Sensory Impairments


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Chris Rivera & Carrie Thompson

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

Sensory Impairments

  1. 1. Carrie Thompson & Chris Rivera
  2. 2. Identifying Sensory Impairments Who are they: • Blind or Visually Impaired • Deaf or Hearing Impaired • Deaf-Blind Characteristics: • Total or partial loss of vision. • Total or partial loss of hearing. • Loss of both hearing and vision. To qualify for Special Education, hearing or vision loss must interfere with normal learning ability.
  3. 3. Sensory Impairments and the U.S. Population Demographics: • U.S. Population approximately 10,000,000 are blind or visually impaired. • 42,000,000 are deaf or hearing impaired. • 50,000 are classified as deaf-blind Those receiving Special Education: • 29,000 Blind or Visually Impaired. • 78,000 Deaf or Hearing Impaired. • 1,300 Deaf-Blind Sensory Impaired Students are often served in residential schools. Others are served in special education classes, often in education schools.
  4. 4. Outcomes for Students with Sensory Impairments • Most persons with Sensory Disabilities live as adults in integrated society. • Many people who are deaf participate more in Deaf culture but may also live in an integrated society. • Persons with deaf- blindness usually require some degree of ongoing support.
  5. 5. Deafness and Hearing Impairment Sensory impairment in some cases can be defined and evaluated as a medical condition, though according to IDEA or the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is the extent to which they impact a students ability to learn. Educational Definition: • Deafness: Hearing impairment is so severe that processing linguistic information through hearing adversely affects a child's educational performance. • Hearing Impairment: An impairment in hearing, permanent or fluctuating, that affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness. In Assumption: • More severe hearing loss is defined as deafness while less severe hearing loss is defined as hearing impairment.
  6. 6. Clinical Assessment Deafness and Hearing Impairments Degree of hearing loss is expressed in decibels (dB). Higher the decibel the greater the hearing loss. • Normal Hearing: (0 to20 dB) • Mild Loss: (20 to 40 dB) • Moderate Loss: (40 to 60dB) • Severe Loss: (60 to 80 dB) • Profound Loss: (80dB or greater) Type of hearing loss describes the point in the auditory system where the loss is occurring. • Conductive Loss: Outer or Middle ear. • Sensorineural Loss: Cochlea, Inner ear, or within the 8th cranial nerve. Configuration of the hearing loss adheres to aspects of ears affected or whether different frequencies are affected. • Bilateral Loss • Unilateral Loss
  7. 7. Community with a Capitol “D” The term Deaf with a capitol “D” is used to describe a particular group of people who share a language and a culture. • “The members of this group that have inherited their sign language, use it as a primary means of communication among themselves, and hold a set of beliefs about themselves and their connection to a larger society” • The National Association of the Deaf or NAD is the primary organization supporting Deaf culture and members of the Deaf community.
  8. 8. Blind or Visually Impaired • Visual Impairment: An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. • The same definition is applied to blindness • Legal Blindness: Degree of vision loss used to determine eligibility for various legal benefits, not for educational services.
  9. 9. Clinical Assessment Blindness & Visual Impairment Degree of vision loss can be described according to a persons visual acuity and visual field. • Visual Acuity: A fraction such as 20/20. • First set of numbers: Distance the subject is standing from an object measured in feet. • Second set of numbers: Distance at which the person can see the object A person with 20/200 visual acuity when standing 20ft from an object would see as well as a person with normal vision standing 200ft away. • A person is considered legally blind if his visual acuity is 20/200 or worse.
  10. 10. Deaf-Blind Deaf-Blindness consists of concomitant and visual impairments. • Severe communication development and educational needs. • Needs cannot be accommodated in special education programs concerning both impairments. Classic Assumption: • Most people believe Deaf-blind people to both fully deaf and blind but in most cases this is not true. • Only 6% of Deaf-blind children are totally deaf and blind. • Most have enough vision to move about their community. • Or, they have sufficient hearing to recognize familiar sounds, or even understand speech.
  11. 11. Causal Factors of Deafness and Hearing Impairments. • Deafness and Hearing Loss can be caused by heredity, accidents or illness, but in many cases the cause is unknown. Potential Causes: • Prenatal or postnatal = 50% of most children. • Rubella. • Cytomegalovirus. • Complications at birth causing lack of oxygen. • Tumors or lesions. • Medications that harm the ear. • Brain Injuries. • Illness or infection. • Perforation of the eardrum. • Fractured Skull. • Changes in air pressure. • Exposure to loud constant noise.
