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Recirculation Systems for fish and
      shrimp with integrated hydroponics
                 (Aquaponics)
    Recirculatin...
Llyn Aquaculture Ltd
 Established Summer 1999 at Afonwen
  Farm, Pwllheli, Gwynedd, N. Wales
 Marine and Freshwater Reci...
Recirculation Systems – Llyn Aqua
 Marine systems
 Brackish water   Turbot pilot system - Marine
 Fresh water
Llyn Aqua Pilot System.
Design and supply Intensive Fish Production
 systems – research, pilot and commercial.
                         High Valu...
General Design Considerations
                           Choice of Species
     Temperature                               ...
Reasons to Recirculate
   Limited Water
   Temperature Control
   Salinity Control (specialised)
   Disease control
 ...
Recirculation System Complexity vs % daily
   exchange

                 % of tank volume exchanged per day
2,400%        ...
Design. Each situation is unique and
must have custom design based on tried
and tested technology.
   Water Exchange (new...
Reduced water exchange to < 50%
vol per day

  Fine particle filtration (< 50 micron) – side
   stream
  UV ‘sterilisati...
Pros and Cons - Recirculation
   Total Control
                          Cons
   Water Quality
                         ...
E.g. Recirc’ vs Flow Through with 5
m3/hr water (120 m3/day)

 Flow through – 10 m3 tank vol – 1 tpa
  production

 Reci...
Minimal Water intake
e.g. 20 tonnes Sea Bass pa
Fine Filtration – 5 micron
High UV dose - Filter and
UV rated 4m3/hr – use...
Species – with system examples
 Marine (or       Fresh Water (or Brackish)
  Brackish)
                   Arctic Charr
 ...
2000 – 2002, 1st sea bass RAS in UK, 20
 tonnes per annum (300m2 building)


                                          Pur...
Sea Bass
•Temperature (opt) 18-25
•Salinity                     10-40
•Growth to 400g               <1 yr
•Growth to 800g ...
Ongrowing System. Sea Bass 160 Cubic metres.-
Llyn Aqua Pilot - 20 tonnes per year = 125 Kg / m3
per year!

              ...
Turbot and Dover Sole
200 m3 / hr filter in 25
400 m3/ hr filter in 60   tonne per annum perch unit.
tonne pa charr unit       Note purge tanks ...
•Turbot Ongrowing.
Low energy
Low volume shallow
tanks




                     Low FCR.
                     0.8 up to 1 ...
Turbot. 1.5 - 2.0 Kg in 18 - 24 months
from egg. 12 – 18 moths from 5-10g fry
                                          Pr...
Turbot Shallow Raceway system
Turbot in Shallow raceway recirculation system. 20
Kg per m2 (7 cm deep) = 285 Kg / m3
Approx’ 600 kg / m3 / year producti...
Solids Removal
 Prevents overloading of bio-filter and build up of
  anoxic sludge.
Removal down to 50 microns.
 Sedimen...
Example 50 tonne perch farm – Ireland, 2 modules of 25
             tonnes per annum


                                   ...
Solids removal – Moving mesh with
backwash spray - Conveyor or Drum filter.
Drum Filter – High flow / low head
                     Only 2 – to 5 cm head loss
Mechanical Drum Filter with vortex
separator                            Biological Filtration




                        ...
30 tonne per annum system (European Perch) Low Head Llyn
Aqua pumps- 6 of 100 m3/ hr @ 1m head. 0.75 KW each.
Trickle Filter & Low Head (1 to 1.5m) Axial Flow
pumps
(pre 2000 technology) 8 + 2
temp monitoring.
£9,000 in 1999

                               Llyn Aqua Sensor Monitor (LASM...
Monitoring and control -
4 x LASM units on
network – with phone
dialer




                           •2 x 25 tonne system...
Dover Sole – The Holy Grail?    Very High Value
                                Very difficult broodstock
              ...
Stacked Shallow
Raceways
•    Temperature (opt)
                                                      12-17
         Arctic Charr             •    ...
Relevant Example - 60 tpa Arctic
Charr farm - Ireland.
 Bore hole water - 12 Deg. C
 50 % exchange per day (300m3)
 Cir...
60 Tonne per annum Charr.
Nursery system – 8 of 15 m3
Grow Out System – 4 of 100
m3




