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Cities action

  3. 3. 4 5 Synthesis of the CASH partners’ Local Action Plans Introduction CASH (Cities’ Action for Sustainable Housing) is a network of 11 partners (10 cities- Utrecht, Tatabanya, Sonderborg, Les Mureaux, Brindisi, Bridgend, Frankfurt, Yambol, Eordea, Echirolles and one region – Region Rhône-Alpes) led by the city of Echirolles in France. The ambition of the CASH project is to propose new solutions and promote new policies for the sustainable renovation of social and affordable housing units in the European Union. Cities have become major policy players in the area of climate change policy and sustainable energy policy, for at least 2 simple and interlinked reasons: first, cities use a significant proportion of the world’s energy1 and secondly, cities have significant energy and CO2 savings potential2. From this diagnosis, we have decided to put in place, as part of the project, local action plans (LAPs) in each partner city in order to deal with one of the main energy consuming but also energy saving components of the urban fabric: housing. And to ensure gains not only on the environmental side but also on the social and economic side, we have focused on social housing, which, whatever the form it takes, counts for around 12% of the total housing stock in the EU. Local action plans are meant to propose actions that will help cities achieve success in the field of energy efficiency in the social housing sector on the basis of a diagnosis of local strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. They are elaborated within Local Support Groups (ULSG), which are required to be elaborated by each partner, in the framework of an URBACT project in order to tackle the urban issues faced. 1 Globally, cities today are estimated to consume between 60% to 80% commercial energy (OECD, 2008) 2 If one considers the range of policies and measures available to a country to reduce emissions, around two-thirds of the total global energy savings could occur in cities. Moreover, cities could go further than these national savings because many policy options to reduce energy consumption and decrease CO2 emissions are under the authority of local governments (OECD, 2008) 3 See ECORYS Study CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING
  4. 4. 6 7 Obstacles to this success are now well known and could be summarised as follows: Insufficient technical know-how (in particular in the legal field linked to Main elements of the local action plans All local action plans from the 11 partners in the CASH network have often common energy investments), lack of political will (essentially because of the huge upfront features in terms of strategic priorities. Those priorities can be summarised as costs which are not sufficiently put into perspective with the long term gains in follows: terms of reduced energy bills, reduce health expenditure, reduce unemployment • trengthening of the local partnership, in particular Brindisi, Sonderborg, Utrecht S for the construction sector), lack of public awareness (which often prevent end • einforcing the involvement of citizens, in particular Echirolles, Frankfurt, R users to commit to new energy consumption patterns ) and complex financial Yambol requirements (essentially due to the long term and low rate of return on • etting up adequate financing mechanisms, in particular Bridgend, Frankfurt, S investment). All those difficulties which are a common feature of local debate, Région Rhône-Alpes despite the clear gains for society (what is often called the co-benefits of energy • etter evaluating the needs and the performance, in particular Bridgend, B efficiency measures), need to be addressed by the public authorities at the most Echirolles, Les Mureaux relevant level: often in cities. • mproving the technical and legal aspects, in particular Eordea, Tatabanya I The Local Actions Plans of the CASH partner cities have therefore tried to develop Each partner has developed actions under those priorities and through a a strategy around the different elements that should trigger a real change in the community led process. This document presents the compendium of all the Local way they approach energy problems in the housing sector: strengthen the skills of Action Plans in the following order : Echirolles, Bridgend, Brindisi, Eordea, local authorities, better monitor the local needs and sources, and provide clear Frankfurt, Les Mureaux, Région Rhône-Alpes, Sonderborg, Tatabanya, Utrecht, financing options and dare citizens’ empowerment. Yambol. The European Union should support such LAPs in the future as they are community-led, area-based local development plans and guarantee that the necessary capacity of cities to use EU funds will be in place. There are already examples of the cities involved in other EU projects such as Tallin in Estonia or Torino in Italy which have made a successful link between the LAPs and the use of Structural Funds3. 3 See ECORYS Study CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING
  6. 6. 10 11 CONTEXT La Villeneuve is characterised by a high proportion of young couples and in particular in the Les Essarts sector where more than 50% of inhabitants are under 30 years1 (against an average of 38% for Echirolles and 42% for the Grenoble Echirolles Local Background Metropolitan Area). It is also in Les Essarts that there are the most families with Initiated in 2000, the City of Echirolles has elaborated a sustainable development children (47% of households with children, 18% of which have more than three strategy from 2000. So far, this strategy has resulted in the drawing up of Agenda children). The main reason for this is the large proportion of large housing units for 21, as well as the development of an ambitious local energy policy labelled Cit’ergie families. It is in this sub-sector that we count the largest number of children under (linked to the European Energy Award) in 2007 and 2011. A specific component on 11 years (23% compared with 15% on the average in Echirolles). social housing energy refurbishment was integrated from the beginning. In terms of concrete actions, one can note the creation of a programme to improve the thermal La Villeneuve is actually the sector of the town where the poverty indicator is and energy efficiency of buildings (OPATB) focused on private dwellings (only 16 highest as shown in the 2008 INSEE study 2. Poverty also particularly concerns cities in France launched this initiative). the “Les Essarts” and “Surieux” housing developments. It is mainly concentrated on the sensitive urban area (ZUS), but seems to spill considerably over from its For the City, the concept of social housing units includes units belonging to perimeter. This area is characterized in particular by a large proportion of social landlords, private co-owned properties and single-dwelling homes unskilled workers and part-time employees, a relatively young population belonging to