Formation of Western
Europe (Part 2)
Section 3: England &
France Develop
Main Idea: As the kingdoms of England and
France began to develop into nations, certai...
Setting the Stage
By early 800s, small Anglo-Saxon (used to
describe the invading Germanic tribes in the
south and east of...
England Absorbs Waves of
Invaders
For centuries invaders from various regions in
Europe landed on English shores
Many stay...
Early Invasions
800s- Britain was hit by Viking attacks
Only ALFRED THE GREAT was able to turn the
Vikings back
Alfred the...
The Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror= duke of Normandy (land
already conquered by the Vikings), King Edwards
cousin
H...
England’s Evolving
Government
William’s descendants owned land in both
Normandy and England
Henry II= married Eleanor of A...
Monarchs, Nobles, and the
Common Law
Eleanor of Aquitaine- wife of 2 king (Henry 2) s
and mother to 2 kings (Richard the L...
The Magna Carta
When Henry died, his much softer younger
brother, John, took the throne (lost much of
Henry’s French land)...
The Model Parliament
Parliament= 2 burgesses (people of wealth) from
every borough and 2 knights from every country
served...
Capetian Dynasty Rules
France
Many kings looked for ways to increase their
power
France was divided into 30 feudal territo...
France Becomes a
Separate Kingdom
Caput Family had weak rulers, but a great
trading location
Eventually the Caput family w...
Philip II Expands His
Power
Philip II= aka Philip Augustus, one of the most
powerful Capetians, saw his father lose power ...
Philip II Expands His
Power (2)
End Result: By the end of Philip’s reign, he had
tripled the lands under his control and f...
Philips II’s Heirs
Louis IX=saintly, known as the ideal king, made a
saint by the Catholic Church
Created a French appeals...
Philip II’s Heirs
Philip IV had a quarrel with the pope (Philip didn’t
think the pope had the right to govern church
affai...
Section 4: A Century of
Turmoil
Main Idea: During the 1300s, Europe
was torn apart by religious strife, the
bubonic plague...
Setting the Stage
Between 1200s and 1300s, church and
state seem to be in good shape, but
trouble was brewing
A Church Divided
At the
beginning of
the 1300s, the
papacy
seemed in
some ways
strong, but
pope and
Church were
in trouble
Pope & King Collide
Pope Boniface VIII= stubborn
Italian, attempted to enforce papal
authority on kings as previous
popes ...
Avignon & the Great
Schism
King Philip IV failed to keep
Pope Boniface captive, so he
persuaded the College of
Cardinals t...
Avignon & the Great Schism
(2)Reformers tried to move back to
Rome, but the result was worse
While visiting Rome, Pope
Gre...
Avignon & the Great Schism
(3) Council of Constance
had the task of
resolving the matter
Now, there was a total
of 3 popes...
A Scholarly Challenge to
Church Authority
Jan Hus= a professor from Czech
Republic
Authority of the Bible is above the pop...
The Bubonic Plague
Approximately 1/3 of the population died from the
bubonic plague
Origins & Symptoms of the
Plague
Began in Asia
Traveled along trade
lanes
First arrived in Sicily
around 1347
Became known...
Black Death “Hollaback”
Symptoms
Painful swelling called
buboes in the lymph
nodes (armpits and
groin)
Sometimes a purplish
or blackish spots on t...
Origins & Symptoms of
Plague (2)
Frightened people looked
for a scapegoat: Jews
(reason- they poisoned
the wells)
Result: ...
Effects of the Plague
1. Social Effects:
Population decrease
2. Economic Effects- less
people  less living in
towns  les...
The Crusades
The 100 Years’ War
= a conflict in which
England and France
battled on French soil
on and off from 1337-
1453
Why? For the...
The Battle of Crecy
Although the French
won, the English won
3 important battles in
France
1. Battle of Crecy
(English wer...
Poitiers &Aguincourt
2. Battle of Poitiers (French
believed they had surprised
British, British attacked with
longbows, ca...
Joan of Arc
After Aguincourt, the
French and British signed
a treaty that the next king
would be Henry V, after
the death ...
Joan of Arc
It looked like Joan and her
French army were going to
lose on the roads to
Orleans- Joan acted like
she was re...
