RIDE2013 presentation: Implications of Touch Technologies on Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Higher Education


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Presentation from 'Future Technology' strand at the CDE’s Research and Innovation in Distance Education and eLearning conference, held at Senate House London on 1 November 2013. Conducted by Professor Margaret Cox, Dr Jonathan San Diego and Dr Barry Quinn (King's College London). Audio of the session and more details can be found at www.cde.london.ac.uk.

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  • Technical Strand To develop, evaluate and refine haptic devices and online simulations Curriculum and Context Strand To develop and refine the dental curriculum and associated teaching strategies through a blended learning approach Educational Evaluation StrandTo measure the impact of the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) devices on teaching and learning
  • The students were expected to select one of the 3D objects that would have the top, front, and side representation of a given picture.
  • The study involved 144 Year 1 undergraduate dental students. 46 students were randomly assigned to use the hapTEL system whilst 98 used the traditional dental chair simulator. As per the course programme arrangements, the 46 students were grouped into two. Every Wednesday session half of these students worked in pairs using the 14 hapTEL systems. The study took over 3 months.
  • Some of the research areas related in developing virtual learning systems with haptics
  • So it is important to meet the users’ needs. Users can be different groups e.g. learners, teachers, in the case of dentistry and medicine for example clinicians, etc. Different user groups may be involved at different stages of the requirements analysisFor example, in the hapTEL Project, at the initial stage of the development clinicians, the experts have been involved in specifying, advising and making decisions on the requirements of the kinds of tactile feedback, the ergonomics, the visual magnification etc. The list of requirements are undergoing several iterations based on the suggestions of the different user groups.
  • In developing, for example, the visual feedback. It is important to consider the data source. It can be complicated depending on how close you want it to simulate real objects or in dentistry for example how anatomically correct.Here is as example on how the dental models have been generated as e.g. a haptic tooth model.
  • The clinicians felt strongly about the development of the 3D teeth and mouth models.We have not anticipated the technical constraints in identifying data sources.Wide range of technologies and options. 3D scanners, artist impression, CT scans, anatomy books,
  • The system incorporates a number of advanced virtual reality techniques. These include A stereoscopic display system which is able to present different images to each eye giving a very strong impression of depth. A camera tracks the position of the user’s head and adjusts the view accordingly; this allows the user to move around the virtual scene which appears to stay in the same place. A real dental hand piece is attached to a force-feedback device and gives the illusion that the user is actually making contact with the tooth and drilling through it.
  • The data can provide formative feedback enabling the students to detect automatically, for example: the average time taken in each task, the number of attempts, number of times they have exposed the pulp, etc. This can then be analysed by teachers and researchers to see how a student progresses in completing each task.  In the hapTEL system, the total volume of virtual teeth material is represented by the total number of tetrahedrons. The task involved removing artificial decayed tooth material represented in brown coloured tetrahedrons whilst carefully avoiding removing the healthy parts of the tooth, i.e. enamel (in off-white coloured tetrahedron) and healthy dentine (in ivory coloured tetrahedron), around the boundaries of the decayed part; and also avoiding hitting and removing the pulp (in red coloured tetrahedrons). There were three tasks (plus a trial task) with varying difficulties according to how close the decay is to the pulp and the shape and size of the decay. For each task, the students could make as many attempts as they wish within the average time given of about 45 minutes. In this paper, the focus is on the analysis of logs captured from haptic interactions and operations. These logs represent the total amount of tetrahedron for each of the virtual tooth parts, the amount of tetrahedrons removed, the location of tetrahedrons, and the time spent in each attempt.
