Planning Obe Lessonwith Bloom


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How to Plan a OBE Lesson incorporating ICT to support aspects of Learning & Thinking
In the Classroom by Ceanlia Vermeulen attending the

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  • Planning Obe Lessonwith Bloom

    1. 1. Presents: Planning OBE Lesson Incorporating ICT Ceanlia Vermeulen INNOVATE 2008 SCHOOLS’ ICT CONFERENCE CAPE TOWN 1-3 OCTOBER 2008
    2. 2. How to Plan a OBE Lesson incorporating ICT to support aspects of Learning & Thinking In the Classroom
    3. 5. Presenter <ul><li>Ceanlia Vermeulen </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 7 Facilitator/Educator </li></ul><ul><li>Hillcrest Primary School </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: 031 – 765 7393 </li></ul><ul><li>Fax: 0866 943 205 </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Copies of examples and planners used during </li></ul><ul><li>this presentation are available through email. </li></ul>
    4. 6. <ul><li>I am Ceanlia Vermeulen </li></ul><ul><li>If I had to summarise myself </li></ul><ul><li>in one word it would be </li></ul><ul><li>Bohemian: n. A person </li></ul><ul><li>with artistic or literary </li></ul><ul><li>interests who disregards </li></ul><ul><li>conventional standards </li></ul><ul><li>of behaviour. </li></ul>
    5. 7. What is my motto? <ul><li>Umuntu ungumuntu ngabantu – </li></ul><ul><li>a person is a person because of other people. If you want to achieve what you want to achieve, help other people achieve what they want to achieve. </li></ul>
    6. 8. Who is Ceanlia Vermeulen? <ul><li>I am Ceanlia </li></ul>I am a qualified Educator & Remedial Specialist. I’m teaching at Hillcrest Primary School in Durban. I am here today to share with you background info on how to Plan a OBE Lesson incorporating ICT & how it can be used to support aspects of Learning & Thinking Friday will be a hands-on workshop on this topic.
    7. 9. <ul><li>Defining ICT </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Information and communications technologies ( ICT ) are the </li></ul><ul><li>computing and communications facilities and features that variously </li></ul><ul><li>support teaching , learning and </li></ul><ul><li>a range of activities in education . </li></ul>
    8. 10. Wanted: Resilient, independent learners who have flexible skills and competencies; who can work well in teams and lead themselves and others to perform up to and beyond their potential. What do we as Educators want for the 21 st century learning school
    9. 11. ‘ Empty vessels’ come to life in the ‘age of uncertainty’ <ul><li>Learning is not sequential </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a social activity </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Learning is a consequence of thinking’ Perkins 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is emotional </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Deep’ Learning = change </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is most effective when it is fun </li></ul><ul><li>The world has changed: </li></ul><ul><li>ICT - the information society </li></ul><ul><li>school/community links </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace demands </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple careers </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible learning </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-national, multi-cultural, multi-faith communities </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Certainty is out; experiment is in’ (Handy) </li></ul>
    10. 12. Essential Learning?? <ul><li>Subjects or skills? </li></ul><ul><li>IQ or EQ? </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers or coaches? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge or competencies? </li></ul><ul><li>Classrooms or computers? </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition or rote learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Summative exams or formative self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>How can we help them acquire the habits of emotional intelligence that will create the resilience to be a lifelong learner? </li></ul>
    11. 13. I(c)T’s about learning “ The genie is out of the bottle. There is no turning back…This is not just a change from inputs (teaching) to outputs (learning). Rather it is a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of the school, where everyone is a learner and even the organization is allowed to make mistakes and be a learner ” (David Loader, Principal, Wesley College, Melbourne in “The Inner Principal”, 1997)