Joan of Arc Death
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5EIsrZuczk&f
eature=related
The Impact of the 100s
War
1. Sense of
nationalism for both
countries
2. Strengthened the
English Parliament
3. Age of
Fai...
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Formation of western europe part 2

  1. 1. Formation of Western Europe (Part 2)
  2. 2. Section 3: England & France Develop Main Idea: As the kingdoms of England and France began to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved Why it matters now? Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period
  3. 3. Setting the Stage By early 800s, small Anglo-Saxon (used to describe the invading Germanic tribes in the south and east of Great Britain from the early 5th century AD ) kingdoms covered former Roman province of Britain Breakup of feudal system was leading to changed in government and the development of nations
  4. 4. England Absorbs Waves of Invaders For centuries invaders from various regions in Europe landed on English shores Many stays, bringing their ways and changing English culture
  5. 5. Early Invasions 800s- Britain was hit by Viking attacks Only ALFRED THE GREAT was able to turn the Vikings back Alfred then united the kingdom under one rule- calling it ENGLAND (“land of the Angles”) Angles= one of the Germanic tribes that invaded Britain 1016- Danish king was conquered England and molded Angle-Saxons and Vikings into one people 1066- King Edward the Confessor, died without an heir
  6. 6. The Norman Conquest William the Conqueror= duke of Normandy (land already conquered by the Vikings), King Edwards cousin Harold Godwinson= William’s rival, Anglo-Saxon Battle of Hastings= 1066, battle fought between Normans and Saxons for the throne of England Result= Harold was killed by an arrow to the eye, Normans won, William declared all England his personal property Result 2: Harold laid the foundation for centralized government
  7. 7. England’s Evolving Government William’s descendants owned land in both Normandy and England Henry II= married Eleanor of Aquitane (French) 2 Goals: 1. Hold and add on to their French lands 2. Strengthen their own power over the nobles and the Church
  8. 8. Monarchs, Nobles, and the Common Law Eleanor of Aquitaine- wife of 2 king (Henry 2) s and mother to 2 kings (Richard the Lion- Hearted, John) Henry 2- held land in France while ruling England Established: Royal Judges Use of a jury and trial by jury Cases decided by England’s judges formed a common law (unified body of law)
  9. 9. The Magna Carta When Henry died, his much softer younger brother, John, took the throne (lost much of Henry’s French land) John was mean to his subjects and tried to raise taxes, so the nobles forced him to sign the MAGNA CARTA (guaranteed certain basic political rights) Magna Carta included: no taxation without representation, jury trial, and the protection of the law
  10. 10. The Model Parliament Parliament= 2 burgesses (people of wealth) from every borough and 2 knights from every country served on this legislative group Model Parliament= was made up of commoners, or non-nobles, as well as lords) House of Commons (lower house) & House of the Lords (upper house)
  11. 11. Capetian Dynasty Rules France Many kings looked for ways to increase their power France was divided into 30 feudal territories Last member of the Carolingian family died Capet Family took over (from Paris)Capetian Dynasty of French kings (987-1328)
  12. 12. France Becomes a Separate Kingdom Caput Family had weak rulers, but a great trading location Eventually the Caput family would increase their power outward from Paris
  13. 13. Philip II Expands His Power Philip II= aka Philip Augustus, one of the most powerful Capetians, saw his father lose power to English kings Philip had little success with his first attempts with English kings, but when King John came along it changed.