  • Ahvited - a European Union funded project. The aim of the work was to investigate the role of audio tactile diagrams in a distance learning scenario.Biomolecular binding - refers to a specific positioning and orientation of (small molecule) into the binding site of a protein (large molecule)The binding site is that location where the binding energy associated with attractive and repulsive forces that exist between the two molecules is at a minimum. When simulated by computer technology, the process of searching for this favourable position is called “docking”
  • Before I pass it back to Margaret. There is another long distance application of haptics…
  • RIDE2013 presentation: Implications of Touch Technologies on Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    1. 1. Implications of Touch Technologies on Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Margaret J. Cox, Jonathan P. San Diego and Barry Quinn The Dental Institute - King’s College London Research and Innovation in Distance Education and E-learning November 1st 2013 1
    2. 2. Outline • Introduction and background of the hapTEL project • Explanation of haptics and its place in the HE curriculum • Dental case study: goals, study design, tasks, methods, results • Pedagogical and design considerations and implications for distance education and other future technologies • Examples for training and education at a distance and other disciplines • Conclusions and implications for HE education research and development 2
    3. 3. Rationale for the original project 40 years evidence of positive impact of TEL on students’ learning Simulations, generic Software, online resources Sensors, programming Growth in use of TEL in dental education Little research into new multimedia impact in post-compulsory education Haptics provides new representation systems and immersion in virtual environments Impact on students’ learning; epistemologies; manual skills; conceptual understanding; 3
    4. 4. Funders for hapTEL projects 2007 – 2011 (Award Number: RES-139-25-0387) •UK Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Research Programme (within ESRC) •UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) •UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) •UK Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) 2012 - 2014 •Technology Strategy Board •King’s College Teaching Fund 4
    5. 5. hapTEL Interdisciplinary team and partners King’s College Staff and Post-graduate Students Dental Institute (Cox, San Diego, Quinn + 20) Department of Education and Professional Studies (Cox) School of Nursing and Midwifery (Fordham-Clarke) School of Medicine (Butchers) School of Robotics (Altheofar) University of Reading - Cybernetics team (Harwin, Barrow, Tse) University of Portsmouth – Dental Academy (Holmes, Wynne) Birmingham City University Engineering (Elson) University of the Arts - London (Wright) Generic Robotics – (Barrow and colleagues) 5
    6. 6. 6
    7. 7. Educational Evaluation Framework Factors affecting learning experiences (Entwistle, 1987) 77
    8. 8. BARRY QUINN 8
    9. 9. Goals and issues for Dental Education Undergraduate Dental Education Developing the learner to become a practising professional Using tactile devices hand-eye Co-ordination Manipulative skills Spatial reasoning skills Changing the way Professionals work: e.g. in teams with DCPs Need to provide satisfactory and sufficient feedback to students Increasing size of student cohorts 9
    10. 10. Requirements of the Dental curriculum • Dental curriculum – Relevance of haptics technology – Priorities and issues • Current practices – ‘Biological vs mechanistic’ – Cavity cutting on plastic and discarded teeth – Formative assessment • Perceived integration constraints – Ethics (Institutional requirements and patients) – Risks and entitlements 10
    11. 11. Clinical concepts and skills for undergraduate dental students • • • • • Caries removal Depth of the cavity Angle of entry into the tooth Speed of the bur Different tactile sensations in cutting between different tissues • Cavity design • Time available for the task and the actual time taken 11
    12. 12. Traditional • Removal of artificial decayed material on a plastic tooth • Three sessions: Two attempts per session hapTEL • Removal of virtual decayed material on a virtual tooth located in a jaw • Three sessions: as many attempts as they wish within a given time per session 12
    13. 13. Graphic models 13
    14. 14. Strand 3 - Research design and methods to measure students‘ learning • Pre and post tests • Spatial reasoning; fine motor skills; 3-D perceptions • Attitudes towards ICT and haptics • Video observations of students’ practices in the laboratories • Task performance in traditional and hapTEL laboratories • Final Cavity preparation task • Post-lab self assessment task 14
    15. 15. Examples of assessment techniques 15
    16. 16. Study Design (Large scale trials) 16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. Clinical skills assessment methods • Traditional methods – Observation by tutors during manikin-head work – Reviewing finished work at end of treatment/course – Practical examination of specific clinical skills tasks • TEL methods Based on logs, screen capture and live feedback – Reviewing in-progress virtual clinical treatment on screen – Post-evaluation of each recorded student’s task procedure – Examining series of completed of tasks 18
    19. 19. Research methods to measure curriculum practice and teachers’ pedagogies • • • • Interviews with tutors Observations of both experimental and control groups Designing specific dental tasks Self-assessment by students of their task performances • Tutor assessment • Criteria based assessment of final tasks • Attitude test of tutors 19