vulnerable owners (with low incomes and faced with energy that is often of foreign origin, with very few elderly persons, large households poverty). and a large number of social housing units. As a result, families with children that live under the low-income threshold, non-skilled unemployed persons and people To better AXIS its actions in terms of the refurbishment of social housing units and receiving supplementary health insurance (CMU) are particularly to go further in its innovative process, the City of Echirolles has set up the over-represented. When it comes to employment, the situation of the residents is European project CASH (‘Cities Action for Sustainable Housing’), by the ERDF of also very insecure. Unemployed persons, in particular, unskilled ones are which it is the leader, under the URBACT Programme financed by the FEDER. over-represented. In Les Essarts and Surieux, unemployment figures are twice as high as the national average. Women are even harder hit by this situation. In its Local Action Plan (LAP), Echirolles has opted to place the emphasis on hous- Precarity especially concerns families (12% of recipients of benefits from the CAF ing units belonging to social landlords. are low-income single-parent families). Lastly, nearly three-quarters of CAF recipients receive housing support. Inventory of social housing units Ageing social housing units have a very poor image, especially in the sensitive urban areas (ZUS). Although there are various advantages such as proximity to -La Villeneuve (Essarts, Surieux, Gatinais) public transport and shops, the presence of green spaces and spacious units (67% This is the neighbourhood where the major part of the social rental offering in of two and three-bedroom flats and 18% of flats with four bedrooms or more) and Echirolles is concentrated (42%) with nearly 2,500 housing units. There have been affordability, these units are not very popular with people looking for social housing. no new constructions in recent years. This neighbourhood is made up of many In 2010, out of the 4000 applications for social housing that cited Echirolles, only small residential developments, in particular, the sectors of Les Essarts, Surieux 33 asked for Les Essarts. We have also noted a significant number of refusals of and Le Gâtinais which are all different in terms of social occupancy. This must be accommodation on these sectors, because they often suffer from a very taken into account for housing-related projects. unfavourable environment such as run-down entrance halls. 1 Source: 2010 Activity review. CCAS Echirolles. 2 Idem 4 CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S
  7. 7. 12 13 Data on units allocated have dropped (91 in 2011 in Les Essarts compared with • ittle information, training, support for players (from the owner to residents), L 1104 in 2009) despite the efforts of social landlords. Consequently, vacancies result in : continue to rise in the sector (2% in 2009), in particular on the high-rises located - little cohesion between players, which does not allow for optimum design and in Les Essarts (8.2% on flats with three or more bedrooms on 1 January 2010, process of the renovation; against 4.2% on 1 January 2009 according to the flow monitor). Likewise, there - insufficient involvement of players, given that none of them were ready for this are a particularly high number of requests for transfers of households living approach; in this neighbourhood. However, these areas have the most affordable housing - very little civic involvement in decision-making and renovation design; units, which means that most of its residents are among the poorer populations. - excessive energy consumption by residents. The majority of them have resources 60% lower than the income cap that qualifies for low-rent housing (78% of new entrants in 2009). • o spatio-temporal overview of energy consumption at the municipal level and N follow-up to identify and prioritise the actions. ISSUES 2. Causes • ittle knowledge of the issue at municipal level, in terms of characterisation and scope L • eed for long-term sector-based planning whereas contexts change and requirements N 1. Identification of issues increase very quickly The summary below of problems related to the energy renovation of social • ifficulty in adopting new and complex concepts D housing units faced by the various players concerned at the Echirolles • omplex and short-lived financial packages (many reference systems for minimal C municipality level was drawn up at the 3rd meeting of the Echirolles Local funding) Support Group on 15 Nov. 2010): • imited human and financial resources of the Municipality, social landlords and L owners of social housing units • nergy-intensive housing units: E • layers on the field not sufficiently trained P - few renovation operations. Most of these were carried out in the 1980s after the • xistence of other immediate needs of social landlords and owners, that compete E oil shock (shells and woodwork). The 1990s, before the Grenelle round table, was with energy renovation (renewal/making lifts compliant, accessibility, asbestos not very productive; removal, fire safety, etc.), as a result of new regulations that take a toll on budgets. - energy labels ranging between E and C, since social housing units consume less energy than private housing units; - high consumption / high energy bills; 3. Consequences - unsatisfactory results for thermal insulation and ventilation systems in social • etermination to act on 40% of social housing units in Echirolles based on D priorities housing energy operations. • etermination to find effective solutions that fit the needs of citizens (there are D already some ongoing projects based on excellent ideas and that have made it • inancial tools: F possible to detect problems) and that can be easily reproduced on the housing - not well suited to the vulnerable private housing stock. Existing La Metro tools stock touch only a very small volume of needs; - not very attractive for social landlords: not part of a long-term plan and no continu- • etermination of the various players (social landlords, municipality, elected D representatives, technicians, architects, residents, etc.) to act together ity, which make it difficult to have visibility. They are inadequate compared with the challenges because of the volume and complexity of the housing units to be • etermination for participatory action by the two largest landlords (key players D targeted and present, making it easy to act and fostering dialogue). renovated. • etermination to involve residents in the choices and actions to ensure full D adoption. CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S
