Teaching as a design science in learning and technology

2,680 views

Published on

Keynote presentation from the CDE’s Research and Innovation in Distance Education and eLearning conference, held at Senate House London on 19 October 2012. Conducted by Prof Diana Laurillard (London Knowledge Lab).

0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,680
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
299
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
65
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Peer learning, knowledge sharing; oers and open learning
  • Laurillard, D., Charlton, P., Craft, B., Dimakopoulos, D., Ljubojevic, D., Magoulas, G., et al. (Forthcoming). A constructionist learning environment for teachers to model learning designs Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, (Accepted).McAndrew, P. and Goodyear, P. in Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2007). Rethinking Pedagogy for the Digital Age. London: Routledge.
  • Laurillard, D., and, Ljubojevic, D. (2011). Evaluating learning designs through the formal representation of pedagogical patterns, Investigations of E-Learning Patterns: Context Factors, Problems and Solutions, (86-105), Eds. Kohls, C. and Wedekind, J. IGI Global.
  • Based on the TLRP-TEL ‘hapTEL’ project at Kings College London.
  • d, D., & Ljubojevic, D. (2011). Evaluating learning designs through the formal representation of pedagogical patterns. In C. Kohls & J. W. Wedekind (Eds.), Investigations of E-Learning Patterns: Context Factors, Problems and Solutions (pp. 86-105): IGI Global.
  • Laurillard, D., Charlton, P., Craft, B., Dimakopoulos, D., Ljubojevic, D., Magoulas, G., . . . Whittlestone, K. (2011). A constructionist learning environment for teachers to model learning designs Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, (Accepted).
  • Laurillard, D., and, Ljubojevic, D. (2011). Evaluating learning designs through the formal representation of pedagogical patterns, Investigations of E-Learning Patterns: Context Factors, Problems and Solutions, (86-105), Eds. Kohls, C. and Wedekind, J. IGI Global.
  • See Ch4 of Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. New York and London: Routledge.
  • See Ch4 of Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. New York and London: Routledge.
  • Figure 6: New interface method showing the drop-down menu for selecting an alternative TLA
  • Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. New York and London: Routledge.
  • Teaching as a design science in learning and technology

