Hewitt is a global HR Consulting and Outsourcing Firm Internally, we have a robust Diversity & Inclusion strategy that is focused on developing a crossculturally competent organization. Focusing on People has always been core to what we do as a business. We began our Diversity journey about 5 years ago and since then we have effectively embedded Diversity & Inclusion into the work we do with clients, as well as into our own internal HR processes. We have developed a 4 –stage competency model and a 4-stage crosscultural competence curriculum.
Introduction will include definitions of key terms.
A more diverse workforce is more complex. Diversity yields results when managed effectively through leadership development and crosscultural competence. In multicultural groups, goals, procedures, tasks, roles, and rules need to be very explicit. Great case study: Boeing – development of new wing design. merger of several aviation companies, Boeing deliberately brought together a team of developers from different ethnic cultures AND from different corporate cultures – from each of their legacy companies – to work on the development of the new wing design for the 7E7 planes. They said the result was the most effective, efficient wing ever developed in the shortest time in the history of aviation.
Crosscultural psychology: There are certain personality types or characteristics that lead one to being good at dealing with other cultures. It is a trait – you either have it or you don’t. Intercultural communications People can learn how to communicate in different ways and shift perspectives and contexts to help them deal better with other cultures. It is a skill – you can learn it. Kinda like from the movie Rattatoille “anyone can cook” – you just have to learn.
Shift from “what not to do” to “what to do”. We still need to have guidelines, policies and regulations such as employment equity. But once people grasp those we can help them become more competent in dealing with difference. Ideally, if people were crossculturally competent those guidelines would not be needed. Crosscultural competence training is not a laundry list of what to do and what not to do with certain cultures. Crosscultural competence training helps people to deal with all kinds of difference. The skills taught can be transferred to any type of culture – national, ethnicity, LGBT, gender, generational, etc.
The ability to discern and take into account one’s own and others’ worldviews to be able to: solve problems make decisions resolve conflicts … in ways that optimize cultural differences for better, longer‑lasting, and more creative solutions. Pause for Richard to define worldview.
Values Personal and group beliefs of what is right and wrong. Culture Behavioral interpretation of how a community lives out its values in order to survive and thrive.
Crosscultural competence is comprised of four components: a) Awareness of one's own cultural worldview, b) Attitude towards cultural differences, c) Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews, and d) Crosscultural skills
Task vs. Relationship—How do we get things done? Focus on the destination (outcomes) vs. focus on the journey/quality of the relationship. Universalism vs. Particularism—How do we define what’s fair? Focus on the rule vs. focus on the particular context. Achievement vs. Ascription—How do we confer status? Focus on the accomplishment vs. focus on the title. Individualism vs. Communitarianism—How do we work with others? Focus on personal accountability vs. focus on team results and effort. Neutral vs. Affective—How do we manage emotions? Focus on restraining showing emotions vs. focus on showing them. Sequential Time vs. Synchronous Time—How do we define time? Focus on one thing at a time vs. focus on the big picture. Internal Control vs. External Control—How do we manage our environment? Focus on dominating the environment vs. focus on being in harmony with it.
It can be useful to generalize into archetypes. Archetype – the general tendency. Stereotype – the assumption that everyone will act according to the archetype or general tendency. We are very careful in our training to discuss archetypes vs stereotypes.
When you meet someone, you don’t know if you are dealing with a person who adheres to the general tendency of the population or someone who is different from the norm. The lesson of crosscultural communication is to approach each person with an assumption that they may have a different worldview from your own and to learn more about them as an individual.
DMIS is a grounded theory that outlines the development of sensitivity to cultural difference. DMIS stages are named for the quality of the worldview embodied by people at that stage of development. Ethnocentric —One’s own culture is experienced as central to reality. The ethnocentric stages can be seen as ways of avoiding cultural differences .. Enthnorelative —One’s own culture is experienced in the context of other cultures. The ethnorelative stages are ways of seeking cultural difference.
Not even aware that there are culturally different ways of thinking or behaving. Do not organize the world in a cultural way. People at the denial stage probably live in relative isolation from other cultures, either by happenstance or by choice. Either they do not perceive cultural differences at all or they can conceive only of broad categories such as “foreigner” or “people of color,” or “Mexicans” (to refer to Latinos).