  8. 8. 14 15 ECHIROLLES LOCAL SUPPORT GROUP GOALS OF THE LOCAL ACTION PLAN To define the Local Action Plan (LAP) of the City of Echirolles, a local support AND THE CITY’S ENERGY POLICY group was created in February 2010. It comprised the main local stakeholders concerned by this theme. Its first task was to take stock of the situation in Echirolles 1. What and to define the problems experienced in this area. The Echirolles LAP should enable Echirolles to: • ake an inventory of the locations of the social housing property and prioritise m Who the actions at municipal level in terms of energy renovation Members of the Échirolles Local Support Group must analyse the players involved • develop tools for: in this plan, in the next stage of the elaboration of their Local Action Plan. - Optimising the technical aspects of insulation and ventilation According to the URBACT programme guide on the creation of Local Action Plans, - Finance the energy renovation of social landlords this analysis consists in identifying the front-line players of the project, who are the • erve as a lever on a large-scale by acting in the short term on reproducible pilot s most involved and active in their drawing up and implementation, as well as players operations. who will play a less direct, but important role in guiding the project and those who will play an active role but on specific occasions. The criteria will be defined at a 2. When subsequent meeting. The table below, which gives an indication of the participation The Echirolles LAP will start being implemented as it is designed during the two of members of the Local Support Group, will serve as a basis for discussion. years of the implementation phase of the CASH Project and will continue to be Post-CASH. It will be managed by each of the parties concerned, in particular Creation of working sub-groups under the Essarts-Gâtinais urban renewal project supported by the City. Proposals made at the third and fourth meetings of the local support group to create a working sub-group based on the strategic axes of the Local Action Plan 3. How has been implemented. The Echirolles LAP will be established participatorily by the ULSG created for this purpose and made of the key players in the field. It will be implemented through the To manage this task force, it was suggested that a Secretariat be created. It should ULSG workshops and the pilot activities and operations will be integrated into the be made up of the leader of each subgroup and the CASH coordinator, who will programmes of the various ULSG members. have the following tasks: define a work framework; prepare elements of analysis for meetings; define a work timetable in line with theme-based seminars; specify the deliverables expected. CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S
  9. 9. 16 17 STRATEGIC AXES • odel energy renovation scenario: M - process to promote innovation and the control of rents and service charges: energy audit; co-design and participation in the neighbourhood/urban integration Based on the context and the problems experienced at the level of the Echirolles project; implementation technique; organisation of worksite; bonds between municipality, the 5 strategic axes of the Echirolles Local Action Plan were players and support; funding, etc., outlined during the first two meetings of the Local Support Group – Echirolles (20 - minimum renovation levels and requirements of existing and future legislative Sept. and 25 Oct. 2010) and were approved at the third meeting (15 Nov. 2010): framework (European directives, future decrees of Grenelle 2, etc.) - acceptable deviation between energy requirements for new and existing Axis 1: property  Comparative analysis of jointly produced “renovation” or “demolition/reconstruction” - choosing between routine work and energy work  scenarios on energy-consuming assets (possible proposal of action on 15 “Les - energy choice: inventory of existing sources and methodology or methodologies Goélands” housing units by OPAC38). of choice, etc. (analysis of examples from other countries) - choice of materials: synthetic, natural / bio-sourced, combined, etc. Axis 2: Reduction in energy consumption through the practices and habits of residents • omparison of a demolition or renovation operation (resources, duration, C and managers (possible proposal of action on 2 test buildings). budget, social cost, urban recovery, etc.) Axis 3: Axis 2: Observation and energy monitoring of social housing at the local community level. Optimisation of residents’ habits to cut down energy consumption (possible proposal of action on two test buildings). Axis 4: Design of financial engineering adapted to the needs of social housing. • nventory: type of heating, lighting, air-conditioning/ventilation, etc., types of i electrical and electronic appliances, condition of equipment and appliances Axis 5: • nalysis of the energy expenditure: use of equipment and appliances a What methodologies should be adopted to create commitment and sharing? • nfluence of heating contracts and others, etc. i In the fifth axis, the term “methodology” takes on full importance because there are Axis 3: existing tools and instruments in terms of energy renovation. However, there is a Design of a database and a municipality-level monitoring system dearth of communication campaigns/operations to make them known, training to understand them and involvement mechanisms to ensure optimum • nalysis of available  data: type of data (consumption ratios, CO2 emissions, a implementation. monthly consumption per building, service charges, outstanding bills, thermography, etc.), source of data (PACT-Isère, CCIAG (the La Metro heating Proposal of Components and sub-themes utility company), EDF-GDF, La Metro, social landlords, jointly-owned units, etc.), per Strategic Axis scale (building, neighbourhood, municipality, urban community, etc.), frequency (daily, monthly, quarterly, annually, etc.), type of building and energy labelling, etc. Axis 1: • atabase design: choice of type of data to collect (consumption, service charges, d Comparative analysis of “renovation” or “demolition/reconstruction” comfort of residents, etc.) and scale. scenarios on energy-consuming assets (possible proposal of action on 15 • esign of the monitoring system (mechanism, frequency, resources, responsibilities, d “Les Goélands” housing units by OPAC38). outputs, etc.). CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S
