Classical Greece


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  • Classical Greece

    1. 1.  Mountainous peninsula jutting out into the Mediterranean Sea  Approximately 1,400 islands  Geography directly shaped traditions and customs
    2. 2.  Sea for the Greeks was like the rivers for the river civilizations  Seas were used for transportation (“liquid highways”)  Needed the sea because Greece was poor in natural resources
    3. 3.  ¾ of Greece is covered with mountains  Difficult to unite Greece because mountains separated Greeks  Greeks developed small, independent communities
    4. 4.  Temperatures only varied from 48-80 degrees Fahrenheit, so life was outdoors
    5. 5.  Mycenaeans were one of the first people to settle Greece › Warrior-like  Minoans lived in Crete › Seaborne people › Mycenaeans conquered the Minoans
    6. 6.  Mycenaeans vs. Troy  According to legend, a Greek army besieged and destroyed Troy because a Trojan youth kidnapped Helen, a beautiful wife of a Greek king  First was thought to be a myth, but archaeologists have found evidence that maybe these were true events
    7. 7.  After Mycenaeans collapsed the Dorians came onto the war- torn countryside  Dorians were less advanced than the Mycenaeans  Appeared that the Greeks temporarily forgotten the art of writing
    8. 8.  Homer= greatest storyteller, blind › The Iliad and The Odyssey (about Trojan War)  Epics= narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds
    9. 9.  = traditional stories, about their gods  Through these myths, the Greeks sought to understand the mysteries of nature and the power of human passions
    10. 10. • Gods, polytheistic • Attributed human qualities, such as love, hate and jealously, to their gods • Gods lived forever • Zeus= ruler of Gods • Hera= Zeus’ wife • Mount Olympus= were the gods lived • Athena= goddess of wisdom, Zeus’ favorite child
    11. 11.  City-state= polis, fundamental political unit in ancient Greece  Acropolis= fortified hilltop
    12. 12.  All city-states ruled differently: › Monarchy= rule by one › Aristocracy= rule by elite › Oligarchy= rule by a few people
    13. 13.  Iron was better than bronze (which was harder and cheaper)  Citizens were expected to defend their polis  Phalanx=a military formation of foot soldiers armed with shields and swords
    14. 14.  =powerful individuals who gained control of the government by appealing to the poor and the discontented for support  Many peasants and farmers joined together to revolt
    15. 15.  Military state  Sparta conquered locals and these became helots (peasants forced to stay and work on their land)  Helots were required to give ½ their crops  They revolted, and even though they were outnumbered (8 to 1)the Spartans almost lost. With this fear, they built a strong city- state
    16. 16.  2 groups governed Sparta: › 1. Assembly- elected male officials › 2. Council of Elders- proposed laws that assembly voted on › 5 elected officials (ephors) carried out the laws
    17. 17.  Men: military training › At age 7, boys left home and moved into army barracks › Wore no shoes and marched all day and slept on benches at night › Ate black porridge  Women: › Women did not enter army, but they did train, run, wrestle and play sports (why?) › Managed estates while husbands were in army
    18. 18.  Spartans valued duty, strength, and discipline over individuality, beauty, and freedom
    19. 19.  Democracy= rule of the people  People participated directly in political decision making  Only male adults counted as citizens  Women had no part in government, only job was to raise the family
    20. 20.  Peasants demanded a written code of laws  These laws were unfair and soon a new aristocrat was put in power Solon
    21. 21.  Outlawed debt slavery  Allowed all citizens to participate  Overseas trade (grapes & olives)
    22. 22.  Greece vs. Persian Empire  Battle of Marathon: › Persian army came to attack the Greeks. The Greeks were outnumbered, but charged. The Greek military advantages won › Although they won the battle, they had left there city defenseless
    23. 23.  The army chose a young runner, named Pheidippides to race back to Athens and report the victory  He brought news of the defeat, sprinting the distance of 26 miles  He gave his message, collapsed and died
    24. 24.  10 years later, Darius the Great son, Xerxes still wanted revenge  He attacked Greece  When he came to a pass, 7,000 Greeks and 300 Spartans blocked his way.  Fearing defeat after a traitor told of a secret passage, many Greeks retreated.  300 Spartans stayed and all were killed
    25. 25.  Greek ships drove their battering rams straight into the Persian ships and sunk 1/3 of Xerxes ships  After the war, the Greek city-states had a new sense of confidence and freedom  Athens became the leader, and formed the Delian League (alliance between city-states)
    26. 26.  Last 50 years (480-430 B.C.)  Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning
    27. 27.  Strengthen Athenian democracy  Hold and strengthen the empire  Glorify Athens
    28. 28.  Increased the number of public officials  Even the poorest could serve if elected  Introduced Direct Democracy=a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
    29. 29.  Built a 200 ship navy, the strongest in the Mediterranean  Did this to control the seas and trade
    30. 30.  Bought gold, ivory and marble to beautify Athens  Parthenon- artisans who worked for 15 years to build one of architecture’s noblest works
    31. 31.  Parthenon was built for Athena, goddess of wisdom and the protector of Athens  Athena statue stood 38 feet tall and contained gold and ivory  Figures sculptured during this time were graceful, strong and perfectly formed  Faces neither had a smile or laughter or anger, but were serene  Classical art- values of order, balance and proportion in art