    1. 1. Teaching as a designscience in learning andtechnologyDiana LaurillardLondon Knowledge LabInstitute of Education
    2. 2. The policy context • Professional educators connected by technology to empower, and inspire effective teaching (US Plan 2010) • Promote professional learning communities between policy, practice and research (UNESCO 2011) • There needs to be a greater prioritisation of teaching partnerships between technologists, learning support specialists and academics, and an end to the ‘not invented here’ syndrome… Good practice must also be shared. (HEFCE OLTF, 2011)Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    3. 3. Teachers as an innovative professional learning community • Reconceptualising teaching as ‘a design science’ • Teachers building on the designs of others • Articulating their pedagogy • Adopting, adapting, testing, improving learning designs • Co-creating and sharing learning designs A computational representation of pedagogic designSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    4. 4. Can learning design be supported computationally? It’s difficult, but it’s worth a try, because… Teachers need much more support than they get to make the most of learning technologies If they can learn together, collaborate, build on the work of others, they can build this knowledge Not in just in staff development courses, not from books, not through exhortation, but in the same way as other designers collaborate and learn… … using a learning design support tool Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    5. 5. The Learning Designer A TLRP-TEL project To help teachers Articulate their effective teaching ideas for others to adopt Adopt ‘pedagogical patterns’ of good teaching and open resources Model pedagogical benefits and teaching costs By developing design tools A ‘pedagogical patterns collector’ for capturing and articulating good pedagogy A’ learning design support tool’ for teachers to find, adopt, adapt, analyse, experiment, trial in practice, redesign, and share designs http://tinyurl.com/ppcollector3 https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/HomeSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    6. 6. Capturing pedagogy as design plans Colour- Short coded description content Learning Black text outcome articulates the teacher’s pedagogy Categorised teaching- learning activities TimingsSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    7. 7. Comparison of pedagogical benefits A computational representation could analyse how much of each activity has been designed in Conventional Categorised learning activities Acquisition Inquiry Blended Discussion Acquisition Practice Production Inquiry Discussion Practice Production Analysis shows more active learningSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    8. 8. A computational representationSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    9. 9. The Pedagogical Patterns Collector A library of patterns to inspect, both generic and specific versions Colour-coded text identifies content parameters Black text captures pedagogy designSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    10. 10. Adopt/Adapt a teaching pattern Export to Read, Watch, Listen Word Investigate Check the feedback [Moodle] Discuss Add link to an Practice on the overall OER, e.g. a digital Share distribution of tool for practice Produce learning activity Represent the teacher as Adjust the type of present or not learning activity. Edit the Adopt – Adapt – Import resources - Test and re-design – Share what works instructions.Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    11. 11. Comments on the PPC • [The pie-chart] is one of the most useful features … it gives a good overview of the balance between different learning experiences • I rarely consider how the students time is apportioned … its good to be made to think about this. • Seeing how the sessions are shaping up in such a visual medium …. would probably make me think more carefully about providing a mix of activitiesSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    12. 12. The Learning Designer A TLRP-TEL project To help teachers Articulate their effective teaching ideas for others to adopt Adopt ‘pedagogical patterns’ of good teaching and open resources Model pedagogical benefits and teaching costs By developing design tools A Pedagogical Pattern Collector for capturing and articulating good pedagogy The Learning Designer for teachers to find, adopt, adapt, analyse, experiment, trial in practice, redesign, and share designs http://tinyurl.com/ppcollector3 https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/HomeSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    13. 13. The Learning Designer overview Analysis: screen: Timeline: Properties: The start •• Select teaching- Charts ofor Create Credit hours overall Import the • learning activities, Student experience numbers – types of outcomes •• Define what they do Learning • in activityand of learning, Description •• Define timing of experience of Designer reflection • each one,social or personal,feedback Student group whole class sizes, sequencing • teacher workload – for initial design and for reuseSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    14. 14. A theory-based framework of the learner learning Acquiring Talk, book, vi Teacher L L Learner deo, Web concepts C C concepts Inquiring Modulate Generate L LearnerL P P practice Learning through acquisition, instruction Learning through inquirySept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    15. 15. A theory-based framework of the learner learning Teacher L L Learner concepts C C concepts Modulate Modulate Generate Generate Task/Feedback Lab, Game, Si Learning L LearnerL mulation environment P P practice Actions Learning through practice with meaningful intrinsic feedbackSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    16. 16. A theory-based framework of the learner learning Acquiring Ideas, questions Teacher L L Learner Peer concepts C C concepts concepts Inquiring Ideas, questions Modulate Modulate Modulate Generate Generate Generate Outputs Learning L LearnerL Peer Practising P P environment practice practice Outputs Instructivism - Social constructivism – Experiential learning – Inquiry learning - Constructionism – Collaborative learning (Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford…)Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    17. 17. A theory-based framework of the learner learning Acquiring Teacher L L Learner Peer Inquiring Discussing concepts C C concepts concepts Producing Modulate Modulate Modulate Generate Generate Generate Learning L LearnerL Peer environment Practising P P Collaborating practice practice Instructivism - Social constructivism – Experiential learning – Inquiry learning - Constructionism – Collaborative learning (Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford…)Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    18. 