    20. 20. Educational impact results • hapTEL ‘dental chair’ provided individual feedback to each student who didn’t have to wait for the tutor to provide feedback • TEL activity enabled the students to have multiple attempts to improve their practice compared with the traditional activity which was limited to two plastic teeth per student per session. • 1 plastic tooth costs £16. £13,800 per term for 144 students • hapTEL tooth could be enlarged 6-times by the students so they could see the result of their cavity preparation, and learn about accurate self assessment • hapTEL ‘dental chair’ enables the students to replay their procedure to observe their strengths and weaknesses • Year 1 students who were only taught using the hapTEL virtual system and had never treated a real or plastic tooth, performed as well as the traditionally taught students when preparing a plastic tooth cavity at the end of the term 20
    21. 21. JONATHAN P. SAN DIEGO 21
    22. 22. Research into developing virtual learning systems with haptics • Physical Layout (Ergonomics, collocation, workspace) • Physical interface (inclusion of rubber cheeks, synthetic tissues) • Touch (Collision detection, DoF, workspace, etc.) • Vision (3D or 2D, tissue models, colour changes, magnification, graphic scene changes) • Audio (mono/stereo/3D, variants of feedback) • Others (data logs and visualisation, motion representation, smell) 22
    23. 23. Requirements analysis: meeting users’ needs • Physical setup of the device  Ergonomics  Finger-rest  Foot control  Oral workspace • Oral cavity model  First lower molar with the adjacent and opposing teeth  Other tissues (but not haptic at present) • Multi-sensory feedback (colour, sound, vibration etc.) • Teaching aids (orientation, magnification, playback, 3D measurement) 23
    24. 24. Phases of developing the 3D models 3D VR HapticTooth 24
    25. 25. Teeth and mouth model 25
    26. 26. hapTEL Workstation (Curriculum Version) 3D Display Monitor Shutter glasses Camera Audio speakers Haptic handpiece Pod Haptic Device Foot Controls 26
    27. 27. Examples of assessment techniques 27
    28. 28. Haptics in Distance Learning AHVITED - Audio Haptics for Visually Impaired Training and Education at a Distance (AHVITED) (Europe) Learning Biomolecular Docking (Singapore) 28
    29. 29. 29
    30. 30. Haptics with other future technologies 30
    31. 31. Haptic radar (Japan) Whiskers! 31
    32. 32. Hug over distance Air compressor 32
    33. 33. 33
    34. 34. MARGARET COX 34
    35. 35. hapTEL for Dentistry • Simulating the dental chair hapTEL related to art • Links between drawing and clinical surgery skills hapTEL applied • Developing the system to other healthfor care subjects injections 35
    36. 36. hapTEL virtual learning unit at Kings College Dental Institute Eyesi virtual learning unit at Moorfields Eye Hospital 36
    37. 37. Extending the research into drawing and art • Year 1 cohort n=130, investigated relationship between computer drilling skills logs and drawing journal • Initial drawing task was drawing a ceramic tooth which the student could not see but only touch • 2 week period to visually record images of the ceramic tooth in their journal 37
    38. 38. Postgraduate Trial study: MA Drawing students exploring and recording ceramic object 38
    39. 39. Kings College Dental students exploring and recording ceramic object 39
    40. 40. Dental student journal drawings using conventional drawing materials 40
    41. 41. Recording using non conventional drawing materials 41
    42. 42. Data from HapTEL unit(2012) User Name: H115 D12 16.10.12 Cavity=4 Material Logs Enamel: Remaining 98.61% Dentine: Remaining 99.01% Carie: Removed 74.14% Pulp exposed: No Pulp: Removed 0% Timing Logs Total Duration: 143.26 seconds Time at first contact: 24.01 seconds Time spent Drilling: 80.24 seconds 42
    43. 43. Example of one students log-file and drawing achievement 43
    44. 44. BDS 1 Drawing Skills (2012) Graded levels of drawing performance 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 120600 1105044 1205263 1200434 1203403 1204844 1203729 1108205 1206342 904767 1102774 use of line 16 13 9 8 10 7 6 11 8 6 5 use of tone 16 13 10 6 15 7 5 6 5 5 2 drawing response 18 15 8 11 6 10 9 5 10 5 6 3D recording 18 15 10 7 10 5 5 9 6 5 4 drawing materials 10 5 11 14 2 11 15 5 6 7 3 44
    45. 45. Results of drawing project • The preliminary analysis from the journals with comparison to the computer log files indicate a correlation between certain drawing styles and the virtual clinical performance in hapTEL 45
    46. 46. Implications for Teaching • The results of the study are a practical example of a pedagogical strategy that could incorporate TEL methods into under/postgraduate programmes in Dentistry, Surgery and other related fields • Drawing skills can be an indication of fine motor skills equally needed for intricate processes in technical and scientific subjects 46
    47. 47. Extending the hapTEL system in health – care teaching King’s College Teaching Fund Sept 2012 – July 2014 hapTEL in dentistry hapTEL in nursing hapTEL in medicine 47
    48. 48. Evolution of hapTEL touch technologies in higher education Dental cavity preparation Dental injections Medical injections Nursing training Doctor training Relating to drawing 48
    49. 49. Technology Strategy Board project – injections – July 2013 – June 2014 49
    50. 50. Conclusions: Implications for TEL in Higher Education In order for haptic TEL or other TEL resources to be absorbed into the curriculum and make a positive contribution to students’ learning: 1. University teachers need to be involved in the innovation from the beginning. 2. TEL needs to complement the traditional teaching practices 3. TEL needs to be seen to enhance the evolving curriculum. 4. Extensive ongoing support for teachers is needed to maximise its potential. 50
    51. 51. Educational Evaluation Framework Factors affecting learning experiences (Entwistle, 1987) 51 51
    52. 52. THANK YOU for your interest Contact us: hapTEL@kcl.ac.uk http://www.haptel.kcl.ac.uk Follow us on Twitter @hapTEL 52