Strong commitment to own worldview Distrust of cultural behavior or ideas that differ from their own Aware of other cultures around them but have incomplete understanding of those cultures strong negative stereotypes about them. feel threatened by cultural difference. They create an “Us” vs “Them” dichotomy where usually Us are superior or the “right way to live” and Them are inferior or “underdeveloped.” Reversal – an aspect of the Defense stage where people reverse the “Us” vs. “Them” polarization so that “Us” becomes inferior and “Them” becomes superior.
No longer feel cultural difference is a threat. Know something about “surface” cultural differences in customs, celebrations, etc.; but believes that, under the surface, people are pretty much the same. Overemphasis on similarity. Lack of understanding of the power of difference. Tends to view the world through own cultural worldview and assume that others have same wants, aspirations, expectations, etc. Exclusive over-assumption of similarity without placing sufficient importance of the deep cultural differences. Certainly there are similarities between people. That is not disputed. Differences are minor and inconsequential, rather than understanding that cultural differences cause deep differences in the way we construe reality. So the development for people in minimization is adding onto the belief in similarity - the understanding of the deep cultural differences, not replacing it. Golden Rule Flower metaphor
Acknowledge and respect cultural differences. Attained a clear awareness of their own culture Developed the understanding that one’s own culture is just one of the many ways of experiencing the world. Acceptance is an orientation to cultural difference. Not an attitude. Acceptance does not mean approval. It is a respect for other ways of thinking and being. Acceptance is characterized by curiosity – a willingness to learn more about other cultures.
Able to “take the perspective” of another culture for the purpose of understanding or evaluating situations in either one’s own or another culture. Has a very clear sense and commitment to own culture, but may know enough about another culture to shift substantially into the other cultural frame of reference. Cognitive Frame Shifting – movies – pathos and suspension of disbelief Behavioural Code Shifting – changing your behaviour – with grandmother, with spouse, with children Concern about “selling out” or being untrue to yourself. However, most people engage in adaptive behaviours in their everyday lives. Most people just don’t engage in adaptive behaviours toward cultural difference until it is made apparent to them that they can take those skills they are already using and transfer them to cultural issues. People at earlier stages of crosscultral development are the ones who are more likely to be distrustful of “code shifting” behaviour and label it as inauthentic because they do not understand it.
In Integration, a person has incorporated his/her intercultural abilities and other cultures with one’s own cultural identity. This is a rare state and usually occurs where one has had to do a lot of adapting between cultures. Often someone who is bicultural or multicultural, or has lived for substantial periods in different cultural contexts.
IDI is appropriate measurement tool if intercultural competence is the goal of individuals, groups or organizations.
The IDI provides a Perceived score and a developmental score. The Perceived score is where you view yourself, the development score is your primary orientation and includes your developmental issues. People at with less crosscultural understanding are more likely to overestimate their crosscultural ability.
Agenda Introduction Foundational Models for Crosscultural Competency Development Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) 2
Managing Diversity & Inclusion: A Business Case Monocultural Teams Multicultural Multicultural Teams Average Teams - Performance + - - + + - -- - ++ - + ++ Less Effectiveness in More creative tasks Leader acknowledges and supportsLeader ignores or suppressescultural difference cultural differenceCultural difference becomes Cultural difference becomes anan obstacle to performance asset to performanceReference: Adler, N. J. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western, 2002. c. Milton J.Bennett, 2008 3
Schools of Thought on Crosscultural Competence Crosscultural Psychology Intercultural Communications 4
Foundational Models for CrossculturalCompetency Development 5
Moving Beyond Traditional Training Programmatic Systematic Diversity training Skill Development focused focused on Tolerance on Crosscultural Competence and Sensitivity Focus on topics Focus on stories and relationships Human Rights-based Business-based Mentoring Reciprocal mentoring Source: Hewitt Associates 6
Crosscultural Competence - Definition The ability to discern and take into account one’s own and others’ worldviews to be able to: – solve problems – make decisions – resolve conflicts …in ways that optimize cultural differences for better, longer‑lasting, and more creative solutions. 7
