Phone Systems

464 views

Published on

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
464
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Phone Systems

  1. 1. Phone Systems Overview of Communication Matthew Whited
  2. 2. Brief History <ul><li>1840: Samuel F.B. Morse & Alfred Vail were granted patent for first practical telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>1876: Alexander Graham Bell was granted patent for telephone </li></ul><ul><li>1877: Bell offered to sell telephone to Western Union for $100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1885: AT&T formed as a subsidiary of American Bell </li></ul><ul><li>1893: Heinrich Hertz, detected first radio waves </li></ul><ul><li>1896: Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio </li></ul><ul><li>1912: Lee de Frost invented the vacuum tube </li></ul><ul><li>1924: H. Nyquist developed the “telephotography” machine </li></ul><ul><li>1946: First Mobile Phone Call (AT&T) </li></ul><ul><li>1947: William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattian invent the transistor </li></ul><ul><li>1960: First Communication Satellite “Echo 1” (Passive Reflector / NASA) </li></ul><ul><li>1960: First Active Repeater Satellite “Courier 1B” (Philco) </li></ul><ul><li>1962: First Private Funded Communication Satellite “Telstar” (AT&T) </li></ul><ul><li>1973: Martin Cooper invents first personal mobile handset </li></ul><ul><li>1988: TDMA is developed by CTIA (Cellular Technology Industry Association) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Brief History
  4. 4. Brief History Echo 1 (NASA)
  5. 5. Brief History Courier-1A Telstar
  6. 6. Media <ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Analog </li></ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Switching </li></ul>
  7. 7. Interfaces <ul><li>Standards Groups </li></ul><ul><li>RJ (Registered Jack) </li></ul><ul><li>OC (Optical Carrier) </li></ul><ul><li>RS (Recommend Standard) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Standards Groups <ul><li>USOC (Universal Service Order Code) </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI ( American National Standards Institute) </li></ul><ul><li>EIA ( Electronic Industries Alliance) </li></ul><ul><li>TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO (International Standards Organization) </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) </li></ul><ul><li>ITU (International Telecommunication Union) </li></ul><ul><li>CCITT (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee| Comité consultatif international téléphonique et télégraphique) </li></ul><ul><li>OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) </li></ul>
  9. 9. RJ (Registered Jack) <ul><li>http://www.arcelect.com/RJ_Jack_Glossary.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator Letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C: Flush Mount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W: Wall Jack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S: Single Line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M: Multi-line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X: Complex-Line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RJ-11C/W: Standard Phone Jack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 or 4 pin, 3 or 2 pair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pin 3/2: Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pin 4/3: Tip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RJ-12C/W </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 pin, 3 pair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pin 3: Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pin 4: Tip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RJ-45C/W </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 pin, 4 pair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RJ-48X (SmartJack) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. RJ (Registered Jack)
  11. 11. OC (Optical Carrier) <ul><li>OC-n Mbps = n x 51.8Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>SONET (Synchronous Optical NETworking) </li></ul><ul><li>OC-1: 51.8Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>OC-192: 9945.6 Mbps </li></ul>
  12. 12. RS (Recommended Standard) <ul><li>DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>DCE (Data Communication Equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>RS-232 a.k.a. EIA323 / TIA232 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision “C” set in 1969 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point to Point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Serial Interface on a Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RS-485 a.k.a. EIA485 / TIA 485 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point to Multi-Point </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. RS (Recommended Standard)
  14. 14. Analog <ul><li>POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) </li></ul><ul><li>PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) </li></ul><ul><li>Tip/Ring </li></ul>
  15. 15. Analog
  16. 16. Digital <ul><li>Frame Relay / X.25 </li></ul><ul><li>Leased / Dedicated Lines </li></ul><ul><li>ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) </li></ul><ul><li>T/E Carriers </li></ul><ul><li>ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Frame Relay / X.25 <ul><li>Packet Switching Network </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to a semi public cloud or “Frame” </li></ul><ul><li>Typically pay for usage </li></ul><ul><li>Typically configured as Point to Multi-Point </li></ul><ul><li>Slower then dedicated service </li></ul>
  18. 18. Leased / Dedicated Lines <ul><li>Point to Point </li></ul><ul><li>Typically pay for mileage (tariffs) </li></ul>
  19. 19. ISDN ( Integrated Services Digital Network) <ul><li>B: Bearer 64k (Data or Voice) </li></ul><ul><li>D: Data 16k (Control) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Channelized </li></ul><ul><li>PRI (Primary Rate Interface) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1: 23B+D (US/Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E1: 30B+2D (Everyone Else) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BRI (Basic Rate Interface) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2B+D </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. T/E-carriers <ul><li>DS (Digital Signal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DS0: 64kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T1: DS1 = DS0 x 24 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T2: DS2 = DS0 x 96 or DS1 x 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T3: DS3 = DS0 x 672 or DS1 x 28 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T4: DS4 = DS0 x 4032 or DS3 x 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E1: DS0 x 32 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E2: DS0 x 128 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E3: DS0 x 512 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E4: DS0 x 2048 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) <ul><li>Uses TDM and PCM </li></ul><ul><li>Cells instead of frames </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced jitter caused by multiplexing </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) <ul><li>NVP (Network Voice Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>NBX (Network Branch Exchange) </li></ul><ul><li>SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>H.323 </li></ul><ul><li>IAX2 (Inter-Asterisk eXchange) </li></ul><ul><li>SCCP (Skinny Client Control Protocol) </li></ul>
  23. 23. NVP (Network Voice Protocol) <ul><li>1973 by Danny Cohen for ARPAnet </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated </li></ul>
  24. 24. NBX (Network Branch Exchange) <ul><li>3Com </li></ul><ul><li>POSIX (Real-time Embedded UNIX) </li></ul><ul><li>Layer 2 Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Can ride inside of IP Packets </li></ul>
  25. 25. SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) <ul><li>Industry Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Allows use though 1 firewall </li></ul><ul><li>TCP and UDP ports 5060 </li></ul>