                              Fish...
Large tanks – more economical from Concrete. < 10 m3,
GRP or HDPE.
•Halibut Raceways – Norway
 •Flow Through farm
 •Failed due to disease
Total Flow 1000 m3 / hr
Crystal clear purging system – 1 week prior to
slaughter. Empty guts and remove any ‘off flavour’
Low visual Impact - no more than mushroom farm.
Fresh Water European Perch.
•Temperature (opt)                18-25
•Salinity                         0 - 10
•Growth to 20...
Concrete block – 50 Tonne
Perch, Ireland
Tropical Shrimp (white)
L. Vannamei
•Temperature (opt)           26 - 30
•Salinity                    3 - 40
•Growth to 20...
Super Intensive
‘ICE’ (Indoor
Controlled
Environment)
shrimp




                  Up to 8 Kg / m3
                  28 De...
‘ICE’ Shrimp – Indoor
Controlled Environment

PROS
•Fast turnover
•2.5 cycles per year
•25 Kg / m2 tank per year
•High pri...
Tilapia – The Chicken
of the ‘sea’
PROS
•Fast turnover (<10 mths)
•>200 Kg / m3 / year
•Salinity        0- 5ppt
•Some stra...
Tilapia competition < £1.0 / Kg
Aquaponics -Plenty of freshwater
examples on the internet
 Silver Carp +
  Rice
 ‘Backyard’
  aquaponics
Llyn Aqua Integrated System – 2001, EU
 funded R & D programme - GENESIS
                      Lly Aquaculture - C C
     ...
Nutrient Assimilation - Clean
discharge.
Mean water quality During May
                         May Water Quality (Mean of Weekly samples)

                       ...
Manila (Sept)   Native (Sept)
Phytoplankton
 Euglena Spp.
 High Nutrient -
  Brackish
Phytoplankton
 Prasinophyte
 Platymonas Spp.??)
Rotifer Population Density
                             Rotifer density 2003 / 2004

 140


 120


 100
                  ...
Manila Clams   Native Clams
Early
Salicornia
(Samphire)
trials
Salicornia – Species selection,
development of ‘strain’, and seed
production.
Replicated density trials
                     Up to 10 Kg / m2 per
                     year
                     Wholesa...
Western Australia. Barramundi and
peppers.
Abalone - Fish/shrimp - plankton
Abalone - Shrimp - Sea Weed
(Ulva)
Israel: Integrated System

Algae grown in discharge
water from recirculation
system




                             Used ...
Bore hole sea    Israeli Integrated           model   Algae
water         Abalone + Urchins
                              ...
Recirculation systems for fish and shrimp with integrated hydroponics
Recirculation systems for fish and shrimp with integrated hydroponics
Recirculation systems for fish and shrimp with integrated hydroponics
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Recirculation systems for fish and shrimp with integrated hydroponics

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Recirculation systems for fish and shrimp with integrated hydroponics