    12. 15. What then is good learning? <ul><li>“ Unless individuals take a very active role in what it is that they are studying, unless they learned to ask questions , to do things hands on, the ideas just disappear” </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner </li></ul>
    13. 16. Info in Processing Processing Info out
    14. 17. <ul><li>There are a wide range of thinking skills or processes. What are the range of thinking processes that can be defined? </li></ul><ul><li>When asked about thinking skills generally, an audience might well come up with a fairly random range of skills, such as these: </li></ul>
    15. 18. Creativity questioning memorisation conceptualisation communication analysis comparison reasoning interpretation
    16. 19. Conception – 14 months 14 months – 4 years 4 – 11 years PQ EQ IQ
    17. 21. <ul><li>One way to categorise thinking skills is to use an existing framework. </li></ul><ul><li>A framework which is still </li></ul><ul><li>regarded as being helpful in this respect is that devised </li></ul><ul><li>by Bloom (1952). </li></ul>
    18. 22. <ul><li>He produced a taxonomy [classification, categorisation] of knowledge handling skills where he used six categories : </li></ul>
    19. 23. Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>Everyone in education has heard of Bloom’s Taxonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>We all know that there are different levels of thinking and inquiry and that in an ideal classroom , </li></ul><ul><li>we would help learners </li></ul><ul><li>move up the ladder to </li></ul><ul><li>higher-level thought . </li></ul>
    20. 24. Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>But in the real world of teaching, we often can’t find the time or the resources to make that happen. </li></ul>
    21. 25. The Web <ul><li>The Web — </li></ul><ul><li>despite its reputation for providing information and nothing more — </li></ul><ul><li>can help you push your learners to higher-level thinking. </li></ul>
    22. 26. Theory vs. practice <ul><li>The standard reproach </li></ul><ul><li>teachers give when presented with innovative or pedagogically powerful teaching methods , methods that address various learning styles or target critical questioning skills is, </li></ul>
    23. 27. Theory vs. practice <ul><li>&quot;Does this help me prepare my learners for the end-of-program/end-of-grade test?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The current frenzy spawned by accountability systems across the nation all but eliminates the slightest thought of preparing our learners to think . </li></ul>
    24. 28. Instead, we often seem resigned to ensuring classrooms of &quot;3’s&quot; and &quot;4’s.&quot; So how do we respond to the question &quot;Why do I need to know this?&quot; And why does this question exist at all if we are teaching effectively? Must our response always be, &quot;You need to know this because it will be on the test&quot;?
    25. 29. <ul><li>In the past few years, though, a considerable amount of attention has been given to learners’ ability to think </li></ul><ul><li> critically about </li></ul><ul><li>what they do. </li></ul>
    26. 30. <ul><li>Leaders in business, medicine, and various other professions have all announced their concern that schools are not preparing learners to be critical thinkers . </li></ul>
    27. 31. It is not enough to have knowledge of a particular medical procedure or to be able to calculate an interest rate on a new car loan. These skills mean very little without the ability to know how, when, and where to apply them.
    28. 32. Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>Recognizing that there are different levels of thinking behaviours important to learning, </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues developed a classification system which has served educators since 1956. </li></ul>
    29. 33. Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>This system, known as Bloom’s Taxonomy, </li></ul><ul><li>is a common structure for categorizing </li></ul><ul><li>test questions and </li></ul><ul><li>designing instruction. </li></ul>
    30. 34. The taxonomy is divided into six levels , from basic factual recall, or Knowledge , to the highest order, Evaluation , which assesses the value of theories or asks the teacher or learner to discriminate among ideas.
    31. 35. In the 1950s, Bloom found that 95% of the test questions developed to assess learner learning required them only to think at the lowest level of learning, the recall of information.