  10. 10. 18 19 Axis 4: PRIORITY ACTIONS/PILOT OPERATIONS Financial tools and financial engineering for social landlords and vulnerable co-ownerships Under the multi-authority urban planning programme (SCOT) of the Grenoble urban region, in December 2009, the Grenoble Alpes Metropole – La Metro urban • nancial tools available in France and Europe for vulnerable co-ownership fi community launched a call for papers from all the municipalities of the urban (landlord and occupant co-owners) and social landlords community to develop a structure plan that would clarify the implementation of the • hat tools must be developed? Facilitator tools such as the pre-financing of w SCOT and adapt it to the specific challenges and characteristics of the urban subsidies; third-party investors; carbon financing on the investment of financial community by drawing on the defining projects of the municipalities. profits made on emissions savings, etc.  • nancial engineering: what is the best mix between funding and subsidies? What fi Some of the main challenges of the structure plan include the urban intensification are the mechanisms to be developed? What level of involvement and coordination strategy, in particular, urban renewal, in connection with interchange hubs and is expected of financial backers? etc. transport networks to ensure social and urban diversity. La METRO, with its local • ommunication tools used by the various players to disseminate financial tools. c communities, is aiming for urban renovation actions on eight sectors of its territory, five of which have resulted in the signing of an agreement with the National Agency Axis 5: for Urban Renovation (ANRU). Involvement/participation and training of players, assistance to residents and communication campaigns, at community and metropolitan area level. Echirolles’ contribution is to specify the challenge of the “Polarité Sud” project that it shares with the cities of Grenoble and Eybens , aimed at improving the living • nvolvement/participation: definition of the concept; identification of players i environment through the urban renewal of the two new cities of the urban and current player interfaces; optimisation of the process by encouraging the community, by reinforcing the diversity of housing and consolidating the establishment involvement of residents and player interfaces as upstream of operations as of economic activities. The sectors of Villeneuve in Echirolles and Villeneuve in possible; existing methods and methods to be developed, etc. Grenoble are priority sectors in several ways such as their size and their position • raining of players: inventory (training currently existing at national level – FEEBAT, t in the urban community, the number and types of housing units that were built REBBAC, e-NERGIEBAT, etc. depending on the various targets; best practice towards the end of the 1960s and the social challenge that the resident population capitalisation networks – BEEP resource centres, BBC Observatory, PRAXIS represents. The two Villeneuves are home to a vulnerable population and have a Ecobat, etc.); evaluation of needs depending on players (owner, project manager, very poor image. They were originally built to become a new axis point in the south- consulting firms, contractors, residents, federations; material retail outlets, insur- ern part of the urban community that would create a balance. This second centre ance companies, etc.); training axes to develop depending on new needs and of the urban community has become a major residential area made up of an urban requirements arising from the concept of energy efficiency and directives and network criss-crossed with infrastructures (road and rail networks). regulations in the pipeline: interdependency between professions and busi- nesses, man-building interactions, etc. Polarité Sud is part of the balanced setting in motion in each of the three branches • upport (case of social housing units and co-owned properties): in the choices s of Grenoble’s “Y”, including: made for energy audits, energy performance contracts, insurers, financial tools/ • olarité Est (eastern site of the University of Grenoble and the Teaching Hospital, P financial engineering, sources of energy, renovation type and materials, type of CHU). contract, electrical and electronic equipments, etc.; during the renovation works; • olarité Nord-Ouest (north-west sector on both sides of the Drac/Isère P in terms of practices; in terms of monitoring and management of service charges, confluence and the peninsula). etc. The cities of Echirolles and Grenoble have for many years been involved in an • ommunication: existing or future strategies and tools. c ambitious sustainable development project. The future of the two 2 Villeneuves is therefore part of an exemplary project of a renovated eco-neighbourhood featuring CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S
  11. 11. 20 21 social and functional diversity, “soft” transport and accessibility, re-vegetation, the CASH pilot operations); sustainable water management, governance and civic values - with civic participation • ork to optimise the energy consumption measuring tools that the landlords W at the heart of the transformation process - and high energy efficiency of provide to tenants and the co-design of tools that are more suited to the different buildings. tenant categories. The aim is to act on practices and energy gains with a social target of reducing charges. This work will be based on the experiences of tenants In 2010, the City of Echirolles commissioned a social and urban study by the firm in using the new facilities and energy-saving systems installed the Rumba Nova Lieux Dits that enabled a clear prioritisation of the Echirolles Villeneuve space and buildings of Village II in 2011 and the Kedros building of the City-Centre in 2008 the identification of the land potential needed to introduce diversity and to recreate (ref.  : analysis grid developed by the working sub-group dedicated to the the public facilities offering. The Essarts-Gâtinais neighbourhood of the Villeneuve behavioural lever); Echirolles was chosen as the scope of the study. • inancial levers: creation of a working group on energy efficiency contracts with F the Rhône Alpes Regional Council (CRRA), Rhône-Alpes Energie Environnement Within the Essarts-Gâtinais neighbourhood, designated as the study scope, the (RAEE), Local Energy Agency (ALEC), Caisse des Dépôts, OPAC38, SDH, the local support group of the URBACT–CASH project - comprising the Echirolles City of Echirolles, the National Housing Confederation (CNL), to exchange municipality unit that was the leader of the “Polarité Sud” project - has decided to feedback on energy efficiency contracts at the national level (one-day meeting axis its actions concerning the energy renovation of social housing on pilot planned in Lyon, in early October 2012, organisation in progress). The group will operations that will enable it to test ventilation systems and insulation techniques work on the preparation of project management assistance to envisage a new that can be easily transposed on a large scale. The operations selected are those financial engineering system for the Maine-Limousin-Vivarais pilot operations corresponding to the next operations scheduled on the housing units of the major based on the energy efficiency contract. landlords: Le Maine for OPAC38 and Vivarais-Limousin for SDH. SUMMARY OF PILOT OPERATIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF THE CITY OF ECHIROLLES Actions scheduled for the identified buildings under the CASH programmes: To sum up, the pilot operations recommended on the territory of the City of ECHIROLLES concern two scales: The following innovative actions will represent the core of the pilot operations carried out on