Classroom research error correction (2)


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Here is the link to our slides. The 1st part of chapter 4 and so sorry for the delay.

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  • Differences in auditory processing by Lesley Lahir (MET 2005)
  • Classroom research error correction (2)

    1. 1. Group 7 <ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Research – Interaction Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Group Members… </li></ul><ul><li>~ Anita PGP110010 </li></ul><ul><li>~Cassandra PGP110022 </li></ul><ul><li>~Safiyah PGP110009 </li></ul>
    2. 3. Doing Second language research: Chapter 4 Classroom Research Interaction Analysis
    3. 4. <ul><li>Wilson Mizner, 1876-1933 ( an American dramatist and wit) </li></ul><ul><li>. ……If you steal from another author it’s plagiarism: if you steal from many, it’s researc h </li></ul>Marson Bates, 1906-1974 ( an American writer) … .. is what I’m doing when I don’t know what I’m doing
    4. 5. Research
    5. 6. <ul><li>Classroom refers to a wide range of learning contexts where learners and teachers meet in the context of second language acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>ex: classes in school, one-to-one tutoring, distance learning, multi media labs and so on </li></ul>Classroom Research
    6. 7. <ul><li>Is a study/research on the interaction between teachers and learners or learners and learners in classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>The term interaction is used with a variety of senses and has been used with respect to </li></ul><ul><li>- theories of linguistics, models of second language acquisition, instructional exchanges between T&L, task completion conversation between L&L and the internal conversations between authors & readers. </li></ul>Classroom interaction research
    7. 8. <ul><li>1. Go to schools </li></ul><ul><li>2. Collecting data from your own classes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Doing a recording or videos featuring a lot of schools </li></ul><ul><li>4. Generating classroom interaction data in the roles of teachers and learners </li></ul>Ways to carry out classroom research
    8. 9. Teacher interactions with learners <ul><li>Teacher questions </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher error corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of teacher speech </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher ‘wait-time’ for student response. </li></ul>
    9. 10. Type of errors <ul><li>Phonological </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical </li></ul><ul><li>Morph/Syntatic </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul>
    10. 11. The cause for errors in SLA ( Differences in auditory processing by Lesley Lahir) <ul><li>1. Auditory (verbal) / semantic memory </li></ul><ul><li>memorizing words, recalling </li></ul><ul><li>sentences and passages, word </li></ul><ul><li>retrieval, remembering verbal </li></ul><ul><li>sequences </li></ul><ul><li>2 . The phonological system </li></ul><ul><li> language sounds ( phoneme ) </li></ul><ul><li>discrimination, phonological </li></ul><ul><li>awareness ( identifying rhymes, </li></ul><ul><li>syllables, beginnings and endings </li></ul><ul><li>sounds of words), grapheme and </li></ul><ul><li>phoneme associations ( linking letters </li></ul><ul><li>to their sounds) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Morphology and semantics </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary acquisition, </li></ul><ul><li>understanding word meanings </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>sentence comprehension, interpreting word order and grammar, recollection or recognition of grammar rules </li></ul><ul><li>5. Discourse </li></ul><ul><li>producing extended language orally and in writing, starting, ordering and developing concluding thoughts, overall language comprehension </li></ul>
    11. 12. Teacher corrections to errors <ul><li>Models correct form </li></ul><ul><li>Drills correct form </li></ul><ul><li>Repeats faulty form </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts correct form </li></ul><ul><li>Explains correct form </li></ul><ul><li>(Re)states question/prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Tells students what to say </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces directions </li></ul><ul><li>Expands directions </li></ul>
    12. 13. Error Correction (Corrective Feedback Types) A classroom research study on Oral Error Correction (Coskun, 2010) <ul><li>1. Explicit correction : Clearly indicating that the student's utterance was incorrect, the teacher provides the correct form. </li></ul><ul><li>S: there is a little milk in fridge. </li></ul><ul><li>T: + in the fridge </li></ul><ul><li>2. Recast : The teacher implicitly reformulates the student's error, or provides the correction without directly pointing out that the student's utterance was incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>S: he like pop-music. T: yes, he likes pop-music </li></ul><ul><li>3. Clarification request : The teacher indicates that the message has not been understood or that the student's utterance included some kind of mistake and that a repetition or a reformulation is needed by using phrases like &quot;Excuse me?&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>S: there aren’t many / hotıls / in this town. T: again? ♪ </li></ul>
    13. 14. Corrective Feedback Types (Part 2) <ul><li>4. Metalinguistic clues : The teacher poses questions like “Do we say it like that?” or provides comments or information related to the formation of the student's utterance without providing the correct form. </li></ul><ul><li>S: there isn’t any books. T: + there isn’t görünce uncountable, yani sayılamayan bir şey kullanmamız gerekiyormuş. Ds: there isn’t any money </li></ul><ul><li>5. Elicitation : The teacher directly elicits the correct form from the student by asking questions (e.g., &quot;How do I ask somebody to clean the board?&quot;), by pausing to allow the student to complete the teacher's utterance (e.g., &quot;He is a good…&quot;) or by asking students to reformulate the utterance (e.g., &quot;Can you say that again?&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>S: there are a few books in my /lıbrari/ </li></ul><ul><li>♪  T: in my…? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Repetition : The teacher repeats the student's error and changes intonation to draw student's attention to it. </li></ul><ul><li>S: How much money do you have in your / pakıt /? T: /pakıt/? ♪ DS: /pokıt/ T: yes </li></ul>
    14. 15. Learner to learner interactions - Another major type of classroom interaction
    15. 16. Leaner to learner interactions… <ul><li>Pair and group work involvement where cooperative learning happens. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cooperative learning is group-learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in group and in which each learner is held accountable for his/her own learning of others.” (Olsen & Kagan 1992:8) </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>What happen during a pair work/group work discussion? </li></ul><ul><li>- learners communicating in a cooperative way. </li></ul><ul><li>- they learn from each other in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>- students learn collaborative and social skills. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Indeed, cooperation is not only a way of learning, but also a theme to be communicated about and studied.” – Jacobs 1998 </li></ul>
    17. 18. Compiling Classroom Research Data <ul><li>Data are recorded during classroom observation through: </li></ul><ul><li>Recording - observation </li></ul><ul><li>Take down notes - coding system </li></ul><ul><li>These data will be compile for analysis by transcribing: </li></ul><ul><li>data from the recoding </li></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>and through visual observation. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Analyzing classroom interaction data <ul><li>What do we look for in the data? </li></ul><ul><li>(Nunan 1989:26) </li></ul><ul><li>...teacher talk took up 89% of classroom verbal interaction time. </li></ul><ul><li>… 91% of the time, teachers already knew the answers to the questions they were asking. </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>From the data we have gathered, few questions could be observed: </li></ul><ul><li>How is talk time divided between teachers and learners? </li></ul><ul><li>How self-aware are teachers of how they use language in their interactions with their students? </li></ul>
    20. 21. Reference <ul><li>Videos: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Books and articles: </li></ul><ul><li>Lahir, L. (2011,January). Differences in auditory processing.  Modern English Teachers, 20 (1), 73-78. </li></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>Deterding, D. (2005, September). Listening to Estuary English in Singapore.  TESOL Quarterly, 3 (3), 425-439. </li></ul><ul><li>Coskum, A. ( 2010, June). A classroom research study on Oral Error Correction. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, J.D. (2009). Doing second language research. Oxford University Press.(pp. 79-91). </li></ul>