    32. 36. ICT and Learning Empower Pupils take control of learning Use ICT to research and manage own learning Exchange Exchange OHPs for data projectors, using whiteboards as projection screens Enrich whiteboards used interactively and with wider range of teaching resources and methodologies Edutainment? Computer assisted learning? Content based software? Computer games? ?? Extend Significantly alter the way that teaching and learning takes place using ICT Enhance Deeper learning though the use of ICT based teaching and learning resources Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Where is embedded? Passive Active pupil engagement learning Deep Shallow
    33. 37. A Differentiated Classroom in Balance F L E X I B L E Solid Curriculum Sense Of Community Teacher-Student Partnerships A Growth Orientation Time Groups Resource Approaches to teaching and learning Concept- based Inviting Product Oriented Focused Safe Respect for individual Respect For Group Shared goals Shared responsibility Shared Vision On-going assessment to determine need Feedback and grading ZPD Target Tomlinson-oo Affirming Shared Challenge
    34. 38. <ul><li>Map </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Poem </li></ul><ul><li>Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Dance </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Cassette </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz Show </li></ul><ul><li>Banner </li></ul><ul><li>Brochure </li></ul><ul><li>Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Puppet Show </li></ul><ul><li>Tour </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Costume </li></ul><ul><li>Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Blueprint </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapbook </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Flag </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapbook </li></ul><ul><li>Graph </li></ul><ul><li>Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Center </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisement </li></ul>Possible Products Book List Calendar Coloring Book Game Research Project TV Show Song Dictionary Film Collection Trial Machine Book Mural Award Recipe Test Puzzle Model Timeline Toy Article Diary Poster Magazine Computer Program Photographs Terrarium Petition Drive Teaching Lesson Prototype Speech Club Cartoon Biography Review Invention
    35. 39. BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating (synthesis) Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating (evaluation) Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging Analysing (analysis) Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying (application) Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding (comprehension) Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering (knowledge) Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding Bloom’s Taxonomy (revised)
    36. 40. Visual learners <ul><li>Prefer to see rather than be told </li></ul><ul><li>Quick to spot details </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy doodling, drawing and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Can visualise what they are told </li></ul><ul><li>Can quickly forget auditory information </li></ul>Auditory learners <ul><li>Follow verbal instructions quickly and easily </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on memory rather than notes </li></ul><ul><li>Oral skills are better than written </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy talking and explaining </li></ul>Kinaesthetic learners <ul><li>Enjoy practical ‘hands on’ activities </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be active and can appear unsettled </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer to try out rather than read the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Can be ‘turned off’ by purely visual or oral teaching </li></ul>Learning styles defined
    37. 41. <ul><li>Doer, toucher, mover and </li></ul><ul><li>manipulator </li></ul><ul><li>Often has trouble with </li></ul><ul><li>spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Remembers overall </li></ul><ul><li>impression of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Points when reading </li></ul><ul><li>Appears restless in long </li></ul><ul><li>passive periods </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to interact with </li></ul><ul><li>environment </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to physical </li></ul><ul><li>rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Touches for attention and </li></ul><ul><li>close personal space </li></ul><ul><li>Moves and gestures a lot </li></ul><ul><li>Responds physically </li></ul><ul><li>Learns by hearing and </li></ul><ul><li>verbalising </li></ul><ul><li>Medium speech and </li></ul><ul><li>rhythmical </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic speller </li></ul><ul><li>Remembers verbal </li></ul><ul><li>instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Memorises by steps, </li></ul><ul><li>procedures or sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Mouths words in silent </li></ul><ul><li>reading </li></ul><ul><li>Easily distracted by noise </li></ul><ul><li>Likes music </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks clearly and </li></ul><ul><li>confidently </li></ul><ul><li>Often talks to self </li></ul><ul><li>Better speaker than writer </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties with spatial </li></ul><ul><li>awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Learns by seeing and </li></ul><ul><li>imagining </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Is a good speller </li></ul><ul><li>G ood visual memory </li></ul><ul><li>Remembers what was seen </li></ul><ul><li>Highly organised </li></ul><ul><li>Observant </li></ul><ul><li>Visual association to </li></ul><ul><li>memorise </li></ul><ul><li>Fluent and fast reader </li></ul><ul><li>Less distracted by noise </li></ul><ul><li>more by physical surrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers art to music </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty remembering </li></ul><ul><li>verbal cues </li></ul><ul><li>Good long range planner </li></ul>Kinesthetic Auditory Visual:
