1 sociology update 6.11


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Introduction to Sociology: Chapter 1

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  • 1 sociology update 6.11

    1. 1. Introduction to SociologyChapter 1Sociology: Perspective, Theory,and Method
    2. 2. What is Sociology?• Word origin– Socius– Logus– Ology• Definition– Scientific study of patterns of human socialinteractions, causes of those interactions, andsolutions to negative consequences
    3. 3. Origins of Sociology• Rapid social change in the 18th and 19thCenturies…– European and North American IndustrialRevolution
    4. 4. Sociology as a Science• Social Science• Based on the use of the Scientific Method– Patterned Regularity– Empiricism– Objectivity
    5. 5. • PatternedRegularity
    6. 6. The Sociological PerspectiveSeeing the “General in the Particular”People often think they areindividuals who make uniquedecisions, but people areactually products of awhirlwind of social forces!
    7. 7. The Sociological Imagination• C. Wright Mills
    8. 8. The Sociological ImaginationAbility to see public issues (the general) inpersonal troubles (the particular)…PERSONALTROUBLESFixing personal troubles doesnot solve public issues. PUBLICISSUESYou must solve public issues tosolve personal troubles.
    9. 9. Likelihood of Embracing theSociological Perspective• Social Marginality– Racial/ethnic minorities– Women– Immigrants– People with disabilities– The elderly– LGBTQ Community– Etc… Thesecategories ofpeople are morelikely to acceptthe SociologicalPerspectivebecause theyexperience theconsequences
    10. 10. Major Areas of SociologyMACRO: large groups, main focusMICRO: individual levels and small groups(also called Social Psychology)Purposes of SociologyApplied/PracticingPure/Basic/Academic
    11. 11. Theoretical Foundersand Grand Theory
    12. 12. August Comte (1798-1857)• French Philosopher and father ofSociology– Coined “Sociology” in 1838– Stages in understanding society1. Theological2. Metaphysical3. Scientific- positivism
    13. 13. Herbert Spencer (1820 – 1903)• British Philosopher and Scientist– First Sociology textbook in 1876– Introduced “Social Evolution” (“SocialDarwinism”)Good Adapters Bad Adapters
    14. 14. Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)• German Philosopher, Economist & Activist• What determines poverty and other socialpatterns?– ECONOMIC DETERMINISM– Based on two dimensions of society• Infrastructure/Substructure• Superstructure
    15. 15. Karl Marx: Economic DeterminismSuperstructureInfrastructure/SubstructureValuesFamilyPoliticsReligionMedicineEtc…ECONOMIC MODEEverything up here depends onwhatever isdown here 
    16. 16. Karl Marx: Communism• COMMUNISM– Complete equality, no poverty– Collective ownership of the means ofproduction– Most advanced/sophisticated economicsystem– End of all further economic transition
    17. 17. Karl Marx: Social Evolution• DIALECTICAL PROCESS (adapted from Georg Hegel)– Hegel: Social change is the product ofconflicts among opposing views.– Marx: Communism will be the product ofconflicts among opposing capitalistclasses.Thesis  Antithesis  SynthesisThesis  Antithesis  SynthesisThesis  Antithesis  Synthesis…
    18. 18. Max Weber (1864 – 1920)• German Economist, Philosopher & Historian• What determines poverty and other social patterns?– IDEOLOGICAL DETERMINISM– E.g., “The Spirit of ModernCapitalism”–Based on Calvinism: thrift,investment, hard work, etc…
    19. 19. Max Weber: Ideological DeterminismSuperstructureInfrastructure/SubstructureValuesFamilyPoliticsMedicineEconomyEtc…IDEOLOGIESEverything up here depends onwhatever isDOWN HERE 
    20. 20. Max Weber: Social Evolution• Rationalization of Society– Transition from traditional to rational– Pre-industrial societies: traditional– Modern society: Rational
    21. 21. Emile Durkheim (1858 – 1917)• French Sociologist• What holds society together?• Patterns of social solidarity– Mechanical Solidarity: strongsharing of beliefs, values, customs,traditions, with a pressure to conform– Organic Solidarity: Interdependence based ona complex division of labor
    22. 22. William Edward Burghardt DuBois(1868 – 1963)• First African American toreceive Ph.D. from Harvard• Heard Weber speak inBerlin• Founded NAACP• Started 2nd Sociologyprogram in U.S. at AtlantaUniversity in 1897• Studied race relations
    23. 23. Harriet Martineau (1802 – 1876)• First female sociologist• Born to prominentfamily in England• Never married• Advocate for VotingRights, HigherEducation for Women,Gender Equality
    24. 24. Jane Addams (1860 – 1935)• Founder of Hull Housein Chicago• Social Reform• Research platform forsociologists atUniversity of Chicago
    25. 25. Hull House
    26. 26. ForgottenSociologists
    27. 27. Grand TheoryTheory: a statement of logical ideas, facts, orassumptions that explains a situationGRAND Sociological Theories1. Structural Functional2. Social Conflict Symbolic3. Interactionism
    28. 28. Structural Functionalism• Talcott Parsons• Assumption: Society is a system ofinterdependent parts working together tomaintain stability• Underpinning assumptions:– Stability– Harmony– Slow Change
    29. 29. Structural Functionalism• Functional Analysis developed by Robert MertonFunctions DysfunctionsManifest ManifestLatent Latent
    30. 30. Conflict Theory• Ralph Dahrendorf and Lewis Coser• Assumption: Change and order are due todialectical forces• Underpinning Assumptions:– Social structures createinequality– Inequality causes activism– Conflicts arise– Change andreorganization occur
    31. 31. Feminism and Gender-Conflict• Feminist Theory: the study of society thatfocuses on inequality and conflict betweenwomen and men• Linked to feminism: support for socialequality for men and women
    32. 32. Race-Conflict• The study of society that focuses oninequality and conflict between people ofdifferent racial and ethnic categories– Whites have social advantage over non-whites• Higher incomes, more schooling, greater jobopportunities, better health, longer lifeexpectancies
    33. 33. Symbolic Interactionism• George Mead, W.I. Thomas, Charles Cooley• Assumption: Human behaviors and socialexpectations are subjectively determinedthrough symbolic interactions…
    34. 34. Symbolic Interactionism• Underpinning Assumptions:– Human interactions are based on symbols– We share meaning for symbols– Shared meaning determines social reality• W.I. Thomas: “The Definition of theSituation”– Social reality determines social expectationand behavior
    35. 35. Doing Sociological Research1. Select a topic2. Define theproblem3. Review theliterature4. Formulate ahypothesis5. Choose aresearch method6. Collect thedata7. Analyze results8. Share theresults
    36. 36. Research• Surveys– Population– Sample– RandomSample– StratifiedRandomSample
    37. 37. Research• Participant Observation– Fieldwork• Case Studies• Secondary Analysis• Experiments– Cause and effect– Independent Variable– Dependent Variable
    38. 38. Research Ethics• Stanford Prison Experiment• Milgram Experiment• Humphreys’ Tea Room Trade