the Maine and Limousin-Vivarais buildings: • ction at territorial level, based on the future urban renewal project ANRU 2 a • nalysis of the demolition/renovation scenarios based on the grid developed by A Polarité Sud – Section Essarts-Gâtinais, which could receive European OPAC38 and SDH under the CASH programme, which integrates environmental, co-funding under the new Integrated Territorial Investment (ITI) promoted by the energy and social components; EU Cohesion policy 2014-2020 and by European tools such as JESSICA. The • enuine involvement of tenants in decision-making to achieve maximum G Polarité Sud project proposes an integrated sustainable development strategy in co-design of energy renovation. This means that the social landlords have to an urban environment, innovative development actions in urban areas in terms of work to integrate this aspect into their specifications (this work will be based on civic participation and energy renovation of social housing on a large scale, a the analysis grid of civic involvement in the various phases of energy renovation ; axis on urban development at the strategic level by targeting the specific needs of • dentification of insulation techniques and ventilation systems that are best suited I geographical that are the hardest hit by poverty and exclusion, as well as the to the type of buildings representative of the housing stock of social landlords combination of actions supported by specific sectoral priority investments in dating from the late 1960s and early 1970s, which can be reproduced on their urban areas such as the promotion of low carbon emission strategies and social building complexes - on a large scale. This approach is also supposed to be inclusion by helping with the physical and economic revival of underprivileged innovative in terms of the maintenance management technique (see box below on urban communities; the state of the art for ventilation and insulation, with advanced solutions under CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S
  12. 12. 22 23 • action concerning operations on test buildings in the Polarité Sud project, on which the innovative approaches reproducible on a large-scale proposed by the LAP in terms of energy efficiency of social housing recommended under the CASH programme, will be tested. These could be funded by the European regional development fund (ERDF) and depending on the analysis of the working group on the financial tools, by an energy efficiency contract. POLITICAL COMMITMENT To implement these pilot operations, the City of Echirolles: • as undertaken to integrate the CASH local action plan (LAP) in its sustainable h development strategy • as presented a deliberation at the city council of October 2012 that notably h explains the pilot operation and its related actions • ill present a final deliberation at the city council at the end of the CASH project W to officially record the LAP at the municipal council meeting. Contacts sources Ville d’Echirolles Service Environnement Développement Durable Address: 1 place des 5 fontaines 38130 ECHIROLLES Phone: + 33 (0)4 76 20 56 00 e-mail: Website: CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - éCHIROLLE S
  14. 14. 26 27 ‘GREEN CITIES GREEN MINDS’ SHO’s Estate improvement programmes include energy efficiency measures such as external wall insulation, photovoltaic units, internal insulation and renewable energy solutions. The SAP rating for social housing is currently 73 on a scale of 1-100 which How do we ‘green-up’ our Cities? is better than the private housing rating of 55 according to the Bridgend private housing stock condition survey 2010. It has been recognised that much more work needs to be Global context done in the private sector to make homes energy efficient. The Welsh Government (WG) is taking a lead on energy. It is working towards a Future Government initiatives will include Energy Company Obligations and the Green Low-carbon Wales and is committed to reducing greenhouse emissions. Its target Deal. The Welsh Government will continue with their ERDF programme ARBED over is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 3% per year by 2011 in areas of devolved the next 3-5 years to ensure that low-income citizens in the private sector in deprived competence, including actions on diversified renewable energy generation. WG areas will benefit from energy efficiency measures. Research under the LAP pilot has reiterated the recognition that climate change is the greatest threat facing operations will be undertaken to progress promoter status for the Green Deal and humanity. WG’s aim is to enhance the economic, social and environmental wellbeing options for district heating in new affordable housing schemes and refurbishment of of people and communities in Wales to achieve a better quality of life for all. It is existing estates. working with private, public and social sectors, business and industry to create a stable environment for the necessary long-term investment. The transition for Wales to low-carbon energy covers electricity, heating, waste management and transport, through key enabling policies such as economic development, housing, What problems have we identified throughout CASH? planning, environmental regulation, pollution and transport. WG has a legal obligation to promote Sustainable Development and has embarked Identification, causes and consequences on an ambitious and long-term programme of cross cutting policy initiatives to The key problems Bridgend are facing to perform energy efficiency renovation address the reduction of carbon emissions and fuel poverty across Wales. One identified throughout CASH are: Wales: One Planet (2009) sets out a vision where within the lifetime of a generation 1. n ageing housing stock mainly in the Valleys areas, particularly those properties A WG want to see Wales using only its fair share of the earth’s resources. built in terraces associated with the coal mining industry, most of which are solid wall construction and hard to treat. 2. he inability to fund energy efficiency improvements in the private sector without T Local context grants and the lack of co-ordination among grant funders, i.e. National and Local The County Borough of Bridgend consists of three Valleys, the Ogmore, Llynfi and Governments and Utilities. Garw, the seaside town of Porthcawl on the coast to the West, towns and villages 3. ack of co-ordination between agencies and utilities in data collection and L south of the main M4 corridor and Bridgend City the administrative centre. The dissemination Bridgend County Borough has a population of 135,200 and 59,000 households. There 4. ver 6,800 private households (13% of private households) were found to be O are 76% privately owned properties, 14% social rented properties and 10% private facing fuel poverty and 30% of these were found in the private rented sector. rented properties. 