  1. 1. Recirculation Systems for fish and shrimp with integrated hydroponics (Aquaponics) Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - RAS • Candidate Species • System Design and function • Snippets of economics (dangerous without looking at all details of each situation) • Possibilities to integrate with hydroponics • Aquaponics – Fish farming with a bit of veg’ on the side
  2. 2. Llyn Aquaculture Ltd  Established Summer 1999 at Afonwen Farm, Pwllheli, Gwynedd, N. Wales  Marine and Freshwater Recirculation Systems  Demonstration Farm  Design and Consultancy  Supply and installation  R & D projects
  3. 3. Recirculation Systems – Llyn Aqua  Marine systems  Brackish water Turbot pilot system - Marine  Fresh water
  4. 4. Llyn Aqua Pilot System.
  5. 5. Design and supply Intensive Fish Production systems – research, pilot and commercial.  High Value species  Turbot  Sole  Shrimp  Sea Bass  Eels  Fresh water Perch  Arctic Charr •Low Value (high volume) •Barramundi (Asian Sea Bass) •Tilapia
  6. 6. General Design Considerations Choice of Species Temperature Production capaci Location Water Issues Availability / discharge Biosecurity Design Financial Issues Salinity Grants Investement Sales stratedgy Selling price Production costs Construction costs Land cost Borrowing cost
  7. 7. Reasons to Recirculate  Limited Water  Temperature Control  Salinity Control (specialised)  Disease control  Increase production per unit area / volume  To boldly grow fish where no fish has been grown before
  8. 8. Recirculation System Complexity vs % daily exchange % of tank volume exchanged per day 2,400% 1,000 % 500% 100% 50% 20% 10% 5% Mechanical Filtration Flow Through Re - Use Biological Filtration Oxygen + Aeration Fine Filtration (< 50 micron) UV Simple Solids Separation Degassing and pH control Sedimentation Foam Fractionation Denitrification Ozone
  9. 9. Design. Each situation is unique and must have custom design based on tried and tested technology.  Water Exchange (new water)  Mechanical Filtration – Coarse and fine particle removal  Biological Filtration  UV and Ozone  Gas Exchange / Oxygen / CO2 /pH  Salinity  Water Movement – pumping and pipes  Protein skimming / foam fractionation
  10. 10. Reduced water exchange to < 50% vol per day  Fine particle filtration (< 50 micron) – side stream  UV ‘sterilisation’ – side stream  Foam fractionation (Protein skimming)  Ozonation – requires strict control – only to be used on very ‘closed’ intensive systems.  pH Buffering
  11. 11. Pros and Cons - Recirculation  Total Control Cons  Water Quality  High Cost!?  Temperature  Oxygen More Pros  Flow rates •Enables aquaculture to  Disease Control take place where otherwise not possible  High Productivity •Low food miles  Low Labour •Freshness  Effluent Control
  12. 12. E.g. Recirc’ vs Flow Through with 5 m3/hr water (120 m3/day)  Flow through – 10 m3 tank vol – 1 tpa production  Recirculation 10 % volume exchanged per day – 1,200m3 tank vol – 120 to 200 tpa production depending on species.
  13. 13. Minimal Water intake e.g. 20 tonnes Sea Bass pa Fine Filtration – 5 micron High UV dose - Filter and UV rated 4m3/hr – used at – 10 m3 per day. Pathogen Free Pumping once per month from sea to storage tank. Easy temperature control
  14. 14. Species – with system examples  Marine (or Fresh Water (or Brackish) Brackish) Arctic Charr  Turbot  Sea Bass Perch  Sole  Shrimp Barramundi  Barramundi Tilapia  Sea Trout  Halibut (cold) Sturgeon
  15. 15. 2000 – 2002, 1st sea bass RAS in UK, 20 tonnes per annum (300m2 building) Purging tank (clean water) Total water volume of 160 m3 = 125 Kg / m3 / yr Water Exchange average 10% / day = < 300 l/ kg fish
  16. 16. Sea Bass •Temperature (opt) 18-25 •Salinity 10-40 •Growth to 400g <1 yr •Growth to 800g Av’ 1.5 yr •FCR 1.3 to 1.5 •Density - up to 100 Kg/m3 Pros Cons •Temperature •Delicate • Well known •Aggressive • Sales volume •Competition •Fry •Low price •£4.50 / Kg •Large volume