Definition of Values and Culture Values Personal and group beliefs of what is right and wrong. Culture Behavioral interpretation of how a community lives out its values in order to survive and thrive. 8
Components of Crosscultural Competence Crosscultural competence is comprised of four components: a) Awareness of ones own cultural worldview, b) Attitude towards cultural differences, c) Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews, and d) Crosscultural skills 9
Iceberg Model of Culture Music Art Dress Greetings Food & Drink Manners Rituals Outward Behaviours Attitudes Values Beliefs Perceptions + Orientation to: Respect Power Status Individualism Community Competitiveness Action Environment Communication Emotion Thinking Structure Time Space 10
The Seven Cultural Dimensions Task vs. Relationship—How do we get things done? Universalism vs. Particularism—How do we define what’s fair? Achievement vs. Ascription—How do we confer status? Individualism vs. Communitarianism—How do we work with others? Neutral vs. Affective—How do we manage emotions? Sequential Time vs. Synchronous Time—How do we define time? Internal Control vs. External Control—How do we manage our environment? Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden -Turner 11
Cultural Generalizations - Archetypes central tendency of the distribution of population USA JapanIndividualism Communitarianism c. Milton J.Bennett 12
Cultural Generalizations - Archetypes Japan OutliersIndividualism Communitarianism c. Milton J.Bennett 13
Cultural Generalizations - Archetypes USA OutliersIndividualism Communitarianism c. Milton J.Bennett 14
Developmental Model of InterculturalSensitivity (DMIS) 15
DMIS – Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Increasing Perception of the Complexity of Cultural DifferencesDenial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Integration Ethnocentrism Ethnorelativism c. Milton J.Bennett 16
Ethnocentrism: Denial of cultural difference Overcoming Ethnocentrism Denial Defense Minimization • Disinterest • Avoidance • Inability to construe the world in cultural ways c. Milton J.Bennett 17
Ethnocentrism: Defense against cultural difference Overcoming Ethnocentrism Denial Minimization Defense • Denigration • Superiority • Reversal c. Milton J.Bennett 18
Ethnocentrism: Minimization of cultural difference Overcoming Ethnocentrism Denial Defense Minimization • Human Similarity • Universal Values • Differences are Inconsequential c. Milton J.Bennett 19
Ethnorelativism: Acceptance of cultural difference Building Ethnorelativism Adaptation Integration Acceptance• Respect for Behavioral Differences• Respect for Value Differences c. Milton J.Bennett 20
Ethnorelativism: Adaptation to cultural difference Building Ethnorelativism Integration Acceptance Adaptation • Cognitive Frame- Shifting • Behavioral Code- Shifting c. Milton J.Bennett 21
Ethnorelativism: Integration of cultural difference Building Ethnorelativism Adaptation Acceptance Integration • Integrate worldviews • Intercultural mediators c. Milton J.Bennett 22
Intercultural Development Inventory(IDI) and the DMIS 23
Individual and Group Competence MeasuresIDI AssessmentThe Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) measures how a personor a group of people tend to think and feel about cultural difference.IDI is a cross-culturally valid and reliable assessment of interculturalcompetence development equally applicable to domestic and internationaldiversity. Tested by rigorous psychometric protocols in four separate validation studies Rigorous “back translation” protocols used to translate into 12 languages Currently being used by over 1300 qualified IDI Administrators in over 20 countries. 24
IDI and the DMIS D/D Scale M Scale A/A Scale Defense/Denial Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Polarization Integration 25
Sample IDI Profile H rat ow e y Wh you ou wa ere rself e th u: t nt you : e to h er s yo inan be W rate om I d w ID pre ldvie r r Y ou wo 26
Sustainable Intercultural DevelopmentDevelopmental Transformation Sustaining Transformation Critical Depth of Infastructure Sustaining Development Organization Transformation Critical Mass of Individuals Bennett, M.J. et al (2009). Proceedings of the Bormio Seminar: Intercultural/Multicultural Intersections in Individual Identity and Organizational Culture. Milano: Intercultural Development Individual Development Research Institute www.idrinstitute.org 27
Crosscultural Training Delivers Growth and Customer Focus: Associates learn the need to think differently—specifically, globally—to grow More Effective Teamwork: Associates understand, value and capitalize on the fact that their workforce includes individuals representing a great diversity of values, opinions, backgrounds, cultures, and goals Global Mindset: Associates view the business from all relevant perspectives and see the world in terms of integrated value chains Integrative Thinker[s]: Associates assimilate various and conflicting information or opinions into a well-considered decision Self-Aware Learner[s]: Associates acknowledge their behaviors and how they affect those around them 28