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Effective Student Learning through
Goal-setting
Catherine Zhao & Huaxin Xu
Ethics approval no. HERC 2015000521
Goal setting theory
The setting of SMART goals is thought
to create a discrepancy between who
one is and who one wants to be.
We’d like to find out about how setting SMART goals:
• Facilitates self-reflection – Learners reflect upon
performance, and adjust effort to match goal
requirements so as to resolve their discrepancy
• Improves performance– Constructs that mediate
between goal setting and performance.
To what extent…
R1 …are students who set goals more likely to self-regulate their
learning?
R2 … are students who set goals more likely to adopt a deep
approach to learning?
R3 ...are students who set goals more likely to engage with the
course?
R4 …do students who set and achieve goals receive higher
assessment marks?
R5 ...are students who set and achieve goals more satisfied with
their course experiences?
R6 …do the three effects outlined in R1 & R3 explain the
relationship between students’ goal setting and learning
outcomes?
Research Questions
The Role of the goal-setting tool:
Facilitate the setting
and adoption of
SMART goals
Goal Setting Tool
 The student can set up goal with deadlines
Sub-goals
Course instructor can review
Updating goals (revision, progression, completion, etc.)
Make goals public or private
Others can browse and commit
 Dashboard to show statistics to the student and the course
instructor.
Learning Record
Store (LRS)
Goal
Setting
App
Learning
Managemen
t System
(LMS)
Cloud
(Web)
Users
OAuth
OAuth
xAPI
statements
Example xAPI statement:
‘
Actor = 111222@uts.edu.au
Verb = “saved”
Object = {
Goal = “Write a draft research proposal for ARC d
Deadline = 31/03/2016
}
Timestamp = 10:00, 01/02/2016
‘
Learning Record
Store (LRS)
Information available from multiple LRSs + LMS
 Goals
 Learning activities
 Comments from students, teachers
 Assessment performance
 Course design
Learning Record
Store (LRS)
…
Learning
Management
System
(LMS)
Learning
Analytics
Engine
Learning analytics engine can reveal
relationships between goals and
 Self-regulated learning
 Approach to learning
 Learning experience
 Assessment performance
 Course design
User experience
Positive
Layout looks professional
Easy to use, navigate
Show you where to work
towards
Adapting goal is easy
Clear outline
User friendly
Goal of others
Negative
Long to think about
goals
Sharing of private
goals might be
awkward
No notifications
Moving forward…
Support
with
setting
SMART
goals?
How should goal setting activities be
related to the course?
Can
students
change
goals?
Project progress
Upcoming event Goal-setting
workshop @LAK:
https://sites.google.com/site/lakgoalsetting/
@LakGoalSetting
https://www.facebook.com/jobknowledge/
Stefan Mol S.T.Mol@uva.nl
Catherine Zhao Catherine.zhao@unsw.edu.au
Get in touch on goal setting
ideas:
Find out more -
Ablard, K. E., & Lipschultz, R. E. (1998). Self-regulated learning in high achieving students: Relations to advanced
reasoning, achievement goals, and gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 94-101.
http://doi.org/10.1037/00220663.90.1.94
Gegenfurtner, A., & Hagenauer, G. (2013). Achievement goals and achievement goal orientations in education.
International Journal of Educational Research, 61, 14. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2013.08.001
Huet, N., Escribe, C., Dupeyrat, C., & Sakdavong, J.C. (2011). The influence of achievement goals and perceptions of
online help on its actual use in an interactive learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 413-420.
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.09.003
Kobayashi, V. B., Mol, S., & Kismihok, G. (2014). Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics. Journal of Learning
Analytics, 1(3), 207210.
Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2007). New Developments in and Directions for Goal Setting, Research. European
Psychologist, 12(4), 290-300. http://doi.org/10.1027/10169040.12.4.290
Lavasani, M. G., Weisani, M., & Ejei, J. (2011). The role of achievement goals, academic motivation, and learning
strategies in statistics anxiety: Testing a causal model. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 18811886.
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.020
Leake, D. B., & Ram, A. (1993). GoalDriven Learning: Fundamental Issues: A Symposium Report. AI Magazine, 14(4), 67.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35year
odyssey. The American Psychologist, 57(9), 705717.
Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom Goal Structure, Student Motivation, and
Academic Achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57(1), 487503.
http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070258
Van Yperen, Nico. 'Achievement Goals In The Workplace'. 2015. Presentation at the EAWOP 2015, Oslo, Norway.
References

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Effective student learning through goal setting v2

