Communist triumph in china


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Communist triumph in china

  1. 1. Communists Triumph in China 33:2
  2. 2. 33:2 Notes
  3. 3.  Main Idea: After WW2, Chinese Communists defeated Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerged  Why it matters now? China remains a Communist country and a major player on the world stage
  4. 4.     During WW2, China fought on the Ally side During WW2, Japan occupation in China’s major cities devastated China China’s civilian death toll alone was in the millions China was second in causalities to USSR Setting the Stage
  5. 5.     Civil War in China: Communist vs. Nationalists Nationalists were looking like they were going to win, when China was attacked by Japan Both sides now had to team up to fight off the Japanese When the war ended, the Communists and Nationalists continued their fight Civil War in China
  6. 6.  Communists  Nationalists ◦ Mao Zedong ◦ Stronghold in north & northwest China ◦ Peasant loyalty ◦ Red Army ◦ Fought Japanese in north ◦ Jiang Jieshi (formily Chiang Kaishek) ◦ Southwestern China ◦ Supported by US with money (most of the $ went to corrupt officials) ◦ Few battles with the Japanese ◦ Nationalists saved their strength for the Communists Internal Struggles
  7. 7. Mao Zedong
  8. 8.        Civil War lasted 1946-1949 At first, Nationalists had the lead (US provided aid) Nationalists did little to win support of the people like the Communists did China’s major cities fell to Communists Nationalist fled to the south Mao claimed China, proclaimed the People’s Republic of China Nationalist fled to Taiwan Involvement of the United States
  9. 9.  China split into two nations ◦ Taiwan- Nationalists ◦ Mainland ChinaCommunists, People’s Republic of China  Two Chinas intensified the Cold War Two Chinas and the Cold War
  10. 10.      US help Nationalists in Taiwan establish a government Nationalists called it the Republic of China USSR gave support to Communists China and USSR Divided up Korea between the two superpowers The Superpowers React
  11. 11.      Mao expanded into Mongolia, Tibet, and India 1950-1951- China took brutal control of Tibet Chinese promised autonomy (self rule) to Tibetans who followed the religious leader, the Dalai Lama When China tightened control of Tibet, the Dalai Lama fled to India Resentment between China and India grew Communist China Continues to Expand
  12. 12.  Communists claimed, “Mandate of Heaven” and aimed to restore China as a powerful nation Transformation & Revolution
  13. 13.    Chinese Communists began to tighten their hold on the country Communist party made up 1% of the Chinese population Like the Soviets, the Chinese Communists set up 2 parallel organizations- communist party & government ◦ Mao ruled as both chairman of the Communist Party and head of state Transformation Under Mao Zedong
  14. 14.     Mao was determined to reshape China’s economy based on Marxist socialism 80% of Chinese population lived in rural areas Mao seized the holdings of all landlords and divided them among the peasants Mao’s forces killed more than a million landlords who resisted this Mao’s Marxist Socialism
  15. 15. Mao’s enforcement tactics
  16. 16.  Mao forced peasants to join  Mao’s plan to advance society“Great Leap Forward” Communes= large collective farms Peasants were organized into “production battalions” Worked landed together, owned nothing, peasants had no incentive to work The Great Leap Forward was not successful     collective farms ◦ Crops failed, no incentive to work, famine (killed 20 million) ◦ Government discontinued the program in 1961 Mao’s Marxist Socialism
  17. 17. Mao’s Great Leap Forward
  18. 18.    Spirit of cooperation that had been between the USSR and China was fading, both wanted to lead the worldwide Communist movement 1960, Soviets halted economic aid to China After the failure of the Great Leap Forward and the split from USSR, Mao reduced his role in the government New leader changes  farmers could live on their own land, could sell crops they grew on small private plots, factory workers could compete for wage increase  Mao disapproved, and launched a new program aimed at high school and college students (Red Guards= formed militia of Maos)  New Policies & Mao’s Response
  19. 19. Mao’s Red Guards
  20. 20.  Red Guards led a major uprising known as the Cultural Revolution  Goal= establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal ◦ The new hero was the peasants who worked with his hands ◦ Red Guards shut down colleges and schools ◦ Thousands were executed and killed ◦ Widespread chaos  By 1976, even Mao admitted that the revolution had to stop The Cultural Revolution
  21. 21. Tiananmen Square= 1989, university students marches in a large demonstration in Beijing Communismcrushed the rebellion  Chinese military in China  Many watched these events on TV 
  22. 22. 20 Year after Tiananmen
  23. 23.  Still communist, but applying some democratic principles Today