    38. 42. Blue Hat Managing The Thinking Setting The Focus Making Summaries Overviews  Conclusions Action Plans <ul><ul><li>Green Hat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creative Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities  Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>New Ideas  New Concepts </li></ul>Black Hat Why It May Not Work Cautions  Dangers Problems  Faults Logical Reasons Must Be Given Yellow Hat Why It May Work Values & Benefits (Both Known & Potential) The Good In It Red Hat Feelings & Intuition Emotions Or Hunches “ At This Point” No Reasons or Justification Keep It Short White Hat Information & Data Neutral & Objective Checked & Believed Facts Missing Information & Where To Source It FOCUS DeBono'sThinking Hats Facts Positive, optimism, constructive ideas Processes, definitions, boundaries & conclusions Creative adaptation, “outside the box” Opportunities alternatives Negative, flaws, faults Feelings & Intuition
    39. 43. Logical-mathematical intelligence (&quot;number/reasoning smart&quot;) Multiple Intelligences Multiple intelligences explains how we learn best. We can use it to focus on our strengths or build on our weaknesses. Spatial intelligence (&quot;picture smart&quot;) Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (&quot;body smart&quot; – physical experience) Musical intelligence (&quot;music smart&quot;) Interpersonal intelligence (&quot;people smart&quot; – social experience s Intrapersonal intelligence (&quot;self smart“ ) Linguistic intelligence (&quot;word smart&quot;) Naturalist intelligenc e (&quot;nature smart&quot;)
    40. 44. <ul><li>All teachers develop questions at various times that span the levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. The difficult part is to address each level in the same lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a look at this analysis of a lesson plan, which highlights all six of Bloom’s levels in a Celebrations lesson. </li></ul>
    41. 45. <ul><li>A close study of this lesson reveals how a teacher can help learners advance beyond simple repetition to self-regulated learning. If this is so powerful and so easy, </li></ul><ul><li>then why doesn’t every teacher do it every day? </li></ul>
    42. 46. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES & BLOOM’S TAXONOMY PROGRAM ORGANISER : Celebrations Hold your celebration Make the decorations for your celebration Make the food for your celebration Practise the customs you will be using at your celebration role play Dress up for a special celebration Kinaesthetic I enjoy doing hands-on activities Has everyone illustrated their celebrations in exactly the same way? Why? Make a collage of pictures of celebrations from around the world Compare three celebrations using a Venn diagram Categorise the pictures and add them to the wall display Draw images of different celebrations that are important to you and your family Decorate the room for your special celebration Visual I enjoy painting drawing & visualising Discuss if everyone feels the same about special days and events Make up the customs and symbols for your celebration Carry out a PMI on your chosen celebration Classify celebrations into family and community categories Make a picture graph of events children in the class celebrate Make a calendar of celebrations involving class members and collect a media file including photos Mathematical I enjoy working with numbers & science Discuss which celebration the class likes the most Plan an end of term celebration as a class Why do you prefer one celebration over another Design an invitation to your celebration Prepare a talk on your favourite celebration List the things we celebrate Verbal I enjoy reading, writing & speaking Evaluating Creating Analysing Applying Understanding Knowing Bloom’s Taxonomy: Six Thinking Levels Multiple Intelligences
    43. 47. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES & BLOOM’S TAXONOMY PROGRAM ORGANISER : Celebrations Write a report on your favourite celebration Complete an X chart on celebrations What would you change about your favourite celebration Tell us about a celebration from another country that you found interesting Write about your feelings for the celebrations that are important to you Find out about a celebration from another country Intrapersonal I enjoy working by myself Prioritise the celebrations you investigated in your groups Work with your group to make a planning checklist. With your group investigate three different kinds of celebrations e.g. religious, cultural, national, community or family Report, with your group, the celebrations you investigated. Record details on a class chart As a class discuss common things and differences in the celebrations in the pictures In your group list the things that are special about the celebration in the picture Interpersonal I enjoy working with others Perform your song with movement at assembly Create your own celebration song or rhyme Do all celebrations have special songs? Create some dance movements to enhance the performance of ‘Celebration Listen to different celebration songs e.g. Christmas carols, Easter Birthday Learn the song “Celebration” Musical I enjoy making & listening to music
    44. 48. Using the web <ul><li>Most of us think of the Internet as a giant library…and not always a very good one. But the World Wide Web is more than just a warehouse for disorganized information. </li></ul>
