagonists to commit to agreements that build processes for political, social, and economic transition. State-building agendas focus on the nature and quality of the political processes through which state-society and power relations are negotiated. They reflect the need for a stable, legitimate, and effective state that offers basic services, security, access to justice, and the foundation for socioeconomic development. • are acceptable to a majority of actors; and • can generate a legitimate political center. Both peace-builders and state-builders aim to establish and/or strengthen institutions and arrangements that
  5. 5. The Contribution of State-Building Approaches to Peace-Building In fragile settings, national reconciliation through a peace process must be accompanies by the construction of • a state that is perceived as legitimate against a backdrop of mistrust, resentment, and/or antagonism; • institutions that serve the public good rather than the interests of the powerful; and • mutually reinforcing linkages between state and society that sustain an effective and resilient public sphere. State-building and peace-building approaches share complementarities in terms of forging more peaceful, inclusive, representative, effective, and legitimate states and societies.
  6. 6. The Dimensions of Conflict Personal Dimensions Conflict changes individuals, personally, emotionally, and spiritually. Relational Dimensions When conflict escalates, communication patterns change, stereotypes are created, polarization increases, and trust decreases. Structural Dimensions Conflict impacts systems and structures—how relationships are organized and who has access to power—among families, communities, entire societies, and their institutions. Cultural Dimensions Violent conflict causes deep-seated cultural changes, for example in the norms that guide interactions among the young and the elderly, or men and women.
  7. 7. The Dimensions of Conflict Personal Dimensions Attitudinal changes Behavioral changes Relational Dimensions Communications Decision making Cooperation Conflict-handling mechanisms Structural Dimensions Social conditions Procedural patterns Cultural Dimensions Cultural changes Cultural resources and patterns Programs and activities
  8. 8. The Steel Fulcrum Public debate over governance grows out of concern over the principles by which an economy ought to be governed. British artist Max Couper created a massive installation on the subject of balance that he displayed in Dusseldorf in 1997 and at the European Parliament in Brussels in 1998. The installation involved a 30 ton London barge on a steel fulcrum, sprung at each end and pivoted by the body weight of the public. The artwork can be seen as a simple metaphor of society as a room in which we are all together, a society whose equilibrium and future direction is determined by the way in which we decide to walk together. Source: Summarized from Peter Schwartz and Blair Gibb. 1999. When Good Companies Do Bad Things. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  9. 9. Reflective Peace-Building for Learning • how things work; and • how particular actions or processes engender consequences in environments of conflict and changes. A theory is an assumption about how something works. In the peace- building context, demystifying social change theory means making explicit underlying assumptions about Peace-building opens opportunities for learning. Continuous learning requires that peace-builders be curious. To test theory one must be annoyingly inquisitive, descriptive, comparative, predictive, systemic, and wide. To remystify practice one must watch out for the unexpected, hold discussions with different people, keep asking why, listen to "because", and embrace failure.
  10. 10. Working in Teams As a Community Ask I ask questions. Inquiring minds are welcome here. We check first to see what already exists. We question accepted wisdom. Every Single One of Us Share I share personal details, roles, and skills. We share experience, evidence, and feedback. We share achievements, outcomes, and pride. Learn I contextualize learning to make it real. We connect and take opportunities to learn. We review lessons as we go and apply our learning. Reflective Peace-Building for Learning
  11. 11. Reflective Peace-Building for Learning The circumstances in which peace- builders operate can hinder their ability to plan, act, reflect, and apply learn. Learning is digesting. Peace-building is greatly enhanced by reflective learning.
  12. 12. Reflective Peace-Building for Learning • creative thinking and responses amongst staff and partners; • enhanced relevance and effectiveness of projects and programs; • projects and programs that respond to unexpected events; • opportunities to strengthen relationships and partnerships; and • opportunities to enhance organizational capacity and maximize limited staff and financial resources. The benefits for peace- building of a learning approach include
  13. 13. The Link Between Learning and Practice Learning improves Practice and enhances Conflict Transformation (in the local and regional contexts)
  14. 14. On Data, Information, and Knowledge Data are discrete and objective facts, measurements, or observations that can be analyzed to generate information. Information is data that have been categorized, analyzed, summarized, and placed in context in a form that has structure and meaning. Knowledge is a combination of data and information, to which is added expert opinion, skills, and experience, resulting in a valuable asset that aids decision making. Knowledge is what you learn from experience—before, during, and after the event.
  15. 15. Knowledge Assets Tacit Knowledge • is knowledge that people carry in their heads; • is rooted in skills, experiences, insights, intuition, and judgment; and • is hard to communicate but can be shared in discussions, storytelling, and personal interactions. Explicit Knowledge • is codified knowledge; • can be expressed in writing, drawings, computer programs, etc.; and • can be transmitted in various forms.
  16. 16. Knowledge Assets Explicit Knowledge = Media-based Tacit Knowledge = In people's head Paper-based, multimedia, digitally indexed, digitally active, etc.
  17. 17. Core Knowledge Activities Core knowledge activities are identified as widely used by an organization. • activities should be aligned or integrated into business processes; and • activities should be balanced according to the specificities of each process and organization. Requirements are that A knowledge management solution should not focus only on one or two activities in isolation. Identify Knowledge Create Knowledge Store Knowledge Share Knowledge Use Knowledge
  18. 18. Knowledge Management Knowledge management is • the explicit and systematic management of processes enabling vital individual and collective knowledge resources to be identified, created, stored, shared, and used for benefit; • the fusion of information management and organizational learning; and • providing the right knowledge to the right people at the right time, and helping them apply it in ways that improve organizational performance.