18. The Conversational Framework Teacher Peer Teacher L L Learner Peer communication communication concepts C C concepts concepts cycle cycle Modulate Teacher Modulate Peer Modulate practice Generate practice Generate Generate cycle cycle Teacher Peer Learning L LearnerL Peer modelling modelling environment cycle P P practice cycle practice Instructivism Social constructivism Experiential learning Inquiry learning Constructionism Collaborative learning Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné, Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford…Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    19. 19. Learning with technology Podcasts Acquiring Teacher Web L L Learner Webinar, Foru Peer Inquiring Discussing concepts resources C C concepts m concepts Producing Designs Modulate Productions Modulate Generate Generate Skills Learning L LearnerL Collaboration Peer Practice Practising Collaborating environment P P practice tools practice ToolsSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    20. 20. Co-creating new pedagogies • Import existing learning designs • Use advice and guidance • Consider alternative designs • Adapt the design to own context • Analyse the designs • Re-design – test – improve – share what worksSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    21. 21. Co-creating new pedagogies Import an existing learning design Adapt an existing learning design Consider advice and guidance on adaptation Consider alternative learning activitiesSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    22. 22. Re-designing Use drop-down menu to change teaching- learning activities and analyse effect on learning experience and teacher timeSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    23. 23. Analysing the design Interpreted in Contrasting terms of the teacher workload Conversational for own design Framework and reuseSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    24. 24. Modelling learning experience and teacher workload How can we estimate the effects of the decisions we make as we plan a course? We select the set of teaching and learning activities we intend to use These have consequences for the pedagogical benefits, and the comparative costs in terms of teachers’ workloadSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    25. 25. Comparison of pedagogical benefits, and costs in terms of teachers’ workload Conventional Blended Acquisition Acquisition Inquiry Inquiry Discussion Discussion Practice Practice Production Production Yr 1 Yr 2 Typical Yr 1 Yr 2 Typical Lower per capita costs Student 15 15 30 15 15 30 in a typical numbers year for Teacher hrs 3.5 1.8 1.2 5.2 2.3 0.4 large per student numbers But who funds the up-front design and development costs?Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    26. 26. Modelling the costs for increasing student cohort size 3.5 3 2.5 Teacher days per 2 Conventional student 1.5 Open Mode Blended 1 0.5 0 30 60 90 120 150 Cohort size The per-student support costs never improve through economies of scaleSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    27. 27. MOOC feasibility Only ‘fixed’ costs Mainly ‘transmission’ teaching – multimedia Orchestrated peer learning Use of interactive digital learning objects Automated assessment Certificate of ‘attendance’ No ‘variable’ (per student) costs No individual student support No tutor-based assessment, formative or summative No accreditation of learningSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    28. 28. Sharing… Once tested and evaluated with students, export (with metadata) to shared folder, website, communit y library, open repository…Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    29. 29. Comments on the approach • Teachers respond positively to the Learning Designer tools and see this as a way of improving teaching, and potentially of saving time • The Learning Designer concepts of sharing designs, reuse, adaptation, advice on TEL, analysis of the learning experience, suggestions of design alternatives, and categorisation of designs, were all welcomed by teachers • Teachers commented on the added value of the detailed descriptions of pedagogy, which enable them to have a more in-depth conversation about their practice and what makes a learning design more effectiveSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    30. 30. What issues must the Learning Designer also address? • Complexity “It’s very overwhelming … there’s a lot going on and to • Potentially a not sure what all the terms mean. I mean I think about. I’m tool of management control don’t understand the difference between production and • Interpretabilityaof analysis OKDesigner]Itturnssee a “My only worry is that it [the Learning practice. Let’s have look *…+ Yes – an–option. Yes I an institutional requisite rather than into I get it. becomes • Thedifference.tool,have pie charts, itsyoufocusI wouldwithit the measurement Probably we needusefulmore*...+ here tool “I think its cute to rather than a a bit help need for a topic-orientedorganisationaltool explanations and examples. But once neat get into the go that allows some critical self reflectionmy time because I on practice. I know back problem withmy stuff, is that the pedagogy is neutral of “My thedifficult” the tool reorganise once out there, can and squidge isn’t so goal is the latter, but software, that know that it would be a good thing to have a mix of would while the approach to teaching and learning the topicso seductive to gather information for become all of these things (i.e. forms of learning). But thats with requires a topic approach and this tool doesn’t help because departments, policy makers, etc, and the information that is I think its a good thing. If I didnt believe that this was a this approach” produced is then you woulduseful for individual that was good thing, probably ONLY show me a pie chart teachers, not education ministers, etc” ok” 90% of one thing I would still think itsSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    31. 31. Teachers as innovative co-creators of technology-based pedagogies Features of teaching as ‘a design science’: • Teachers adopting, adapting, testing, improving, sharing learning designs • Teaching as collaborative learning, supported by online collaborative design tools and repositories • A theory-based computational representation of pedagogic design that migrates across subjects and clarifies learning benefits and teaching costsSept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    32. 32. Further details… Teaching as a Design Science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology (Routledge, 2012)Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
    33. 33. The LDSE project team Oxford Birkbeck/LKL Liz Masterman (CoPI) George Magooulas (CoPI) Marion Manton (CoPI) Patricia Charlton Joanna Wild (RF) Dionisis Dimakopoulos IOE/LKL Brock Craft (RF) LondonMet Diana Laurillard (PI) Tom Boyle (CoPI) Dejan Ljubojevic (RF) RVC LSE Kim Whittlestone (CoPI) Steve Ryan (CoPI) Stephen May Ed Whitley Carrie Roder (PhD Student) Roser Pujadas (PhD Student)Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa

    ×