  17. 17. Ongrowing System. Sea Bass 160 Cubic metres.- Llyn Aqua Pilot - 20 tonnes per year = 125 Kg / m3 per year! Price Drop 00-02 - £5.5 to £6.5/ kg ex farm 03 < £4.50 delivered UK from Greece 2009 – Euro 3.00 per Kg (Greece, Turkey) Now need to sell at £4.00 to £4.70 per Kg ex farm UK
  18. 18. Turbot and Dover Sole
  19. 19. 200 m3 / hr filter in 25 400 m3/ hr filter in 60 tonne per annum perch unit. tonne pa charr unit Note purge tanks behind.
  20. 20. •Turbot Ongrowing. Low energy Low volume shallow tanks Low FCR. 0.8 up to 1 Kg 1.0 up to 1.5 Kg
  21. 21. Turbot. 1.5 - 2.0 Kg in 18 - 24 months from egg. 12 – 18 moths from 5-10g fry Pros •Temperature (opt) to 500g 22 to17 •Temperature* •Temp’ (opt) 0.5 – 2Kg 17 to14 • Luxury Niche •Salinity 10-37 •High Value •Growth to 1 kg 1 to 1.5 yr £6.0 - £7 per •Growth to 1.5 Kg 18 – 24 mths Kg •FCR 0.9 to 1.1 •Higher if sell direct •Density - up to 40 Kg/m2 •At 30 to 40 cm deep = 100-120kg/m3
  22. 22. Turbot Shallow Raceway system
  23. 23. Turbot in Shallow raceway recirculation system. 20 Kg per m2 (7 cm deep) = 285 Kg / m3 Approx’ 600 kg / m3 / year production ! At 10% exchange per day = 60 litres per Kg produced. (Sea bass = 300 l/kg)
  24. 24. Solids Removal  Prevents overloading of bio-filter and build up of anoxic sludge. Removal down to 50 microns.  Sedimentation – Simple / low flow / load  Moving screens – Drum or Conveyor belt Removal below 50 microns  Fixed bed – Pressurised sand or beads  Fixed bed – slow up-flow / submerged media  Both require periodic backwashing.
  25. 25. Example 50 tonne perch farm – Ireland, 2 modules of 25 tonnes per annum 47.500m Upflow Upflow 1.800m 1.800m 4.000m 2.950m 0.400m 2.950m 4.000m 3.600m 3.600m RSJ RSJ 0.800m 0.800m 2.250m 2.250m 3.850m 3.850m Fluid Bed Fluid Bed 2.800m 2.800m 1.850m 1.850m 12.000m Concrete drain sumps 6.000m 1.900m 1.900m 0.800m 0.800m 6.000m 6.021m 6.021m 0.150m 0.150m 8.500m 2.000m 2.000m 1.936m 1.936m 200mm 85 m 1.500m UV 1.500m UV 0.5 m Water filtration area 2.650m 2.650m m 00 35 .5 0.3 85 0.2 m 0.3 0.2 00 4.000m m 35 m 3.850m 3.850m 4.000m 2.760m Pink pipes above ground until this point 160mm pipe under tanks Waste pipe between the two 400 mm pipes here Green pipe shows waste water out from sumps
  26. 26. Solids removal – Moving mesh with backwash spray - Conveyor or Drum filter.
  27. 27. Drum Filter – High flow / low head Only 2 – to 5 cm head loss
  28. 28. Mechanical Drum Filter with vortex separator Biological Filtration 1.800m 4.000m 2.950m 3.600m 0.800m 2.250m 3.850m 2.800m 1.850m 6.000m 1.900m 0.800m 6.021m 0.150m 2.000m 8.500m 1.936m m 85 UV 1.500m 0.5 2.650m m 35 0.2 0.3 00 m 3.850m 4.000m 2.760m Low Head Pumps Biological Filtration
  29. 29. 30 tonne per annum system (European Perch) Low Head Llyn Aqua pumps- 6 of 100 m3/ hr @ 1m head. 0.75 KW each.
  30. 30. Trickle Filter & Low Head (1 to 1.5m) Axial Flow pumps
  31. 31. (pre 2000 technology) 8 + 2 temp monitoring. £9,000 in 1999 Llyn Aqua Sensor Monitor (LASM) e.g 8 oxygen - £4,000 Today
  32. 32. Monitoring and control - 4 x LASM units on network – with phone dialer •2 x 25 tonne systems - •24 Oxygen •2 Temp •6 float switch level alarm •2 pressure switch – Oxygen •Power failure •WWW – viewed and controlled from anywhere on net
  33. 33. Dover Sole – The Holy Grail?  Very High Value  Very difficult broodstock  Slow Growth – 300 – 400g in 1 year (30% of stock)  Feed related – Do not thrive on fish based diet
  34. 34. Stacked Shallow Raceways
  35. 35. • Temperature (opt) 12-17 Arctic Charr • Salinity 0 - 37 • Growth to 1Kg <1 yr Fresh water – brackish - marine • Growth to 1.5Kg 17 mth • FCR <1.0 • Density - up to 100 Kg/m3 Down Side Price drop 2006 £5.30 2009 Euro £4.50 Production cost of £3.5 / Kg. £3.0 / Kg at over 200 tonnes.
  36. 36. Relevant Example - 60 tpa Arctic Charr farm - Ireland.  Bore hole water - 12 Deg. C  50 % exchange per day (300m3)  Circulation up to 2.5 x per hour through tanks = 60 times per day  New water = 0.8 % per cycle  Rate of recycling = 99.2%
  37. 37. 60 Tonne per annum Charr. Nursery system – 8 of 15 m3 Grow Out System – 4 of 100 m3 Fish More relaxed at high density – up to 80 Kg/m3 in Nursery and 100 Kg / m3 in Grow out tanks – 10 tonnes per tank!