    45. 49. Using the web <ul><li>For the creative teacher, it’s a vast opportunity to encourage learner inquiry at every level of Bloom’s Taxonomy, from knowledge to evaluation. </li></ul>
    46. 50. Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge measures recall. On this level, learners are asked to remember pieces of information, specific terms and techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will name… </li></ul><ul><li>Label the diagram and list … Define these terms… </li></ul>
    47. 51. Knowledge <ul><li>Resources for finding, practicing, and memorizing information are sites that support knowledge-level questioning and includes ready-reference sites, like almanacs and encyclopaedias, for learners to find facts. </li></ul>
    48. 52. Knowledge <ul><li>Some sites include puzzle generators and a quiz generator, </li></ul><ul><li>tools teachers may find </li></ul><ul><li>useful to help learners </li></ul><ul><li>practice and recall terms </li></ul><ul><li>and facts. </li></ul>
    49. 53. Comprehension <ul><li>Comprehension is understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>On this level, learners are asked to grasp meaning and to demonstrate understanding by summarizing or explaining. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase the following… </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will explain … </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate the concept of… and give examples . </li></ul>
    50. 54. <ul><li>Resources that foster understanding through </li></ul><ul><li>discussion, </li></ul><ul><li>description, and </li></ul><ul><li>translation are sites that support comprehension-level questioning. </li></ul>
    51. 55. <ul><li>The tutorials and self-paced instructional materials from eHow provide the context for learning anything from pet care (How to train your dog not to beg at dinner) to holiday planning (How to throw a perfect Birthday party). </li></ul>
    52. 56. Application <ul><li>Application is when you use </li></ul><ul><li>what you know. learners are expected to take what they learn and apply it in a new, real-life situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will demonstrate … </li></ul><ul><li>Using this information, prepare … Solve the following… </li></ul>
    53. 57. Application <ul><li>Sites with activities that allow learners to use the knowledge they have gained are sites that support application-level questioning. CNN learner News has weekly activities that encourage learners to draw conclusions from a series of facts. For example, given information about the life and work of an individual, learners can try to guess the person’s identity. </li></ul>
    54. 58. Analysis <ul><li>Analysis answers why . </li></ul><ul><li>It is the breaking down of knowledge into parts and the relation of those parts to the whole concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between… The learner will analyze and infer … Reduce these materials, then outline … </li></ul>
    55. 59. Analysis <ul><li>Sites that dissect the subject matter, explain how the parts fit together, and then encourage learners to seek more information support analysis. Teachers may use the Problem-based Learning Clearinghouse to find questions to use with their secondary-level classes or to learn to develop their own scenarios and role-playing questions. </li></ul>
    56. 60. Synthesis <ul><li>Synthesis is assembling knowledge into a new whole. </li></ul><ul><li>This means collecting information, then creating a new insight. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will design … </li></ul><ul><li>Devise a new… </li></ul><ul><li>Revise this work and integrate … </li></ul>
    57. 61. Synthesis <ul><li>Sites that encourage cooperative learning activities that use a variety of materials to create new products support synthesis-level questioning. </li></ul>
    58. 62. Synthesis <ul><li>ThinkQuest is an activity in which learners can work together to create interactive, content-rich Web sites. Explore projects in the ThinkQuest Library to see some amazing creations. </li></ul>
    59. 63. Synthesis <ul><li>A WebQuest is &quot;an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners’ time well, to focus on using information rather than looking for it, and to support learners’ thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. </li></ul>
    60. 64. Synthesis <ul><li>&quot; By definition, then, the WebQuest model is an activity using higher-level thinking skills. This activity is very popular; in addition to the activities listed on the official site, there are WebQuests online to cover virtually any subject. </li></ul>
    61. 65. Evaluation <ul><li>Evaluation is judging . Given criteria, learners judge the value of the information for a specific purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the given material… </li></ul><ul><li>Using these criteria, critique … </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will compare … </li></ul>
    62. 66. Evaluation <ul><li>Sites that require the learner to evaluate contain information, often primary-source information, that the learners must judge and then convey their opinion. </li></ul>
    63. 67. Evaluation <ul><li>Opportunities for debate abound! 42eXplore’s Oral History site gathers the firsthand expressions of individuals who have lived through experiences the learners may be studying. learners must consider the role of the speaker, the relationship of the interviewer, and the time in which the interview took place in order to properly evaluate the content of the oral history piece. </li></ul>
