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The muslim world


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The muslim world

  1. 1. THE MUSLIM WORLD 600-1250Chapter 10Chapter 10
  2. 2. Arabian Peninsula  Crossroads of 3 continents- Africa, Europe and Asia  Little land, and a few oases can support agriculture  Remainder of the land is desert
  3. 3. Desert Town Life  Bedouins= nomads who lived in desert, organized into tribes called clans  Took pride in being able to defend themselves and their families  Many choose to settle in an oasis or market town when they had enough water to support farming
  4. 4. Crossroads of Trade and Ideas  Trade routes connected Arabia to other lands  Arabian cities became prosperous trading centers on the caravan routes
  5. 5. Mecca  Became an important stop on the trade route  Religious piligrims came to worship at an ancient shire house called the Ka’aba (KAH-buh)  Ka’aba contained over 360 idols brought by the many tribes  Pilgrimage
  6. 6. Allah  =god
  7. 7. Prophet Muhammad  Born into the clan of a powerful Meccan family  Orphaned and then raised by grandfather and uncle  Work in the caravan trade  Married at age 25 to a wealthy businesswomen
  8. 8. Revelations  Often prayed and meditated  Life changed when he heard a voice believed to have been the angel Gabriel while praying outside a cave near Mecca  Believed that Allah spoke to him through Gabriel  He taught that Allah was the one and only god
  9. 9.  Islam= “submission to the will of Allah”  Muslim= “one who has submitted”  Muhammad’s wife and his close friends were the first followers  He began preaching in Mecca but many were worried that Mecca would lose its position as a pilgrimage center if people accepted Muhammad’s monotheistic beliefs  Many followers were beaten or stoned
  10. 10. The Hijrah  Because of hostility, Muhammad decided to leave Mecca.  He settled in the town, Yathrib, 200 miles north of Mecca  This migration became known as the Hijrah  This was a turning point and Muhammad attracted many followers  Yathrib was renamed Medina which means, “city of the Prophet”
  11. 11. Medina  In Medina, Muhammad displayed many leadership skills  He joined his own people with the Arabs and Jews of Medina into one community  These groups accepted Muhammad as a political leader  Muhammad was a political, religious and military leader
  12. 12. Returning to Mecca  Mecca’s power was declining because of fights between Muslims and Meccans  In 630, the Prophet and 10,000 of his followers marched to the outskirts of Mecca  Mecca’s leaders surrendered and the Prophet had won  Muhammad went to the Ka’aba and destroyed all the idols and had the call to prayer made from the roof of the Ka’aba
  13. 13. Returning to Mecca
  14. 14. Umma  Many joined, converted and pledged their loyalty to Muhammad  Joined umma, or Muslim religious community  Muhammad died 2 years later, but he had made great progress with unifying the Arabian Peninsula under Islam
  15. 15. The Pilgrimage Journey
  16. 16. The Hajj
  17. 17. Dome of the Rock  Located in Jerusalem  Earliest surviving Islamic monument  Completed in 691  Located on Mount Moriah, the site of a Jewish temple destroyed by the Romans  Muslims say this is the spot that Muhammad ascended to heaven to learn Allah’s will  Jews say the rock is the site when Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son, Isaac
  18. 18. Dome of the Rock
  19. 19. Beliefs and Practices of Islam  One God (Allah)- monotheistic  Good and evil  Each individual is responsible for their actions in this life  Qur’an= holy book  Final judgment with Allah and then you will either enter heaven or hell
  20. 20. Five Pillars of Islam  = to be a Muslim, all believers must carry out five duties  These demonstrate a Muslim’s submission to the will of God
  21. 21. 1. Faith  To become a Muslim, a person must testify the following statement of faith, “There is not God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”
  22. 22. 2. Prayer  5 times per day (at least)  Pray toward Mecca  Assemble at mosque (Islamic house of worship)  Prayer brings a Muslim closer to Allah
  23. 23. Call to Prayer
  24. 24. 3. Alms  Muhammad taught that all Muslims have the responsibility to support the less fortunate  Alms= money for the poor  All must pay alms through a special religious tax
  25. 25. 4. Fasting  Muslims fast during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan (month the Qur'an was revealed to Muhammad)  Reminds Muslims they have a “greater need than bread”
  26. 26. Praying During Ramadan
