Spanish & north american colonies


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Spanish & north american colonies

  1. 1. The Atlantic World 1492-1800 Chapter 20
  2. 2. Age of Exploration: Pre-Colonial America
  3. 3. Section 1: Spanish Conquests in the Americas  Main Idea: The voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to carve out the first European colonies in the Americas  Why it matters now? Throughout the Americas, Spanish culture, language and descendants are the legacy of this period
  4. 4. Setting the Stage  Competition for wealth in Europe exploration Christopher Columbus- sea captain, sailed for Spain, 1492  Sailed west, not east, in search of alternate trade route to Asia
  5. 5. Columbus’s Voyages Paves the Way  Set sail: August, 149 2  Nina, Pint and the Santa Maria
  6. 6. Columbus
  7. 7. 1492 Trailer
  8. 8. Horrible Histories: Columbus
  9. 9. First Encounters  Arrived October, 1492  Thinking they had reached the West Indies, Columbus called the natives “los indios” (Indians)  Landed in the Bahamas in the Caribbean Sea (Taino Indians)  Named the land, San Salvador, or “Holy Savior”  Columbus was looking for gold and didn’t find much in San Salvador, so he explored other islands (staking his claims at each one)  1493: returned to Spain  Spain agreed to finance more trips  Journeyed as an empire
  10. 10. Other Explorers Take to the Sea  Portugal: Cabral Brazil  Amerigo Vespucci  eastern S. America  German mapmaker named America after Vespucci  Vasco Nunez de Balboa first to gaze upon Pacific Ocean  Magellan sailed around S. America into the Pacific Ocean, landed on Guam, Philippines  Killed in a local war in
  11. 11. 1492
  12. 12. Spain Builds an American Empire  Sailed for Spain  Landed in Mexico Conquistador s= conquerors  Rumors of wealth in the New Land  Conquered the Aztecs & leader Montezuma 2
  13. 13. Cortes Conquers the Aztecs  Montezuma was convinced he was a god  Human sacrifices  Spanish advantages:  Weapons  disease (smallpox/measles/typhus - natives had no natural immunity)  able to enlist the help of natives  Disease killed 90% of native population
  14. 14. Pizarro Subdues the Inca  Francisco Pizzaro     conquistador 1532: Pizzaro took small force into South America (Peru-Incas) Met the Incan ruler, Atahualpa Spanish crushed Atahualpa’s force of 30,000 and kidnapped Atahualpa Atahualpa offered riches for his release, but after receiving the ransom, he was strangled Pizzaro then marched on Cuzco and took the capital
  15. 15. Pizarro
  16. 16. Spain’s Pattern of Conquest  Peninsulares= Spanish settlers  Practiced techniques learned from the reconquista of Spain (time when Spanish conquered Muslims and inflicted their culture on them)  Spanish lived with natives and intermarried Encomienda= system of forced labor imposed on the Natives
  17. 17. The Portuguese in Brazil  One area that remained outside of Spanish control was Brazil  Cabral: claimed land for Portuguese  1530’s: Portuguese colonies in Brazil  Resources: little gold and silver, settlers grew sugar cane (demand for sugar in Europe was great)  Portuguese, like
  18. 18. Spain Expands Its Influence  Spain’s American colonies made Spain one of the most powerful nations in the world (16th century)  Wealth of the Americas helped usher in a golden age of art and culture in Spain  Also increased in military power (to protect their treasure ships)  Strong navy and army (for a century and a half, Spain never lost a battle)
  19. 19. Conquistadors Push North  Spain continued to send expeditions into southwestern United States  Juan Ponce de Leon modern-day Florida  Francisco Vasquez de Coronado Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas  Scattered
  20. 20. Opposition to Spanish Rule Spanish priests spread Christianity, they  As spoke against cruel treatment of natives  Priests didn’t like the harsh treatment of the encomienda system (which was abolished in 1542) spoke against African  Priests also
  21. 21. Native Resistance  Spanish priests weren’t the only ones to rebel- natives  Example 1: Taino Indians tried to rebel against Columbus with poison arrows, but after several years, they submitted  Example 2: Natives resisting rule in New Mexico (Spanish had burned sacred objects and prohibited native rituals, physical abuse)  Example 3: Pope, a Pueblo ruler, organized an uprising against the Spanish, involved 17,000 Indians, Indians successfully pushed back the Spanish for the next 12 years