  38. 38. Large tanks – more economical from Concrete. < 10 m3, GRP or HDPE.
  39. 39. •Halibut Raceways – Norway •Flow Through farm •Failed due to disease
  40. 40. Total Flow 1000 m3 / hr
  41. 41. Crystal clear purging system – 1 week prior to slaughter. Empty guts and remove any ‘off flavour’
  42. 42. Low visual Impact - no more than mushroom farm.
  43. 43. Fresh Water European Perch. •Temperature (opt) 18-25 •Salinity 0 - 10 •Growth to 200g 10 mths •Growth to 400g Av’ 12 - 18 •FCR 1.3 to 1.5 •Density - over 100 Kg/m3 •Very Niche market - Switzerland
  44. 44. Concrete block – 50 Tonne Perch, Ireland
  45. 45. Tropical Shrimp (white) L. Vannamei •Temperature (opt) 26 - 30 •Salinity 3 - 40 •Growth to 20g 4.5 mths •£8 (20g) to £12 (25 – 30g) / Kg •FCR 1.0 to 1.3 •Density - 7 to 10 Kg/m2 •Niche market – top quality, never frozen, super fresh, live, no preservatives, harvest and deliver same day. •Not to compete with bulk frozen imported
  46. 46. Super Intensive ‘ICE’ (Indoor Controlled Environment) shrimp Up to 8 Kg / m3 28 Deg C 25 Kg / m2 / yr output Salinity 5 to 40 ppt
  47. 47. ‘ICE’ Shrimp – Indoor Controlled Environment PROS •Fast turnover •2.5 cycles per year •25 Kg / m2 tank per year •High price - £8 + /kg ex farm CONS •High space required •High Temp •Cheap competition High space means high construction cost – 100 tonnes - £1.25 million
  48. 48. Tilapia – The Chicken of the ‘sea’ PROS •Fast turnover (<10 mths) •>200 Kg / m3 / year •Salinity 0- 5ppt •Some strains – full Sea water •Low protein plant based feed – 35% •Production cost ca. £4.0/Kg 400 tpa farm – ca £1.45m CONS •High Temp 26 - 30 •Cheap competition
  49. 49. Tilapia competition < £1.0 / Kg
  50. 50. Aquaponics -Plenty of freshwater examples on the internet  Silver Carp + Rice  ‘Backyard’ aquaponics
  51. 51. Llyn Aqua Integrated System – 2001, EU funded R & D programme - GENESIS Lly Aquaculture - C C old limate Integrated System F R ish earing Systems Surplus water W W aste ater+ Sinking Sludge Secondary Settler Primary S ettler Floating Solids separation Septic tank Discharge C 5 m3 per day a. Phytoplankton / A ?? rtemia T N o atural Wetland or recycled back to fish New 10.000m 3.000m Sedimentation, worms? 300m3 40 m3 300m3 12.000m P eriodic pumping 2m deep 0.3m deep 2m deep Spread on Land R = 4 days T 10.000m Aerated Lagoon Retention time 30 days Phytoplankton Salicornia + Clams ? 3.032m N A ew rea S G ?? and ravel w simulated tide ith
  52. 52. Nutrient Assimilation - Clean discharge.
  53. 53. Mean water quality During May May Water Quality (Mean of Weekly samples) 0.6 14 ppm Phos & Ammonia ppm Nitrite & Nitrate 0.5 12 0.4 10 8 0.3 6 0.2 4 0.1 2 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 Nitrite 0.28 0.001 0 0 0 Nitrate 0.55 0.12 0 0.05 0.03 Ammonia 8.3 2 1.8 1.1 0.5 Phosphate 11.6 10.6 5 8.1 6.1 Position
  54. 54. Manila (Sept) Native (Sept)
  55. 55. Phytoplankton  Euglena Spp.  High Nutrient - Brackish
  56. 56. Phytoplankton  Prasinophyte  Platymonas Spp.??)
  57. 57. Rotifer Population Density Rotifer density 2003 / 2004 140 120 100 Pos' 3 Pos' 4 80 Pos' 5 Pos' 6 60 Harvest - m Pos 5. 2004 40 20 0 08/04/2003 22/04/2003 06/05/2003 20/05/2003 03/06/2003 17/06/2003
  58. 58. Manila Clams Native Clams
  59. 59. Early Salicornia (Samphire) trials
  60. 60. Salicornia – Species selection, development of ‘strain’, and seed production.
  61. 61. Replicated density trials Up to 10 Kg / m2 per year Wholesale - £5 per Kg
  62. 62. Western Australia. Barramundi and peppers.
  63. 63. Abalone - Fish/shrimp - plankton
  64. 64. Abalone - Shrimp - Sea Weed (Ulva)
  65. 65. Israel: Integrated System Algae grown in discharge water from recirculation system Used as feed for Abalone and Urchins
  66. 66. Bore hole sea Israeli Integrated model Algae water Abalone + Urchins Algae as feed for Abalone Nutrient rich water Salicornia beds Intensive sea bream RAS

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