5. ack of education and low awareness as well as difficulties in monitoring, L The age and profile of the private housing stock consists of 29% pre-1919 properties, educating and changing the behaviours of all residents/tenants in realising 11% built 1919-1944, 21% built 1945-1964, 17% built 1965-1980 and 21% built after the benefits of energy efficiency and cost savings. 1980. There are four social housing operators (SHO) in Bridgend County, the largest being Valleys to Coast (V2C) with 5,847 properties. There are a small number of The key causes of fuel poverty identified by the ULSG were as follows: lease-hold properties co-owned by the SHOs which are flats. All social housing rents - high fuel prices, low-income households and inefficient health systems; are regulated by WG. The Welsh Housing Quality Standard (WHQS) was introduced - the inability to change tenants and residents attitudes and behaviours; different by WG in 2002 and SHOs were expected to devise realistic improvement programmes energy tariffs; to reach the standard by 100% by 2012. The standard has been extended to 2015. CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRIDGEND CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRIDGEND
  15. 15. 28 29 - the lack of co-ordination among energy providers; What is Bridgend’s main LAP goal in making social housing energy - lack of co-ordination and timing of different grants to fund energy efficiency efficient? renovation. he main goal of Bridgend’s ULSG is to make the County Borough green and to CO2 emissions are recorded by WG, the Energy Saving Trust and the Carbon encourage citizens, social housing tenants and co-ownerships, private residents Trust. There is, however, no synergy between systems and equal access to and owner occupiers to ‘think green’ and understand technologies in order to information. reduce carbon emissions and fuel poverty. We intend through the Local Action Plan to reinforce partnerships between existing partners and stakeholders, mainly The impact of rising energy costs should not only escalate fuel poverty, but also by exploring and developing new fields of co-operation. We want to ensure that increase poor health and environments, particularly for low income households in stakeholders and partners are delivering each activity of the LAP, which is private sector housing. The failure to tackle energy costs and the deteriorating expected to evolve over the next 3 years. The entire LAP is based on cooperation condition of existing social and private housing will adversely affect the delivery of and networking to deliver the activities and new financial tools will be integrated to effective and successful local improvement programmes. More financially resilient achieve our goals. Specific workshops, task forces and finish groups will be models of delivery need to be considered to retrofit existing housing units that established to implement activities to address fuel poverty, change attitudes and embrace energy efficiency measures. In this context Bridgend is considering behaviours and continue to access grants and private finance to undertake energy combined heat and power units for districts and has developed a District Heating efficiency renovation. Network Opportunity Plan and commissioned A-COM to undertake a networks study for district heating pilots. What are the strategic priorities for Bridgend? 1. We want to accurately identify those areas and specific housing occupiers faced Who is involved to elaborate Bridgend’s CASH Local Action Plan? with fuel poverty with the help of WG, the Fuel Poverty Coalition, the National To ensure the highest political support, Bridgend’s ULSG is chaired by the Cabinet Energy Association, the Energy Saving Trust and the Carbon Trust and to member for Communities, and the Bridgend Seminar on Citizen Involvement and undertake measures to lift areas and individual occupiers out of fuel poverty. We Engagement in January 2012 was opened by the First Minister for Wales. The four will do this by liaising with those bodies in Wales that specifically address the main SHOs are members of CASH. They are working towards meeting the WHQS issue at a national level. ensuring that they have equal access to available grants to improve the energy 2. e want to change attitudes and behaviours by persuading tenants/residents W efficiency of their homes for all tenants and residents. They work with tenant forums and owners to reduce energy consumption prior to, and as a result of energy saving to educate tenants and residents about the benefits of energy efficiency in relation investments. We will do this by liaising and mentoring tenants through tenant to improving health and to change their behaviours in using controls and reducing organisations and forums, facilitated by SHOs. We will obtain energy advice and energy consumption. Regeneration Skills Collective Wales, Rockwool Manufacturer, information from energy suppliers (utilities) and work with other local authorities the National Energy Agency, Energy Saving Trust, the Carbon Trust are our in Wales to share good practices and identify future innovation. We will use networking partners who will develop the LAP in up-skilling, training champions to techniques currently being developed by National Local Governments and by change attitudes and behaviours, providing advice and information and sharing our European Partners through the CASH network to effect behavioural change good practice to address fuel poverty. We will be working more closely with banks and to develop new tools to meet the challenges of climate change and in mak- and other local authorities to deliver our commitments on the Green Deal pilot and ing our cities and towns green. proposals for District Heating and will be working with colleagues in BCBC from 3. o ensure that best practice examples are available to all, we intend to improve T Planning, Sustainable Development, Transportation and Regeneration who are collaboration and regional networking and partnership working and establish members of the Carbon Reduction Group. potential delivery partners at a sub-regional and regional level to deliver housing retrofit energy saving investment in the County Borough. We will ensure that co-ordinated delivery is facilitated through collaborative action. CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRIDGEND CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRIDGEND
  16. 16. 30 31 4. We will ensure that all participants are trained in the implementation of energy saving measures are fully skilled to deal with the physical delivery and after-use ‘The Only Way is Green’ of scheme actions by training at scheme preparation stage, scheme implementation Bridgend has highlighted how they are going to green-up their city and towns and and scheme occupation. get citizens in the County Borough to think green. So what are we going to do to ensure that our tenants and residents are taken out of fuel poverty and live in How do we intend to deliver our priorities within the Work-Plan? homes that are safe and warm? Fuel Poverty – Confirm the methodology of identifying those in fuel poverty in local areas; review existing data; and identify key areas for targeting future measures. Grant funding through ERDF and the utilities and SHO own reserves through their The outcomes will be agreed mapping of areas and individual households in fuel Estate Improvement Programmes have been well utilised over the past 10 years. poverty. This will be undertaken by setting up workshops and consultation meetings However, much more money is needed to achieve the energy reduction targets and and will be coordinated by SHOs and the LA in partnership with Energy the WHQS in both social and private housing. We need to explore new financial Organisations over the initial 3-year-period of the LAP. Financial resources required models for providing energy efficiency renovation and the sharing of combined for this action is estimated at £15,000. heat and power units. Changing Behaviours – We will ensure there is a greater awareness of the benefits The two pilot operations that we want to take forward post CASH as well as the of energy efficiency renovation by dissemination of information and awareness strategic priorities and activities in the work plan are given below. We have also raising of funds available and financial benefits; website development and Media included how they fit in with the EC Integrated Sustainable Urban Development campaign; presentations made and links to other advisory agencies established. Cohesion Policy 2014-2020. The outcomes will be tenants and residents will be aware of financial tools and available EE renovation products. This will be coordinated by SHO and energy partners. We will liaise with energy advice agencies SHOs, community organisations and voluntary sectors. The estimated cost of developing a website is £25,000. We PILOT OPERATION 1 – THE GREEN DEAL will facilitate training for tenants and residents on how to use controls and measure The Green Deal will enable householders in Bridgend to invest in energy efficiency consumption and encourage participation by undertaking briefing sessions with improvements to their homes, at no upfront cost, that will pay for themselves tenants; developing a promotional activities guide; one to one training using local through savings on their energy bills. The money to pay for the improvements will champions. The outcomes will be that residents will be equipped with knowledge be borrowed from a Green Deal provider who will arrange for the measures to be and ability to save energy and use controls effectively to measure consumption installed. It is expected that the repayments plus reduced energy bills will always and use; better understanding of energy savings. The costs estimated for this activity be lower than energy bills before installation of the measures. We have set up a is £10,000. The stakeholders concerned in the delivery will be SHO/BCBC, energy Carbon Reduction Group and are speaking to other Welsh Local Authorities to see advice agencies, community organisations, energy ambassadors. if we can work on a Regional basis to deliver the Green Deal. We are also working We will work with our regional partners to establish networks and exchange with the Energy Saving Trust to develop a database of all properties in the County information to improve partnership working and increase awareness of what is Borough and the energy efficiency measures they have had undertaken to date available. We will develop a set of tools designed to roll out across the region using and intend building upon the database for the future. We would like to encourage a examples and experiences taken from CASH projects and partners good practice. stronger axis on urban development at a strategic level. To do this, we want to ex- The Stakeholders involved in each strategic axis and in delivering the activities pand stakeholder involvement in this pilot project to include utilities, NEA, within the work-plan are both primary and secondary stakeholders depending on Rockwool, NGO’s, BTCV and the Skills Directive and SME’s and to seek funding the tasks to be undertaken. Primary and Secondary Stakeholders are identified in from the European Cohesion fund 2014-2020 through its ITI programme. We are the main LAP and their knowledge and expertise that they bring to the LAP. We looking for continued support from grant provision for cross-sector interventions have targeted those Stakeholders who will need to be involved in delivering the and regional working. The estimated cost of establishing a data base, setting up activities and any obstacles to their participation will be solved at an early stage. networks, workshops and advisory services is £75,000. CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRIDGEND CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRIDGEND
  17. 17. 32 33 PILOT OPERATION 2 – DISTRICT HEATING We are exploring the possibility of installing District Heating in buildings, existing housing estates, Strategic Regeneration Areas, and urban areas. District Heating plants exist in schools and leisure centres and some commercial buildings. There have been major advances in technology and reliability, which means there is potential to look again at introducing district heating in Bridgend. To this end, AECOM was recently commissioned to undertake high level technical feasibility and commercial viability assessments of establishing heat networks across seven areas in the County Borough. Planning policy has been designed to include the provision of district heating and further research needs to be undertaken. We are looking for support within innovative urban actions from the EC Cohesion fund and ERDF grant programmes to continue to advance research into making our urban and strategic regeneration areas ‘greener’ Contacts sources Political commitment: The Director of Communities, Bridgend Cabinet Members WG – ‘One Wales / One Planet’ and the Welsh Government are committed to the Pilot operations. ► There is a cross-sector working group and strong stakeholder involvement. onewalesoneplanet/?lang=en ‘Climate Change Strategy’ ► ttp:// h publications/strategy/?lang=en ‘Fuel Poverty Evidence Plan 2012’ ► ttp:// h fuelpoverty/?lang=en BCBC – ‘Housing Strategy Stock Condition Survey 2009 ► hcspPlanning / LDP ► Edited by Elaine Williams, Local CASH Coordinator for Bridgend CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRIDGEND CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRIDGEND
  19. 19. 36 37 CONTEXT 2 Local level The Apulia Region has shown great sensitivity to environmental issues with a special 1. National level axis on energy issues; furthermore, the position and natural morphology of Apulia The Italian Government has been committed from the start to identifying and has allowed the rapid and constant distribution of solar panels and wind turbines implementing policies focused on achieving the objectives set by the guidelines of for renewable energy production. the Europe 2020 strategy. Procedures for implementing rules on energy efficiency and consumption reduction The results are considerable and Puglia is a leading producer among Italian were initiated, by transposing EU directives from the national legislation to the local regions, accounting for 1/5th of the national demand, according to data from 2010. level, with a particular eye on “green economy”, a fundamental meeting point There have been numerous measures in regional laws to fund energy efficiency in between sustainable development and the needs of the free market. public buildings and to support private investors. The city of Brindisi has been committed to energy issues for a long time now, as is Among these new rules, we can underline: evident from the presence of 3 thermal power plants, 2 of them working on coal. • Decree no. 115/2008, transposition of EU 2006/32/CE directive on energy end-use Even if politicians were focused on the environmental aspects of production, they efficiency and energy services, involving the local level, from Regions to also adopted measures for energy efficiency in the public housing stock in deprived municipalities; local areas. • Presidential Decree no. 59/09, the Government Decree of 26 June 2009 and the National Guidelines for Energy Certification of Buildings to implement Decree no. 192/2005, which is the transposition of EU 2002/91/CE on the energy performance ANALYSIS of buildings; • Decree no. 28/2011, which is the transposition of EU directive 2009/28/CE; 1. Problems • The Rotation Fund created by the 2007 Financial Law, intended to fund renewable energies, energy efficiency and forestry management; Fuel Poverty • National Action Plan for Renewable energies, which follows the EU directive The European economic crisis, along with the side effects on investment and 2009/28/CE. employment, has exacerbated the emergence of energy poverty, which has increased the vulnerability of the most exposed social groups, hard-pressed to Since 2007, the Government has launched campaigns to support energy renovation meet their fuel costs. in the private housing stock, through certifications and tax deductions. A quantitative definition of fuel poverty has been given by the British institution charged to study the phenomenon and to suggest intervention strategies; it states Europe 2020 Strategy: that the critical level in fuel poverty is when a household spends more of 10% of its - New National Action Plan; disposable income on fuel. - Covenant of Mayors; Varying climatic conditions between countries do not allow a consistent index for - New release of the “buildings directive”; the definition of fuel poverty valid for each EU member state. - ESF for the renovation of buildings; Weak social groups usually live in houses built when energy efficiency was an - Strengthening of “white certificates”; anti-economic subject and excluded from design considerations. - New financial tools: ELENA, European Local ENergy Assistance In Brindisi, low income people are not sufficiently aware about the risks of fuel - Funding for EUR 146 M to support energy efficiency. poverty. CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRINDI SI CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRINDI SI
  20. 20. 38 39 Energy Behaviours 2. Causes The current living conditions of many people can be improved through a new To find the right strategies, we should analyze the causes of the following sensitivity to building materials, building techniques and use of renewable energy problems: to meet the energy needs of housing stock. • ack of alternative sources for energy production; l Retrofitting public housing stock could be complicated because of the • eed for a way of thinking about energy efficiency renovation with an eye to n fragmentation of property; it could be more incisive and decisive to inform management residents about technological advances in the field of renewable energy, through • ssues after the renovation; i information campaigns to raise a new awareness towards a more correct and • ack of integrated approach to the problem; l responsible use of energy. • ad energy behaviors of the tenants; b • ow level of monitoring. l Since the beginning, the Brindisi USLG meetings have focused on people living in a neighbourhood built in the early 1960s, in order to find out: Main causes are: • how high the level of information about energy issues is; • igh fuel prices; h • how much they know about the buildings they are living in; • ow income of tenants (sometimes too low); l • which are their current energy behaviours; • ehavior change is a long-standing problem; b • how much they know about their energy bills. • nergy bills and lack of coordination between energy providers. e The analysis was very informative and it helped to advise officers and stakeholders Strategies could be: about the actual level of awareness among the people. • o identify easy-to-use and low-cost plans, as for example: t - individual calculations of consumption could increase the responsibility of final Specific problem of social housing users, “forcing” them to change behaviors; • ublic housing stock could face problems different from private housing, as P - change of behaviors itself could help to save consumption, up to 30%; regards energy efficiency: - information campaigns to disseminate good practices; - features of the housing stock (bad maintenance, low availability of data); - pilot project to show how much it is important to improve a sustainable way of - tenants with low income and high level of arrears; building; - lack of incentives (tax reductions of 55% for energy renovation usually denied); - periodic upgrade for officers and institutions involved in social housing. - lack of specific funding; - problem with the payback of investment just from rents. 3. Consequences • he dichotomy between those who invest and those who cover the investment by T The rise in energy costs exacerbates fuel poverty; furthermore, it leads to a very saving energy is increasing; poor state of health in the built environment, especially in social housing, where • Rents are not enough high; low-income families will have to borrow to cover energy costs for gas and - average rent is EUR 40 /month; electricity. - average money available for housing maintenance is 20 euro/month. The difficulty in reducing energy costs and supporting the renovation of existing • his scenario makes it difficult to ask for funding from third parties; T buildings contributes to the lack of perspective in urban renewal programs, - need for guarantees for regular payment of rent; programs that also aim to tackle economic, social and environmental problems in - need for deals with tenants a coordinated and collaborative manner with the private sector. • elations with final users, their level of awareness and their willingness to R cooperate are the key. CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRINDI SI CITIE S’ AC TION FOR SUS TA IN A BLE HOUSING - BRINDI SI