  • 1. Effective Student Learning through Goal-setting Catherine Zhao & Huaxin Xu Ethics approval no. HERC 2015000521
  • 2. Goal setting theory The setting of SMART goals is thought to create a discrepancy between who one is and who one wants to be.
  • 3. We’d like to find out about how setting SMART goals: • Facilitates self-reflection – Learners reflect upon performance, and adjust effort to match goal requirements so as to resolve their discrepancy • Improves performance– Constructs that mediate between goal setting and performance.
  • 4. To what extent… R1 …are students who set goals more likely to self-regulate their learning? R2 … are students who set goals more likely to adopt a deep approach to learning? R3 ...are students who set goals more likely to engage with the course? R4 …do students who set and achieve goals receive higher assessment marks? R5 ...are students who set and achieve goals more satisfied with their course experiences? R6 …do the three effects outlined in R1 & R3 explain the relationship between students’ goal setting and learning outcomes? Research Questions
  • 5. The Role of the goal-setting tool: Facilitate the setting and adoption of SMART goals
  • 7.  The student can set up goal with deadlines
  • 8. Sub-goals Course instructor can review Updating goals (revision, progression, completion, etc.)
  • 9. Make goals public or private Others can browse and commit
  • 10.  Dashboard to show statistics to the student and the course instructor.
  • 11. Learning Record Store (LRS) Goal Setting App Learning Managemen t System (LMS) Cloud (Web) Users OAuth OAuth xAPI statements Example xAPI statement: ‘ Actor = 111222@uts.edu.au Verb = “saved” Object = { Goal = “Write a draft research proposal for ARC d Deadline = 31/03/2016 } Timestamp = 10:00, 01/02/2016 ‘
  • 12. Learning Record Store (LRS) Information available from multiple LRSs + LMS  Goals  Learning activities  Comments from students, teachers  Assessment performance  Course design Learning Record Store (LRS) … Learning Management System (LMS) Learning Analytics Engine Learning analytics engine can reveal relationships between goals and  Self-regulated learning  Approach to learning  Learning experience  Assessment performance  Course design
  • 13. User experience Positive Layout looks professional Easy to use, navigate Show you where to work towards Adapting goal is easy Clear outline User friendly Goal of others Negative Long to think about goals Sharing of private goals might be awkward No notifications
  • 14. Moving forward… Support with setting SMART goals? How should goal setting activities be related to the course? Can students change goals?
  • 16. Upcoming event Goal-setting workshop @LAK: https://sites.google.com/site/lakgoalsetting/ @LakGoalSetting https://www.facebook.com/jobknowledge/ Stefan Mol S.T.Mol@uva.nl Catherine Zhao Catherine.zhao@unsw.edu.au Get in touch on goal setting ideas: Find out more -
  • 17. Ablard, K. E., & Lipschultz, R. E. (1998). Self-regulated learning in high achieving students: Relations to advanced reasoning, achievement goals, and gender. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 94-101. http://doi.org/10.1037/00220663.90.1.94 Gegenfurtner, A., & Hagenauer, G. (2013). Achievement goals and achievement goal orientations in education. International Journal of Educational Research, 61, 14. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2013.08.001 Huet, N., Escribe, C., Dupeyrat, C., & Sakdavong, J.C. (2011). The influence of achievement goals and perceptions of online help on its actual use in an interactive learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 413-420. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.09.003 Kobayashi, V. B., Mol, S., & Kismihok, G. (2014). Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics. Journal of Learning Analytics, 1(3), 207210. Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2007). New Developments in and Directions for Goal Setting, Research. European Psychologist, 12(4), 290-300. http://doi.org/10.1027/10169040.12.4.290 Lavasani, M. G., Weisani, M., & Ejei, J. (2011). The role of achievement goals, academic motivation, and learning strategies in statistics anxiety: Testing a causal model. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 18811886. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.020 Leake, D. B., & Ram, A. (1993). GoalDriven Learning: Fundamental Issues: A Symposium Report. AI Magazine, 14(4), 67. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35year odyssey. The American Psychologist, 57(9), 705717. Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom Goal Structure, Student Motivation, and Academic Achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57(1), 487503. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070258 Van Yperen, Nico. 'Achievement Goals In The Workplace'. 2015. Presentation at the EAWOP 2015, Oslo, Norway. References

Editor's Notes

  1. Now we have a look at the Goal Setting App interface. This is a open source project initiated by UvA. UTS joined development in 2015 to adapt it to Australian teaching and learning context. UTS logo needs to be added along with (or replace?) UvA logo.
  2. The student can use this app to set up a goal with a deadline.
  3. And subgoals with deadlines. The course instructor can review the goals, give comments or scores, to help the student revise or adjust the goals.
  4. A student can choose to make individual goals public or keep them private. If a goal is made public, other students of the same course can browse and choose to commit to it, too.
  5. This slide shows a high-level picture of how the Goal Setting App works with other components in an E-Learning environment and how it interacts with users. The Goal Setting App is a web application hosted in the cloud and can be accessed by computers and mobile devices from anywhere. It works in tandem with Learning Management System, which is commonly deployed in educational institutions nowadays. The Goal Setting App can authenticate individual users and authorize interactions by institution-assigned credentials and thus won’t breach the protected corporate network. The data collected by the Goal Setting App is stored in another system called Learning Record Store, which can be viewed a special-purpose database storing data in a special syntax called xAPI. It is different from database in that Instead of describing an entity’s attributes, it describes a sentence like that in plain English – subject with a verb and possibly an object. Here is an example. So an xAPI statement can describe an action, an outcome, a state with identifiable subject and time stamp. The Goal Setting App interacts with the Learning Record Store in well defined xAPI statements. With data stored in these statements, we can do learning analytics on a range of inter-related data.
  6. There could be more than one LRS deployed in an E-learning environment. One could store goal-related data, others could store other learning activities. Data stored in these Learning Record Stores as well as in Learning Management System, can all be put to good use by a potential learning analytics engine. For example, in our goal-setting research project, researchers may be able to discover the relationships between goals and these constructs in the learning process.