  14. 14. Philip II Expands His Power (2) End Result: By the end of Philip’s reign, he had tripled the lands under his control and for the first time, a French king had become the more powerful than any of his vassals Accomplishments: established royal bailiffs (presided over courts and collected king’s taxes)
  15. 15. Philips II’s Heirs Louis IX=saintly, known as the ideal king, made a saint by the Catholic Church Created a French appeals court, which could overturn the decisions of local courts
  16. 16. Philip II’s Heirs Philip IV had a quarrel with the pope (Philip didn’t think the pope had the right to govern church affairs in his kingdom) First Estate- Church leaders Second Estate- great lords Third Estate (called by Philip IV)- commoners Estates General= meeting of all 3 estates
  17. 17. Section 4: A Century of Turmoil Main Idea: During the 1300s, Europe was torn apart by religious strife, the bubonic plague, and the Hundred Years War Why it matters now? Events of the 1300s led to a change in attitudes toward religion and the state, a change reflected in modern attitude
  18. 18. Setting the Stage Between 1200s and 1300s, church and state seem to be in good shape, but trouble was brewing
  19. 19. A Church Divided At the beginning of the 1300s, the papacy seemed in some ways strong, but pope and Church were in trouble
  20. 20. Pope & King Collide Pope Boniface VIII= stubborn Italian, attempted to enforce papal authority on kings as previous popes had When a king, King Philip IV of France asserted his authority over French bishops Boniface responded by ordering a PAPAL BULL (an official document issued by the pope) which said that kings must obey popes Result: King arrested Pope, Pope was rescued but died a month
  21. 21. Avignon & the Great Schism King Philip IV failed to keep Pope Boniface captive, so he persuaded the College of Cardinals to choose a French archbishop as the new pope (Clement V) Moved the pope to Avignon from Rome, lived there for 67 years The move to Avignon
  22. 22. Avignon & the Great Schism (2)Reformers tried to move back to Rome, but the result was worse While visiting Rome, Pope Gregory XI, died College of Cardinals then met in Rome to choose a successor- choose an Italian, Pope Urban VI French cardinals also choose a pope- Clement VII Each claimed to be the pope, excommunicating the other Great Schism= split or division
  23. 23. Avignon & the Great Schism (3) Council of Constance had the task of resolving the matter Now, there was a total of 3 popes With the help of the Holy Roman Emperor, the council forced all 3 popes to resign New Pope- Martin V
  24. 24. A Scholarly Challenge to Church Authority Jan Hus= a professor from Czech Republic Authority of the Bible is above the pope Hus was excommunicated, tried as a heretic and burned at the stake John Wycliffe= English professor, preached Jesus Christ and not the pope, was the head of the Church Believed that the clergy shouldn’t own any land and were living in luxury Bible was the final word, not the pope Spread the idea of an English translation
  25. 25. The Bubonic Plague Approximately 1/3 of the population died from the bubonic plague
  26. 26. Origins & Symptoms of the Plague Began in Asia Traveled along trade lanes First arrived in Sicily around 1347 Became known as the Black Death because of the blackish spots its produced on the skin
  27. 27. Black Death “Hollaback”
  28. 28. Symptoms Painful swelling called buboes in the lymph nodes (armpits and groin) Sometimes a purplish or blackish spots on the skin Extremely high fever, chills, delirium and in
  29. 29. Origins & Symptoms of Plague (2) Frightened people looked for a scapegoat: Jews (reason- they poisoned the wells) Result: Jews were driven from their homes or massacred Plague took 4 years to
  30. 30. Effects of the Plague 1. Social Effects: Population decrease 2. Economic Effects- less people  less living in towns  less trading  prices rise Farmland abandoned, serfs left manors for higher paying jobs 3. Religious Effects: Church suffered a loss of
  31. 31. The Crusades
  32. 32. The 100 Years’ War = a conflict in which England and France battled on French soil on and off from 1337- 1453 Why? For the throne Result: French are able to finally drive the English out
  33. 33. The Battle of Crecy Although the French won, the English won 3 important battles in France 1. Battle of Crecy (English were outnumbered, French knights attacked, victory because of English archers-
  34. 34. Poitiers &Aguincourt 2. Battle of Poitiers (French believed they had surprised British, British attacked with longbows, captured the French king and his son and held them for ransom) 3. Battle of Aguincourt(English outnumbered, led by King Henry V, English archers again won) *The longbow was putting an end to heavily mounted medieval knights
  35. 35. Joan of Arc After Aguincourt, the French and British signed a treaty that the next king would be Henry V, after the death of the French king The French lost hope JOAN OF ARC= French peasant girl, felt inspired by God to rescue France from its English conquerors, led the French army into battle, wanted Charles VI’s son to be the
  36. 36. Joan of Arc It looked like Joan and her French army were going to lose on the roads to Orleans- Joan acted like she was retreated and then charged the fort (her soldiers followed) Joan helped persuade Charles to go on and be crowned king She was later captured in battle, Charles did not help her, she was condemned as a witch and heretic, tied to a
  37. 37. Joan of Arc Death http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5EIsrZuczk&f eature=related
  38. 38. The Impact of the 100s War 1. Sense of nationalism for both countries 2. Strengthened the English Parliament 3. Age of Faith/Middle Ages died out 4. Raised the

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