  26. 26. H.323 <ul><li>Example is Microsoft Netmeeting </li></ul><ul><li>Directly Support Video </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t like firewalls much </li></ul>
  27. 27. IAX2 (Inter-Asterisk eXchange) <ul><li>Mark Spencer </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary but Open </li></ul><ul><li>Low overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Designed with NAT and Firewalls in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Designed with Trunking and Multiplexing in mind </li></ul><ul><li>UDP 4569 </li></ul><ul><li>Based on SIP, MGCP, RTP </li></ul>
  28. 28. SCCP (Skinny Client Control Protocol) <ul><li>Cisco </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Server </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cellular <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TDMA (Time division multiple access) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA (Code division multiple access) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Cellular Hide a Cell Tower
  31. 31. Switches <ul><li>Store and Forward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May run checksum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cut Through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read only enough of the data stream to identify receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fragment Free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of Cut though that checks that the receiver is available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can automatically pick best method of switching for data stream </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Plexes <ul><li>Simplex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paging Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unidirectional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Half Duplex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PTT (Push To Talk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Direction at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full Duplex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Directions at the same time </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Encodes <ul><li>Analog to Digital </li></ul><ul><li>TDM (Time-Division Multiplexing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64Kbps x 24 Channels = 1.536 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8-bits x 8000 Hz </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Codec (Coder / Decoder) <ul><li>G.711 (Audio) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>56 or 64kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a-law / u-law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 bits compressed PCM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>G.726 (Audio) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 to 40 kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 32kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% savings in bandwidth over G.711 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>G.729 (Audio) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May Require Licensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.4 to 11.8 kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 8kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAJOR savings in bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly used in VoIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed in 10ms chunks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not work well with Fax or DTMF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These can be send using G.711 or another form of “Out-of-band” communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Modulation <ul><li>AM (Amplitude Modulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2400 baud max </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 different samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FM (Frequency Modulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2400 baud max </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 different samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PM (Phase Modulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4800 baud max </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 different samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QAM (Quadrature with Amplitude Modulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>38400 baud max </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 phase x 4 bits x 2400 baud = 38,400 baud </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Asterisk <ul><li>http:// www.asterisk.org </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.digium.com </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Works on Linux, BSD, and OS-X </li></ul><ul><li>Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H.323 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IAX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skinny (SCCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zap (FXS/FXO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretty much anything else that does anything else </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. 3com NBX <ul><li>Hopefully I can demo the Phone </li></ul><ul><li>NBX, Layer 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Can ride in IP </li></ul>
  38. 38. Other Definitions <ul><li>AA – Automated Attendant </li></ul><ul><li>ACD – Automatic Call Distributor </li></ul><ul><li>CTI – Computer Telephony Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Dial Plan - “Routing” table for phone systems </li></ul><ul><li>DTMF - Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Extension – End station / Node </li></ul><ul><li>FXO - Foreign Exchange Office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FXS - Foreign Exchange Station </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides battery (power) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send Dialtone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IVR – Interactive Voice Response </li></ul><ul><li>Latency – end to end delay </li></ul><ul><li>Lineman Handset – Analog Telephone Line testing device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.k.a. Butt Set or Test Set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically a telephone with alligator clips instead of a plug </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loop – single telephone line </li></ul>
  39. 39. Other Definitions <ul><li>PBX - Private Branch Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>SIM - Subscriber Identification Module </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk – Multiple Lines acting as one </li></ul><ul><li>TTS – Text to Speech </li></ul><ul><li>VM – Voicemail </li></ul><ul><li>FWD – Free World Dialup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free VoIP service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not provide free PSTN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LEC – Local Exchange Carrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ILEC – Incumbent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existed before AT&T breakup (1982) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby bells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLEC – Competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After AT&T breakup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most noted are Cable TV companies that provide phone over cable (Most of these are NOT VoIP providers) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. References / Helpful Web links <ul><li>http://www.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.freeworlddialup.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://asteriskathome.sourceforge.net/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nadcomm.com/timeline.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.att.com/history/ </li></ul>

×