  22. 22. Horrible Histories: Colonization
  23. 23. Section 2: Competing Claims in North America  Main Idea: Several European nations fought for control of North America and England, and eventually emerged victorious  Why it matters now? The English settlers in North America left a legacy of law and government that guides the United States today
  24. 24. Setting the Stage  Other Europeans, besides the Spanish, were interested in colonizing Treaty of Tordesillas= divided South America between Spain and Portugal
  25. 25. European Nations Settle North America  Spain claimed the route around the southern tip of South America as theirs  Other Europeans wanted to find a more direct route  If they could find a northwest route through North America to Asia lots of money could be made  Not finding a route, the French, Dutch established
  26. 26. Explorers Establish New France  Giovanni da Verrazzano= Italian who worked for France, sailed to find a sea route to the Pacific, but instead discovered New York Harbor Jacques Cartier= Canada, followed St Lawrence River to large island which he called Mont Royal (Montreal)  Samual de Champlain= Quebec, settlement grew and became the base of France’s colonial empire (NEW FRANCE)
  27. 27. A Trading Empire  France had a huge territory but it was not heavily populated  French colonists characteristics:  No desire to build towns or raise families  Some Catholic priests trying to convert Native Americans  Young, single men engaged in FUR trade (1500’s hottest fashion was beaver skinned hats)
  28. 28. The English Settle at Jamestown  English settlement, 1606  Coast of Virginia  Disastrous start (more interested in gold than in planting crops)  70% of crew died in the first few years Tobacco (cash
  29. 29. New World Trailer
  30. 30. Puritans Create a “New England”  PILGRIMS founded PLYMOUTH, Mass. (2nd colony)  Pilgrims were persecuted for religious beliefs in England’  PURITANS= sought religious freedom from England’s Anglican Church MASSACHUSETTS BAY  Wanted to build a model community that would set an
  31. 31. The Dutch Found New Netherland  Dutch East India Company- competed for trade in the Indian Ocean and then turned their attention to the Americas  Henry Hudson=waterways near New York- Hudson River, Bay and Strait  Established fur trade with the Iroquis  Dutch lands New Netherlands  Dutch settlers came to settle after the fur trade picked up (Dutch, Germans, French and Scandinavians settled the area)
  32. 32. Colonizing the Caribbean  French seized control of the Caribbean islands (Haiti, Guadeloupe and Martinique)  British settled Barbados and Jamaica  Dutch captured Netherlands Antilles and Aruba from Spain  What did they do there? Tobacco and sugar plantations  These crops demanded a SUPPLY OF FREE
  33. 33. The Fight for North America  France, England and the Netherlands battled each other for colonial supremacy  After much battle, the English gained control of most
  34. 34. The English Oust the Dutch  To the English, the Dutch had formed a wedge between their two colonies  English king gave permission for the Duke of York (his brother) to drive out the Dutch  Dutch surrendered without firing a shot  Duke of York claimed the territory and called it NEW YORK  English continued to spread out 13
  35. 35.  English pushed further west  When they did, they collided with France’s North American land  FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR:  Began as a dispute over land in the Ohio Valley French and English (and with both  Between their European allies)  Became a larger conflict known as the 7 YEARS WAR  Winners: British in 1763 England Battles France
  36. 36. French & Indian War
  37. 37. Native American Reaction  European colonization brought mostly disaster for the original inhabitants, as many fell to disease and warfare
  38. 38.  French and Dutch had a cooperative relationship with the Native Americans  Why? Mutual benefits of the fur trade  Didn’t live in harmony always  English relations with the Natives were not so great– many time they pushed the Indians out of their lands and with this, tensions grew  Misunderstandings of A Strained Relationship
  39. 39. Settlers and Native Americans Battle  Hostility led to warfare  Example 1: Powhatan tribe attacked Jamestown  Example 2: King Philip’s War, Metacom (King Philip) attacked 52 colonial villages throughout
  40. 40. Natives Fall to Disease Disease was more destructive than their weapons