  19. 19. Knowledge Management Architecture Pillar Function Typical Activity Leadership Drive values for knowledge management.  Identify knowledge critical to learning in ADB.  Conduct work-centered analysis.  Plan high-level strategic approach.  Establish goal and prioritize objectives.  Define requirements and develop measurement program.  Promote values and norms.  Implement strategy. Organization Organize to support values for knowledge management.  Identify critical knowledge gaps, opportunities, and risks.  Develop business process model.  Engage key audiences with incentives. Technology Collect and connect knowledge.  Enhance system integration and access.  Deploy intelligent agents for people.  Exploit semantic technologies.  Reuse existing capabilities in new ways.  Monitor, measure, and report knowledge performance metrics. Learning Cultivate and utilize virtual teams and exchange forums for knowledge management.  Enliven collaboration.  Facilitate communities of practice.  Encourage storytelling.  Recognize and reward knowledge sharing.
  20. 20. Learning Learning is • the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or instruction; • an integral part of knowledge management and its ultimate end; and • driven by organization, people, knowledge, and technology working in harmony—urging better and faster learning and increasing the relevance of an organization.
  21. 21. Model of Learning Progression Data WisdomInformation Knowledge Know WhyKnow HowKnow What Reductionist Systemic
  22. 22. Results-Driven Management Model Future State Current State Hear Understand Support Act Use Own Strong Personal Connection Intensifies
  23. 23. The Five Competencies Framework Strategy Development—A strategy is a long-term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. Management Techniques—Leadership is the process of working out the right things to do. Management is the process of doing things right. Collaboration Mechanisms—When working with others, efforts sometimes turn out to be less than the sum of the parts. Too often, not enough attention is paid to facilitating effective collaborative practices. Knowledge Sharing and Learning—Two-way communications that take place simply and effectively build knowledge. Knowledge Capture and Storage—Knowledge leaks in various ways at various times.
  24. 24. Tools, Methods, and Approaches for Peace-Building ExternalNote: Internal Auditing Knowledge Building a Learning Organization Building Institutional Capacity for Development Creating and Running Partnerships Culture Theory Design Thinking Enhancing Knowledge Management Strategies From Strategy to Practice Learning Lessons with Knowledge Audits Strategy Development Linking Research to Practice Marketing in the Public Sector Outcome Mapping Overcoming Roadblocks to Learning Reading the Future Seeking Feedback on Learning for Change Social Network Analysis The Future of Social Marketing The Most Significant Change Technique The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach Good Potential
  25. 25. Tools, Methods, and Approaches for Peace-Building A Primer on Organizational Culture A Primer on Organizational Learning A Primer on Talent Management Conducting Effective Meetings Crafting a Knowledge Management Results Framework Engaging Staff in the Workplace Fast and Effective Change Management Focusing on Project Metrics Forestalling Change Fatigue Growing Managers, Not Bosses Leading Top Talent in the Workplace Managing by Walking Around Managing Knowledge Workers New-Age Branding and the Public Sector Management Techniques Notions of Knowledge Management Output Accomplishment and the Design and Monitoring Framework Picking Investments in Knowledge Management Seeding Knowledge Solutions Before, During, and After Sparking Innovations in Management The Five Whys Technique The Perils of Performance Measurement The Reframing Matrix The Roots of an Emerging Discipline The SCAMPER Technique Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence Understanding Complexity Value Cycles for Development Outcomes
  26. 26. Tools, Methods, and Approaches for Peace-Building Action Learning Appreciative Inquiry A Primer on Corporate Values A Primer on Neuroscience Bridging Organizational Silos Building Communities of Practice Building Trust in the Workplace Collaborating with Wikis Distributing Leadership Drawing Mind Maps Enriching Knowledge Management Coordination Exercising Servant Leadership Improving Sector and Thematic Reporting Informal Authority in the Workplace Collaboration Mechanisms Leading in the Workplace Learning in Strategic Alliances Managing Virtual Teams Sparking Social Innovations Wearing Six Thinking Hats Working in Teams
  27. 27. Tools, Methods, and Approaches for Peace-Building Asking Effective Questions Building Networks of Practice Coaching and Mentoring Conducing Peer Assists Conducting After-Action Reviews and Retrospects Conducting Effective Presentations Conducting Successful Retreats Dimensions of the Learning Organization Disseminating Knowledge Products Drawing Learning Charters E-learning and the Workplace Embracing Failure Enriching Policy with Research Harnessing Creativity in the Workplace Knowledge Sharing and Learning Identifying and Sharing Good Practices Learning and Development for Management Learning from Evaluation Posting Research Online Social Media and the Public Sector Storytelling Using Plain English
  28. 28. Tools, Methods, and Approaches for Peace-Building Assessing the Effectiveness of Assistance in Capacity Development Conducting Exit Interviews Critical Incident Technique Glossary of Knowledge Management Harvesting Knowledge Monthly Progress Notes Showcasing Knowledge Staff Profile Pages Taxonomies for Development Writing Weblogs Knowledge Capture and Storage
  29. 29. • ADB. 2010. Compendium of Knowledge Solutions. www.adb.org/publications/compendium-knowledge-solutions • ——. 2010. Learning in Development. www.adb.org/publications/learning- development • Catholic Relief Services. 2007. Reflective Peacebuilding – A Planning, Monitoring, and Learning Toolkit. www.crsprogramquality.org/publications/2007/3/9/reflective- peacebuilding.html Further Reading
  30. 30. The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank, or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this presentation and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this presentation do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology. Quick Response Codes @ADB @ADB Sustainable Development Timeline @Academia.edu @LinkedIn @ResearchGate @Scholar @SlideShare @Twitter