    32. 32.  Greeks invented drama and built the first theaters in the west  Tragedy= serious drama about themes like love, hate, war and betrayal › Famous dramatists: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides
    33. 33.  Comedy= contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor  Many contained satire= works that poked fun at a subject  What does Greek Drama tell us about the Greeks? The Greeks could enjoy entertainment, and were one of the first to put a lot of effort into having entertainment
    34. 34.  Sparta vs. Athens  Athens had the strongest sea power in Greece, but Sparta is located inland and could not be attacked by sea  Athenians were pushed back into Athens when the Spartans attacked  Pericles brought all the residents inside the walls of Athens  Plague killed 1/3- 2/3 of all Athenians, including Pericles  Even with a weaker army, Athens held in for 9 years and then surrendered to Sparta
    35. 35.  =“lovers of wisdom” › Based their thinking of 2 assumptions:  1. The Universe (land, sky and sea) is put together in an orderly way and subject to change  2. People can understand these ideas through logic and reason
    36. 36.  Absolute truth and justice exist  “The unexamined life is not worth living”  Encouraged Greeks to question themselves and their moral character  Brought to trial for “corrupting the youth of Athens” and “neglecting the city’s gods.”  Jury disagreed and brought him to death. He died after drinking a slow-acting poison
    37. 37.  Student of Socrates  Approx. 28 years old when Socrates died  Wrote down Socrates’ words  His most famous work, “The Republic” › Set forth his vision for a perfect government, which was not a democracy › His ideal society all citizens fall into 3 groups: farmers and artisans, warriors and the ruling class › Greatest from the ruling class would be chosen philosopher-king
    38. 38.  Pupil of Plato  Invented a method for arguing according to rules of logic  Most famous pupil Alexander › Son of King Philip of Macedonia › 13 years old prince › Alexander ended as a student when he became the ruler of Macedonia and later is known as Alexander the Great
    39. 39.  Alexander set up many outposts and new cities, all for which were heavily influenced by Greek culture  After his death, a new culture emerged  Hellenistic= blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian influences
    40. 40.  Center of commerce= Alexandra, Egypt  Allowed to grow because of trade ports and successful commerce  Diverse population
    41. 41.  Greek gods on all streets  Palaces  Glass tomb of Alexander  400 foot bronze lighthouse  Museum and library (dedicated to Muses, the Greek goddess of art and sciences, where the word museum comes from)
    42. 42.  Museum contained a small observatory in which astronomers to study planets and stars  Estimated that the sun was at least 300 times larger than the earth (earlier belief was that the sun was smaller than Greece)  Estimated that the earth and planets revolved around the sun, but that the earth was at the center of the universe
    43. 43.  Euclid= mathematician who opened a school or geography in Alexandria › Wrote the book, Elements, which has over 400 geometry patterns › It is said, that next to the Bible, Euclid’s, Elements, is the most used and studied book  Archimedes= studied at Alexandria, value of pi (ratio of the circumference of a circle), pulley system
    44. 44.  Founder: Greek philosopher, Zeno  Believed in a divine power who controlled the universe  Vices like human desires, power and wealth  Social unity  Appealed to people of different races, cultures and economic backgrounds
    45. 45.  Founder: Epicurus  Universe is composed of atoms and ruled by gods who had no interest in humans  Only real objects are those you can observe by your 5 senses  Goal of all humans is to gain harmony in body and soul
    46. 46.  1. Greece’s geography does NOT include which of the following? A. Many mountains B. Sea C. Plenty of rivers D. Thousands of islands
    47. 47.  2. The sea for the Greeks was like a ___________ for the early river valley civilizations. A. River B. God C. Food source D. Temple
    48. 48.  3. In Greece, seas were nicknamed “liquid __________”. A. Rivers B. Highways C. Oceans D. Streets
    49. 49.  4. Who were the first 2 groups of people to enter Greece? A. Dorians and Trojans B. Trojans and Mycenaeans C. Mycenaeans and Minoans D. Spartans and Athenians
    50. 50.  5. Who was Homer? A. A blind poet who is famous for his epic tales B. One of the many Greek gods, known for his cunning stories C. Leader of the Spartans, who led the famous battle of the 300 D. Leader of Athens during the Golden Age
    51. 51.  6. Spartan became a military state because… A. Spartans were angry about the land that they received B. They were told by the Gods to hate everyone else C. They were naturally bigger and stronger than other Greeks D. They almost lost a battle to their slaves when their slaves revolted
    52. 52.  7. Describe to me the life of a Spartan man who enters into military training (include at least 3 details)
    53. 53.  8. Spartans valued ______, ______ and _________ over individuality, beauty and freedom A. Duty, strength and discipline B. Duty, love and strength C. Family, Nation and Strength D. Discipline, Military and Romance
    54. 54.  9. Which of the following did Athens and Sparta have in common? A. They were both democracies B. They were both military states C. They were both city-states D. They were both leaders of the Delian League
    55. 55.  10. Why was the Battle of Thermopylae so important to Greek society? A. Xerses showed his strength over the 300 Spartans B. After the Spartan defeat, Sparta stopped focusing on military and more on democracy C. Spartans later killed Xerses in revenge D. This was the first time Greek city-states had fought together and not against each other