Thermal Performance of Concrete MasonryNCMA Presentation #: 000502-01ContinuingEducation Services
AIA Disclaimer NoticeContinuingEducation This program is registered with the AIA/CES for Services continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
Thermal Performance of Concrete MasonryContinuingEducation Services 1.0: Utilizing Thermal Mass Advantages 2.0: Selection of the Insulation System 3.0: Thermal Bridging 4.0: Control of Air Infiltration
Thermal Performance of Concrete MasonryContinuingEducation Services •Approximately 22% of the total energy consumed for building operations is used to heat and cool commercial structures. •About 25% is used to heat and cool residential structures.
1.0 Thermal Mass AdvantagesContinuingEducation Services Thermal Mass Advantages
1.0 Effects of Environment on System PerformanceContinuingEducation Services Thermal & Energy Heat Gain / Loss Interior Moisture Reduced Energy Efficiency
1.0 Utilizing Mass Advantages Continuing Education Thermal Performance of masonry depends Services on its thermal resistance (R-Value) as well as thermal mass.R-Value ofmasonry • Size and Type of Unitis determinedby thefollowingcharacteristics • Type and Location of Insulation • Finish Materials • Density of Masonry
1.0 Utilizing Mass AdvantagesContinuingEducation Services THERMAL MASS: Materials with mass heat capacity and surface area are capable of affecting building loads by storing and releasing heat as the interior and/or exterior temperature and radiant conditions fluctuate. Thermal mass tends to decrease both heating and cooling loads in a given building.
1.0 Utilizing Mass Advantage Continuing Education The effectiveness of thermal Mass is Services dependent upon: •ClimateCommercialbuildingshave peakloads during •Building Designthe average •Fenestration, •Orientationwork day •Occupancy, •Heat Sources9:00 - 5:00 •Insulation PositionResidentialbuildingshave peakloads thatstart earlier •Wall Heat Capacityand last laterinto theevening
1.0 Utilizing Mass AdvantagesContinuingEducation Services Buildings constructed with masonry can require 18% - 70% less insulation than similar frame buildings, while still providing an equivalent level of energy efficient performance. Thermal storage is the temporary storage of high or low temperature energy for later use. It allows a time gap between energy use an daily availability. Using thermal storage, heating or cooling energy is stored so that it is available for space conditioning during peak demand periods.
1.0 Utilizing Mass Advantages Continuing ASHRAE/IES Education Services Standard 90.1 = Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.Thisstandard Properallows management of aowners andbuilders to building’s thermaltake storage hasadvantage ofthermal resulted in 10-35%mass to reductions inreduce the peak electricalrequirementfor added use in commercialinsulation. buildings.
1.0 Thermal Mass Advantages Continuing Education 9 Services 8ASHRAE 790.1 Minimum 6 R-ValueThe standard Masonry Bldgrecommends 5a maximum 4glass area Steel Frameof 50%. 3 BldgIf smaller 2areas offenestration 1are used, a 0further Non- High-rise Semi-heatedreduction in residential residential (Warehouse)R-value canbe provided SAN FRANSISCOwith the useof masonry
2.0 Selection of Insulation MaterialsContinuingEducation Services Selection of Insulation Materials
2.0 Selection of the Insulation SystemContinuingEducation Services Criteria for insulation selection •Desired Thermal Properties •Climate Conditions •Ease of Construction •Cost •Additional Design Criteria
2.0 Selection of the Insulation SystemContinuingEducation Services Loose-fill insulation Polyurethane Perlite Vermiculite foamed insulation Solid grouted density range mid range mid range mid range mid Exposed 85 6.3-8.2 7.1 5.9-7.5 6.6 6.9-9.4 8.0 1.9-2.1 2.0 block, 95 5.3-7.2 6.1 5.0-6.7 5.7 5.8-8.1 6.7 1.7-2.0 1.8 both 105 4.5-6.3 5.2 4.3-5.9 4.9 4.8-7.0 5.6 1.6-1.9 1.7 sides 115 3.8-5.5 4.4 3.7-5.2 4.3 4.0-6.0 4.7 1.5-1.8 1.6 125 3.2-4.8 3.8 3.1-4.6 3.7 3.3-5.1 4.0 1.5-1.7 1.5 135 2.7-4.2 3.3 2.7-4.0 3.2 2.8-4.4 3.4 1.4-1.6 1.5 Representative R-Values for 8 in. Normal Weight Concrete Masonry Units
Wall AssembliesContinuingEducation Services Interior Insulated Wall This strategy moderates the effect of exterior temperature swings on the building’s interior
Wall AssembliesContinuingEducation Services Exterior Insulated Wall Thermal mass is most effective when insulation is placed on the exterior of the masonry wall. This strategy keeps masonry directly in contact with interior conditioned air.
3.0 Thermal BridgingContinuingEducation Services Thermal bridging occurs when a relatively small area of the wall, floor, or roof loses more heat than the surrounding area. A thermal bridge allows to heat to short circuit insulation Thermal bridging is associated with conduction heat transfer, where heat flows through solid materials from warmer to colder areas.
3.0 Thermal Bridging Continuing Education Services Thermal bridges can occur at: •Where building elements are joinedTHERMAL •Floors, roofs, beamsCONDUCTIVITY •Improper installation of materialsability of • Gaps in insulationmasonry to •Through materials that are good conductorsconduct heat •Nails, steel framingLightweightunits 2.5 (80pcf)Heavy weight8.3 (140 pcf)
3.0 Thermal BridgingContinuingEducation Services Possible Effects of Thermal Bridging •Increased heat loss •Local cold spots on the interior •Condensation •Damage to insulation
3.0 Thermal BridgingContinuingEducation Services Thermal bridging effects can be magnified by heat and moisture transfer due to air movement. Proper installation of vapor and air barriers can greatly reduce moisture damage caused by thermal bridging.
3.0 Thermal BridgingContinuingEducation Services 1. REDUCE TANSFERENCE OF MOISTURE THROUGH WEBS 2. INCREASE THERMAL PERFORMANCE 3. REDUCE LABOR INTENSITY
4.0 Control of Air infiltrationContinuingEducation Services
4.0 Control of Air infiltrationContinuingEducation Air infiltration is undesirable air Services leakage into conditioned spaces of buildings. Its direct result is an increase of energy consumption to maintain desired levels of human comfort. Infiltration can come from a myriad of cracks, gaps, poorly designed joints, flashing, utility penetrations and window and door frames.
4.0 Control of Air infiltration Continuing Education Masonry structures do Services not have sill plates as wood frame Control of Infiltration buildings do. Masonry construction isInfiltrationaccounts for a continuous40% of the assembly. This meanstotal heating that infiltrationand cooling is significantly reducedload for theaverage in a masonryhouse. structureBased onresearch, theuse of awaterproofedmasonry wallcan reduceinfiltration by87%
4.0 Control of Air infiltration Continuing Education Distribution of leakage areas by component Services systems 10% WindowsCOST vsBENEFIT 31% 11% DoorsSimply HVACincreasing Elec. OutletsR-value Pipesbecomes 15% Ventslesseconomical. 2% FireplaceRequired 14% Wall, Sill, Ceiling 4% 13%changes inconstructionpracticesmust beconsidered.
4.0 Control of Air infiltration 1NCMAContinuingEducation Wall Strategies Services 2 1. Indoor vapor retarder in cold climates. Delete in hot, humid 3 climates. 2. Adhesive attachment preferred (mechanical attachments optional). 3. Caulk or foam joints between board insulation. 4 4. Caulk and seal utility penetrations.