  27. 27. 5. Pilgrimage  All Muslims perform the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime
  28. 28. 5 Pillars Review
  29. 29. A Way of Life  Muslims do not separate their personal life from their religious life  Forbidden to eat pork or intoxicating beverages  Friday afternoons are set aside for worship and prayer  No priests. All expected to pray directly to Allah
  30. 30. Sources of Authority  Allah spoke to Gabriel Muhammad  Qur’an  Sunna= Muhammad’s example, best model for a proper life  Shari’a= laws
  31. 31. Links to Judaism and Christianity  To Muslims, Allah is the same God that is worshipped in Christianity and Judaism  Muslims view Jesus as a prophet, but not the Son of God  Qur’an is like the Bible for Christians  All 3 religions (Islam, Christianity and Judaism) believe in heaven and hell and a judgment  Muslims trace their ancestry to Abraham like the Jews and Christians
  32. 32. Section 2: Spread of Islam  After Muhammad’s death, Islam lacked a leader to carry the message to the world  Muhammad did not instruct his followers how to choose a successor  Abu-Bakr was chosen  Friend of Muhammad  Devoted to Islam  Became the first caliph (“successor” or “deputy”)
  33. 33. “Rightly Guided” Caliphs  3 caliphs after Abu-Bakr followed Muhammad and the Qur’an and were known as the “rightly guided” caliphs  Their rule was known as caliphate  Muslim armies were well disciplined in addition to having extreme faith
  34. 34. Treatment of Conquered Peoples  Many conquered people chose to accept Islam  Attracted by the appeal of the message of Islam as well as the economic benefit  Qur’an forbade forced conversion
  35. 35. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis  Even with military gains, the Muslim community had difficulty maintaining a unified rule  With many caliphs being murdered, a family known as the Umayyads came into power  Set up a hereditary system of succession
  36. 36. Sunni-Shi’a Split  Sunni= followers of Muhammad’s example, chosen by Allah  Shi’a= “party” of Ali, successor must be a direct relative of the prophet
  37. 37. Muslim Trade Network  2 major sea-trading zones (Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean)  Muslims merchants needed only a single language- Arabic and a single currency, the Abbisad dinar  To encourage flow of trade, Muslims money changers set up banks throughout the empire  Cordoba Muslim city, had a population of 500,000 in contrast Paris had 38,000
  38. 38. Section 3: Muslim Achievement  Market towns increase  Damascus was the cultural center of Islamic learning until Baghdad was built  Urban centers showed strength of dynasty  Baghdad was lined with shops, protective walls, grand mosque and reached the one million population peak
  39. 39. Four Social Classes  Upper Class: those who were born Muslim at birth  Second Class: converts to Islam (paid a higher tax than the upper class)  Lower Class: “protected people,” Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians  Lowest Class: slaves, POWs and all were non-Muslims
  40. 40. Role of Women  Men and women believers are equal  Women had specific legal rights of marriage, family and property  Muslim women had more rights than European women at the time  In early days they could gain an education
  41. 41. Head Coverings (Veils) Niqab= face covering Burqa/Hijab= head covering HowtoWeartheVeil CNN: Why some are proud to wear the veil Newsnight:Whydo WomenWeartheNIqab Hijab, Niqab or Nothing?
  42. 42. Muslim Scholarship Extends Knowledge  Qualified physicians to cure illnesses  Muhammad believed in the power of learning  Baghdad opened a library, academy and translation center called the House of Wisdom
  43. 43. Medicine, Arts & Sciences  Translation of languages  Belief that patients will recover more quickly if they have fresh air (al- Razi, great physician)  Scientific observation and experimentation  Al-jabr algebra  Advances in astronomy  Beginnings of telescopes and microscopes
  44. 44. Philosophy & Literature  Translated works of Aristotle and Plato into Arabic  Qur’an is the standard for all poetry and literature  Famous for their poetry that focused on the mystical experiences with God
  45. 45. Art & Architecture  Because drawing figures was prohibited (because only Allah could create beings) artist turned to calligraphy= art of beautiful handwriting  Woodwork, glass, ceramics, and textiles  Most famous for their architecture- mosques
  46. 46. Muslim Achievements
  47. 47. Is Radical Islam dangerous Today?
  48. 48. Journal Should we be worried about radical or moderate religions or groups? Why or why not?