Classroom Instr That Works


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Classroom Instr That Works

  1. 1. Robert J. Marzano Debra J. Pickering Jane E. Pollock Presentation By: Renee Johnson, Teresa Castellaw, Dana Ledford
  2. 2. <ul><li>Holds bachelor’s degree from Iona College in New York, master’s degree from Seattle University, doctorate from the University of Washington. </li></ul><ul><li>Cofounder and CEO of Marzano Research Laboratory in Englewood, Colorado. </li></ul><ul><li>Leading researcher in education, speaker, trainer, author of more than 30 books and 150 articles on topics such as instruction, assessment, writing, and implementing standards, cognition, effective leadership, and school intervention.  </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>His research and theory into classroom strategies is internationally known and widely practiced by both teachers and administrators.  </li></ul><ul><li>Authored more than 26 books and 150 articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Books include: Designing & Teaching Learning Goals & Objectives, District Leadership That Works, Designing & Assessing Educational Objectives, Making Standards Useful in the Classroom, Classroom Instruction That Works, and The Art and Science of Teaching. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In 1966, the &quot;Coleman Report&quot; identified that only 10% of student achievement could be changed due to the quality of schooling. The research concluded that 90% was due to the of student's ability, socioeconomic status, and home environment. Schools had no control over these factors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Later research showed a percentile gain of 23 points, proving schools do make a difference in student achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Research also has proven individual teachers can have a major effect on student achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1990's, research showed teachers have the most profound effect of school choice, ability, status or home environment. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Meta analysis was used, combining a number of studies and listing the average effect of each technique. </li></ul><ul><li>The effect size gave the increase or decrease in achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary goal was to show instructional strategies having the most effect on student achievement for all students regardless of grade or age. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Consists of nine categories : identifying similarities and differences, summarizing and note taking, reinforcing effort and providing recognition, homework and practice, nonlinguistic representations, cooperative learning, setting objectives and providing feedback, generating and testing hypotheses, and questions, cues, and advance organizers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Effective pedagogy has three main areas - instructional strategies, management techniques, and curriculum design. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Teacher-directed guidance enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Asking students to independently identify simil/diff enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Representing simil/diff in graphic or symbolic form (ex. Thinking Maps) enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Is a highly robust activity involving the process of comparing, creating metaphors, and analogies. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must explicitly teach students the steps of various processes (comparing, classifying, creating metaphors, creating analogies). </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should provide less structure and guidance as students become more comfortable using the processes. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Summarizing: (1) To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information (2) To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level (3) Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information.  </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Rule Based Strategy for summarizing:  Delete trivial and redundant material, substitute superordinate terms for lists, and select a topic sentence or invent one if it is missing. </li></ul><ul><li>A summary frame is a series of questions that the teacher provides to students, including 6 types:  Narrative, Topic Restriction Illustration, Definition, Argumentation, Problem/Solution, and Conversation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Note Taking:  (1) Verbatim note taking is least effective way (2) Notes should be considered a work in progress (3) Notes should be used as study guides for tests (4) The more notes taken, the better </li></ul><ul><li>Formats: informal outline, webbing, combination of both </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Referred to sometimes as “study skills,” they are two of the most powerful skills students can cultivate.  </li></ul><ul><li>Provides students with tools for identifying and understanding the most important aspects of what they are learning. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Four key causes of success are: ability, effort, other people and luck. Three of these deal with achievement. Effort is the most help. </li></ul><ul><li>Two generalizations : Not all students believe in effort and &quot; students can change their beliefs to emphasis effort.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Two recommendations for reinforcing effort are: Teach about the importance of effort and track effort through rubrics, talking about it, writing about it, and self assessing. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Amount of hw assigned to students should be different from elementary to high school. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental involvement should be kept to a minimum.  </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of hw should be identified and articulated. </li></ul><ul><li>If hw is assigned, it should be commented on. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Establish and communicate a hw policy </li></ul><ul><li>Design hw assignments that clearly articulate the purpose and outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Vary the approaches to providing feedback. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Is important bc it provides students with an opportunity to deepen their understanding of what they learned in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should return hw in a timely fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should know why the assignment is important. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Mastering a skill requires focused practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should adapt and shape what they have learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to chart their speed and accuracy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Design practice that focuses on specific elements of a complex skill or process. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan time for students to increase their conceptual understanding of skills or processes. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Includes a variety of activities such as: creating graphic, physical, mental models/organizers and other kinesthetic activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Should elaborate on knowledge, these have a strong positive effect on student achievement. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Use a variety of criteria to group students, not simply ability level. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be small in size </li></ul><ul><li>Use informal (pair-share), formal groups (lasting over a period of time), base groups (semester-long groups). </li></ul><ul><li>Combine with other classroom structures. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Should be used consistently and systematically, but not overused. </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses five components: positive interdependence, face 2 face interaction, indiv/group accountability, small group skills, and group processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should provide structured tasks, monitor and provide feedback. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Narrows what students focus on, specific but flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should encourage students to personalize the learning goals the teacher has identified for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Contract with students to obtain specific learning goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes direction and purpose. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Feedback should be corrective in nature, timely, and specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>The best feedback involves an explanation of what is correct and incorrect about the response. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Techniques can be inductive or deductive. </li></ul><ul><li>More deductive seems to have a greater effect on achievement than inductive. </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of structured tasks include: decision making, problem solving, invention, experimental inquiry, historical investigation, and systems analysis. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Cues help students retrieve what they already know about a topic. </li></ul><ul><li>involve hints, questions elicits students knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level questions aid students in drawing inferences and analyzing. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers emphasize teacher’s essential ideas </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Advance organizers take a variety of forms: expository, narrative, skimming, graphic. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizers are useful when content to be presented is not well organized. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>5 areas of organizing knowledge : </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary terms and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Details </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Processes: “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Teachers should clarify the learning obj’s for the unit and allow students to identify their own learning obj’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Use specific strategies for introducing new knowledge, practicing, reviewing, and applying new knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Use specific strategies to facilitate and monitor students learning. </li></ul>