    64. 68. A dynamic learning environment <ul><li>Bloom’s Taxonomy and the World Wide Web are two pieces of a puzzle that forms a dynamic learning environment. </li></ul><ul><li>With them in place, the </li></ul><ul><li>remaining two pieces, </li></ul><ul><li>the teacher and the learner, </li></ul><ul><li>will be changed. </li></ul>
    65. 69. A dynamic learning environment <ul><li>If the teacher creates a constructivist or inquiry-based classroom environment, then both teacher and learner must behave differently to </li></ul><ul><li>take advantage of the </li></ul><ul><li>learning opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>it affords. </li></ul>
    66. 70. The learner <ul><li>In an inquiry-based classroom, learners are not relegated to the traditional desks in straight rows. learners are not empty vessels waiting to be filled. </li></ul>
    67. 71. The learner <ul><li>They assume an active role in which they must locate, evaluate, organize, synthesize, and present information, transforming it into knowledge in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>(Note the distinction </li></ul><ul><li>here from Bloom’s </li></ul><ul><li>definition of </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge — see below.) </li></ul>
    68. 72. The learner <ul><li>Learners work collaboratively with classmates to explore a problem. This makes it possible for each learner to come to his or her own understanding of a particular topic </li></ul><ul><li>as he or she </li></ul><ul><li>constructs knowledge. </li></ul>
    69. 73. The learner <ul><li>This environment is focused on the learning and is more learner-centered than the traditional classroom. </li></ul>
    70. 74. The teacher <ul><li>If the classroom has become more learner-centered, then what does this mean for the teacher? Is he or she no longer necessary? Of course not. In fact, the teacher’s role is just as important as it has always been — if not more so. </li></ul>
    71. 75. The teacher <ul><li>With a knowledge of learning styles and of Bloom’s Taxonomy coupled with access to the wealth of resources provided by the World Wide Web, the teacher works alongside the learners. </li></ul>
    72. 76. The teacher <ul><li>Teachers scaffold learning so that learners can assume a more active role in their own learning. This means that lessons are in fact more carefully constructed to guide learners through the exploration of content. </li></ul>
    73. 77. The teacher <ul><li>Teachers’ instructional arsenal contains a greater variety of instructional techniques and knowledge of instructional design. Their role has evolved from the limited didactic form of lecturing once held as the standard view of an effective teacher. </li></ul>
    74. 78. <ul><li>Attention to Bloom’s Taxonomy does not mean that every class period must be optimally designed to place learners in inquiry-based roles. </li></ul>
    75. 79. <ul><li>Teaching requires that we constantly assess where learners are and how best to address their needs. </li></ul><ul><li>This may mean that on certain occasions it is necessary to lecture. </li></ul>
    76. 80. <ul><li>In the long run, it means that the teacher balances methods of instruction by providing opportunities for the learners to take some ownership of their learning . </li></ul>
    77. 81. <ul><li>It means that it is more likely that various learning styles will be addressed . </li></ul><ul><li>And it means that we may not hear the dreaded question </li></ul><ul><li>Why do I need to know this? </li></ul><ul><li>so often </li></ul>
    78. 82. How and what our students learn is a reflection of how and what we teach!
    79. 83. Cognitive Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom Information/ Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Recall of facts or information Use criteria to judge value of ideas and information Put ideas together to create a new or unique product Explore understandings through integral parts Use learned knowledge, rule or method in a different situation Demonstrate understanding of information
    80. 84. Final thoughts: A Bloom by any other name <ul><li>Benjamin Bloom did his work long before the advent of the &quot; Information Age ,&quot; and some of his terms conflict with the way we often talk about the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>It has become common to say that what learners find on the Web is only information , and that they have to construct knowledge from that information on their own. </li></ul>
    81. 85. Final thoughts: A Bloom by any other name <ul><li>If Bloom were devising his taxonomy today, he might call the first level Information instead of Knowledge . </li></ul>
    82. 86. <ul><li>Perhaps the point to remember is that it doesn’t much matter what you call it, as long as you teach it . </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s Taxonomy is a convenient means of talking about higher-level thinking , but other taxonomies could be (and have been) designed with different names for more or fewer levels. </li></ul><ul><li>I will conduct a hands-on workshop on this topic on Friday 10:45 in Classroom 2 </li></ul>
    83. 87. <ul><li>If your learners are analyzing , </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizing , and </li></ul><ul><li>evaluating , </li></ul><ul><li>they’ll be able to decide for themselves what to call their ideas! </li></ul>
    84. 88. <ul><li>Reflection Quotes </li></ul>‘ I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.’ Old Chinese proverb! “ Children do not just passively take in information from the world around them and learn it; rather, they actively transform it into something that is unique and personally meaningful. They use their experience as the context for building new meanings and skills onto what they have already learnt.” Levin 1996:74 in Dau,E Child’s Play 2001:7
    85. 91. Thank you! Ceanlia Vermeulen [email_address] Cell: 082 905 9339