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Formative e-assessment: case
stories, design patterns, and
future scenarios
Harvey Mellar
London Knowledge Lab
Institute o...
Overview
Short term, scoping study commissioned by JISC, and supported by the Centre for
Excellence in Work-based Learning...
WHAT IS FORMATIVE
ASSESSMENT?
A definition
“An assessment functions formatively when
evidence about student achievement elicited by
the assessment is in...
Five strategies
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment.
Educational Assessment, Eva...
Moments of contingency
Teachers design their instruction to yield evidence about student
achievement, by carefully craftin...
PARTICIPATORY METHODOLOGY
FOR PRACTICAL DESIGN
PATTERNS
8
Case Stories Workshop
Engender
collaborative reflection
among practitioners by
a structured process of
sharing stories o...
9
Pattern Mining Workshop
Shift from anecdotes
to transferable design
knowledge by
identifying
commonalities across
case s...
The core template
• Context
– Where, when, who (all the things you can’t change)
• Problem (pick one!)
– We want to do A u...
11
Future Scenarios Workshop
Validate design
patterns by
applying them to
novel real
problems in real
contexts
CASES
Creature of the week
(Judy Robertson)
Situation
Large class (138), first and second year computer
science students. Assign...
CoMo (Niall Winters, Yishay Mor)
Situation
 Royal Veterinary College
 Hospital rotations as part of the training
Task
 ...
Open mentor (Denise Whitelock)
http://purl.org/planet/Cases/OpenMentor
PATTERNS
Try Once,
Refine Once
(Aliy Fowler)
http://purl.org/planet/Patterns/TryOnceRefineOnce
Problem
Lack of immediate feedback for students
leads to fossilisation of errors and
misconceptions
providing immediate fe...
Context
Class size
 Large (30-300)
Content
 Skillsfacts
Mode of instruction
 Blendedon-line. Computer tested
Solution
• Students are posed questions of a type which elicit answers that
can contain multiple errors
• If a student's a...
Feedback
on
Feedback
(Linda
McGuigan)
http://purl.org/planet/Patterns/FeedbackonFeedback
Good feedback should
 Alert learners to their weaknesses.
 Diagnose the causes and dynamics of these.
 Include operatio...
Context
Large scale, technology supported, graded
courses
 many tutors instructing many students
Feedback is mediated by ...
Solution
Embed a mechanism in the learning and teaching system
that regularly captures tutor feedback, analyses it, and
pr...
SCENARIO
High achievers
When using Try Once Refine Once, there is a risk
that high-achievers do not receive feedback
So
• Use Showc...
AUGMENTED DOMAIN MAP
Reminder of the five strategies
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment.
Educational...
REPORTS
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/projects/scopingfinalreport.pdf
Practical design patterns for
teaching and learning with
technology
A book for Sense Publisher's 'Technology
Enhanced Lear...
RIDE 2010 presentation - Formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios
RIDE 2010 presentation - Formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios
RIDE 2010 presentation - Formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios
RIDE 2010 presentation - Formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios
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RIDE 2010 presentation - Formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios

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Research in Distance Education: impact on practice conference, 27 October 2010. Presentation in Assessment Strand by Dr Harvey Mellar, Institute of Education.
More details at www.cde.london.ac.uk.

Published in: Education
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RIDE 2010 presentation - Formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios

  1. 1. Formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios Harvey Mellar London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education, University of London http://feasst.wlecentre.ac.uk/ http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/projects/feasst.aspx
  2. 2. Overview Short term, scoping study commissioned by JISC, and supported by the Centre for Excellence in Work-based Learning for Education Professionals • Methodology • Desk research • Literature review • Comparing frameworks • Five Practical Enquiry Days • Combination of collaborative reflection, report back from teams, and guest plenaries • Launch day, three Planet workshops, developers' day (Adopted and adapted the Planet Project's Participatory Methodology for Practical Design Patterns - http://patternlanguagenetwork.wordpress.com) • Wiki for collaborative authoring of patterns http://purl.org/planet/Groups.FormativeEAssessment/
  3. 3. WHAT IS FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT?
  4. 4. A definition “An assessment functions formatively when evidence about student achievement elicited by the assessment is interpreted and used to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions that would have been made in the absence of that evidence” (Dylan Wiliam)
  5. 5. Five strategies Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), 5-31.
  6. 6. Moments of contingency Teachers design their instruction to yield evidence about student achievement, by carefully crafting hinge-point questions, for example. These create ‘moments of contingency’, in which the direction of the instruction will depend on student responses. Teachers provide feedback that engages students, make time in class for students to work on improvement, and activate students as instructional resources for one another. (Leahy, Lyon, Thompson and Wiliam, 2005)
  7. 7. PARTICIPATORY METHODOLOGY FOR PRACTICAL DESIGN PATTERNS
  8. 8. 8 Case Stories Workshop Engender collaborative reflection among practitioners by a structured process of sharing stories of successful practice
  9. 9. 9 Pattern Mining Workshop Shift from anecdotes to transferable design knowledge by identifying commonalities across case stories, and capturing them in a semi-structured form
  10. 10. The core template • Context – Where, when, who (all the things you can’t change) • Problem (pick one!) – We want to do A under condition B but are constrained by C • Solution (in any order that works for you) C o n t e x t Problem Solution When, Where, Who What are we trying to achieve / solve? Cookbook: ingredients, procedure, expected outcomes
  11. 11. 11 Future Scenarios Workshop Validate design patterns by applying them to novel real problems in real contexts
  12. 12. CASES
  13. 13. Creature of the week (Judy Robertson) Situation Large class (138), first and second year computer science students. Assignment: create a virtual pet in Second Life Task  Engage and motivate the students  show examples of good work which others could learn from  show students their work is valued.  build a sense of community.http://purl.org/planet/Cases/creatureoftheweek
  14. 14. CoMo (Niall Winters, Yishay Mor) Situation  Royal Veterinary College  Hospital rotations as part of the training Task  Allow students to capture critical incidents in text and image  Support sharing of clinical experiences and co- reflection http://purl.org/planet/Cases/CoMo
  15. 15. Open mentor (Denise Whitelock) http://purl.org/planet/Cases/OpenMentor
  16. 16. PATTERNS
  17. 17. Try Once, Refine Once (Aliy Fowler) http://purl.org/planet/Patterns/TryOnceRefineOnce
  18. 18. Problem Lack of immediate feedback for students leads to fossilisation of errors and misconceptions providing immediate feedback in an iterative fashion can also hinder effective learning since students are able to "grope their way" step-by-step to a correct solution without necessarily having to think about each answer as a whole.
  19. 19. Context Class size  Large (30-300) Content  Skillsfacts Mode of instruction  Blendedon-line. Computer tested
  20. 20. Solution • Students are posed questions of a type which elicit answers that can contain multiple errors • If a student's answer is entirely correct a mark of 100% is awarded • If their answer contains errors, a mark is given which contributes to a percentage of the total mark for the question, along with detailed - yet generic - feedback on the location and type of the errors • Students are then permitted a second attempt in which to refine their answer • The mark for the 2nd attempt contributes to remaining percentage of the total mark for the question • Feedback on any remaining errors is also given, along with the correct answer(s) • No further attempts are permitted
  21. 21. Feedback on Feedback (Linda McGuigan) http://purl.org/planet/Patterns/FeedbackonFeedback
  22. 22. Good feedback should  Alert learners to their weaknesses.  Diagnose the causes and dynamics of these.  Include operational suggestions to improve the learning experience.  Address socio-emotive factors. Tutors know this, but are pressed for time, or are not aware of their feedback strategies Large teaching organisations are not equipped to provide tutors with personal feedback on their teaching Problem
  23. 23. Context Large scale, technology supported, graded courses  many tutors instructing many students Feedback is mediated by technology that allows it to be captured and processed in real time Topic of study is subject to both grading and formative feedback
  24. 24. Solution Embed a mechanism in the learning and teaching system that regularly captures tutor feedback, analyses it, and presents them with graphical representation of the types of feedback they have given. Ideally, this should also include constructive advice as to how to shift from less to more effective forms. In computer supported environments (e.g. VLEs), this mechanism could be integrated into the system, providing tutors with immediate analysis of their feedback, as well as long-term aggregates.
  25. 25. SCENARIO
  26. 26. High achievers When using Try Once Refine Once, there is a risk that high-achievers do not receive feedback So • Use Showcase Learning to celebrate students’ work and provoke feedback from peers and tutors • Use Feedback on Feedback to alert tutors to the problem
  27. 27. AUGMENTED DOMAIN MAP
  28. 28. Reminder of the five strategies Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), 5-31.
  29. 29. REPORTS
  30. 30. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/projects/scopingfinalreport.pdf
  31. 31. Practical design patterns for teaching and learning with technology A book for Sense Publisher's 'Technology Enhanced Learning' series Editors: Yishay Mor (London Knowledge Lab), Steven Warburton (King's College London) and Niall Winters (London Knowledge Lab) http://www.practicalpatternsbook.org/Home

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