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Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems

Presentation for IIR 2011 - Italian Information Retrieval Workshop (Milano, Italy, 28.01.11)

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IIR 2011 - Italian Information Retrieval Workshop
                           Milano, Italy




 Random Indexing for
    Content-based
Recommender Systems
          Cataldo Musto - cataldomusto@di.uniba.it
          Pasquale Lops, Marco de Gemmis, Giovanni Semeraro

 University of Bari “Aldo Moro” (Italy), SWAP Research Group
                          28.01.11
outline                                                                                                                  2/18

              •     Introduction
                   •   Analysis of Vector Space Models
                   •   Content-based Recommender Systems


              •     Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems
                   •  Introducing Random Indexing
                   •  Recommendation models


              •     Experimental Evaluation
                   •   Open Issues
                   •   Future Works


C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
vector space model                                                                                                        3/18


                                                                                    •     Weak Points
                                                                                         •     High
                                                                                               Dimensionality
                                                                                         •     Not incremental
                                                                                         •     Does not manage
                                                                                               the latent
                                                                                               semantics of
                                                                                               documents
                                                                                         •     Does not manage
                                                                                               negative
                                                                                               preferences


C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
recommender systems                                                                                                       4/18


              •     A specific type of Information Filtering system that
                    attempts           to recommend              information
                    items (films, television, video on demand, music, books,  
                    etc) that are likely to be of interest to the user


              •     Content-based Recommender Systems
                   •      The degree of interest is inferred by comparing the
                          textual features extracted from the item w.r.t. the
                          features stored in the user profile


C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
goals                                                                                                                     5/18


                   •      To investigate the impact of VSM in the
                          area of content-based recommender
                          systems
                   •      To introduce techniques able to overcome
                          VSM typical VSM issues
                        •      Random Indexing
                             •      Dimensionality reduction technique (Sahlgren, 2005)
                        •      Negation Operator
                             •      Based on Quantum Logic (Widdows, 2007)

C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
random indexing                                                                                                           6/18

                   •      Random Indexing (RI) is an incremental and
                          effective technique for dimensionality reduction
                        •      Introduced by Sahlgren in 2005


                   •      Based on the so-called “Distributional
                          Hypothesis”
                        •      “Words that occur in the same context tend to
                               have similar meanings”
                        •      “Meaning is its use” (Wittgenstein)

C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11

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Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems

  • 1. IIR 2011 - Italian Information Retrieval Workshop Milano, Italy Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems Cataldo Musto - cataldomusto@di.uniba.it Pasquale Lops, Marco de Gemmis, Giovanni Semeraro University of Bari “Aldo Moro” (Italy), SWAP Research Group 28.01.11
  • 2. outline 2/18 • Introduction • Analysis of Vector Space Models • Content-based Recommender Systems • Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems • Introducing Random Indexing • Recommendation models • Experimental Evaluation • Open Issues • Future Works C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 3. vector space model 3/18 • Weak Points • High Dimensionality • Not incremental • Does not manage the latent semantics of documents • Does not manage negative preferences C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 4. recommender systems 4/18 • A specific type of Information Filtering system that attempts to recommend information items (films, television, video on demand, music, books,   etc) that are likely to be of interest to the user • Content-based Recommender Systems • The degree of interest is inferred by comparing the textual features extracted from the item w.r.t. the features stored in the user profile C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 5. goals 5/18 • To investigate the impact of VSM in the area of content-based recommender systems • To introduce techniques able to overcome VSM typical VSM issues • Random Indexing • Dimensionality reduction technique (Sahlgren, 2005) • Negation Operator • Based on Quantum Logic (Widdows, 2007) C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 6. random indexing 6/18 • Random Indexing (RI) is an incremental and effective technique for dimensionality reduction • Introduced by Sahlgren in 2005 • Based on the so-called “Distributional Hypothesis” • “Words that occur in the same context tend to have similar meanings” • “Meaning is its use” (Wittgenstein) C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 7. how it works? 7/18 • Random Indexing reduces the m-dimensional term/doc matrix to a new k-dimensional matrix • How? • By multiplying the original matrix with a random one, built in an incremental way • formally: An,m Rm,k = Bn,k • k << m • After projection, the distance between points in the vector space is preserved C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 8. building the matrix 8/18 • A context vector is assignedcan contain only vector has a fixed dimension (k) and it for each term. This values in -1, 0,1. Values are distributed in a random way but the number of non-zero elements is much smaller. • The Vector Space representation of a term is obtained by summing the context vectors of the terms it co-occurs with. • The Vector Space representation of a document (item) is obtained by summing the context vectors of the terms that occur in it C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 9. profile representation 9/18 • What about the user profiles? • Assumption • The information coming from documents (items) that the user liked in the past could be a reliable source of information for building user profiles • The Vector Space representation of a user profile is obtained by combining the context vectors of all the documents that the user liked in the past. C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 10. RI-based approach 10/18 Documents Rating Threshold VSM representation of RI-based profile for user u C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 11. wRI-based approach 11/18 Documents Rating Threshold Higher weight given to the documents with higher rating C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 12. negation operator 12/18 • Both models inherit a classical problem of VSM • User profiles modeled only according to positive preferences • In classical text classifiers (Naive Bayes, SVM, etc.) both positive and negative preferences are modeled • Introduction of a Negation Operator based on Quantum Logic to tackle this problem • Query as “A not B” are allowed! • Projection of vector A on the subspace orthogonal to those generated by the vector B (*) http://code.google.com/p/semanticvectors/ • Implemented in the Semantic Vectors* open-source package C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 13. SV-based approach 13/18 Positive User Profile Vector Negative User Profile Vector VSM representation of SV-based profile for user u C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 14. wSV-based approach 14/18 Positive User Profile Vector Negative User Profile Vector VSM representation of wSV-based profile for user u C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 15. recommendation step 15/18 • u and a set of items we can suppose that the most relevant Given a user profile items for u are the nearest ones in the vector space • RI and wRI: Submission of a query based on • SV and wSV: Submission of a query based on • Returns the items with as much as possible features from p+ and as less as possible features from p- • Cosine Similarity to rank the items • Items whose similarity is under a certain threshold are labeled as non-relevant and filtered • Recommendation of the items with the highest similarity w.r.t. liked documents are combined. C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 16. experimental design 16/18 • Dataset • Based on MovieLens, enriched with contents crawled from Wikipedia • 613 users, 520 items, 25k terms, 40k ratings • Experiment 1 • Do the weighting schema improve the predictive accuracy of the recommendation models? • Experiment 2 • Do the introduction of a negation operator improve the predictive accuracy of the recommendation models? C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 17. results 17/18 RI W-RI SV W-SV Bayes Av-Precision@1 85.93 86.33 85.97 86.78 86.39 Av-Precision@3 85.78 85.97 86.19 86.33 85.97 Av-Precision@5 85.75 86.10 85.99 86.16 85.83 Av-Precision@7 85.61 85.92 85.88 85.95 85.77 Av-Precision@10 85.45 85.76 85.76 85.83 85.75 • SV and RI improve the Average Precision with respect to the Naive Bayes approach (currently implemented in our recommender system) 17 C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 18. conclusions 18/18 • Investigation of the impact of Random Indexing in the area of content-based recommender systems • Use of Random Indexing for dimensionality reduction • Introduction of Negation Operator based on Quantum Logic • Encouraging experimental results • First results improve the predictive accuracy obtained by classical content-based filtering techniques (e.g. Bayes) • Work-in-progress • To compare results with classical TF/IDF-based VSM, LSA, Rocchio and so on C.Musto, P.Lops, M.de Gemmis, G.Semeraro: Random Indexing for Content-based Recommender Systems - IIR 2011 Workshop - Milano, Italy - 28.01.11
  • 19. http://www.di.uniba.it/~swap/ discussion Thanks for your attention Cataldo Musto - cataldomusto@di.uniba.it University of Bari (Italy), SWAP Research Group IIR 2011 - Italian Information Retrieval Workshop

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