  12. 12. Causal Factors of Blindness and Visual Impairments Potential Causes: • Cataracts • Optic Atrophy • Albinism • Retinopathy of Prematurity • Rod-cone Dystrophy • Cortical Visual Impairment • Optic Nerve Hypoplasia Vision Loss can also be described as: • Congenital: Vision Loss is present before or at the time of birth. • Adventitious: Vision Loss acquired after birth as a result of a disease or accident. Children with low vision sense birth see the world differently form those with sight.
  13. 13. Causal Factors of Deaf-Blind Impairments Many Different syndromes and disorders result in deaf-blindness. • Early stage of pregnancy; eyes and ears develop. • Unborn Infant; by infection of the mother. • Syphilis • Toxoplasmosis • Rubella • Cytomegalovirus • Herpes • Prematurity • Low birth weight. • Some include intellectual disabilities, shortened life span, poor body growth, motor abnormalities, and glandular disturbances.
  14. 14. Causal Factors of Deaf-Blind Impairments • Many different syndromes and disorders result in deaf-blindness. • Early stage of pregnancy eyes and ears develop. • Unborn infant by infection of the mother. • Syphilis • Toxoplasmosis • Rubella • Cytomegalovirus • Herpes • Prematurity • Low Birth Weight
  15. 15. Code Of Practice “Deaf or Hearing Impaired” During the first 3 years of life, children show incredible growth in language development. Historically this period is missed by children with hearing loss. • 1980’s average age for identification of hearing loss was over 2yrs old. • Today most states use universal newborn hearing screening programs. • Benefit is to identify children and their families for early intervention services.
  16. 16. Early Intervention “Deaf or Hearing Impaired” Early Intervention generally provides families with support and other resources. Benefits: • Improved Speech and Language development. • Improvements in Reading, Arithmetic, Vocabulary, Articulation, Social Adjustment, and Behavior. Families and Early Intervention: • Families are presented with information and resources. • Various communication choices; Spoken English, American Sign Language, Cued Speech.
  17. 17. Code Of Practice “Blind or Visually Impaired” Pediatricians and eye care specialists are most likely to first diagnose a visual impairment in a child, but a time delay often occurs between diagnosis and referral to early intervention. Families: • Access to Early intervention services often depends on health care professionals. • Requires knowledge of the Child Find System.
  18. 18. Early Intervention “Blind or Visually Impaired” Majority of learning in the first years of life is acquired visually through imitation and exploration of events. Without instruction blind or visually impaired children will not learn to: • Crawl or walk at appropriate age. • Gross and fine motor skills will not properly develop. • May not accept solid foods or feed themselves. • Their language development may be delayed. Early Intervention: • Helps to achieve early milestones. • Begin basic learning concepts. • Orientation and mobility instructors. • Occupational Therapist. • Physical Therapist • Services can be provided in the home or at any facility.
  19. 19. Code of Practice “Deaf-Blind” Assessing Deaf-Blind in children can be strenuous and involves highly educated professionals in working with the child and families. Assessment: • Coaching families in communication strategies. • Encouraging hearing aids and glasses. • Weaving intervention strategies. • Collecting Data. • Participating as a member of an interdisciplinary team. The best way to insure life for a Deaf-Blind child is to be fully prepared with help from a community, or professional. In most cases a team approach works best.
  20. 20. Elementary & Middle School Education for the Deaf and Hearing Impaired. Students who are Deaf of Hearing Impaired are likely to have education experiences that differ somewhat from those of the general student population. • 86% Spend at least part of the day in general education. • 47% Spend the majority of the day in general education. Consultation: • Itinerant Teachers: Teachers that work with several students across several schools. • Support in general Education: Conceptual understanding, building background, increasing vocabulary.
  21. 21. Elementary & Middle School, General Education Teachers with Disabled Students. The General educator collaborates with the Itinerant teacher to be sure the student’s individual needs are met, but helping an impaired student feel more comfortable in the classroom is essential. Teachers should always do the following: • Face the class when presenting information. • Allow the student to choose his own seating. • Help an assistive interpreter by not providing instruction. • Provide visual aids to support information. • Take time to assess the students background knowledge. • Do the best you can to reduce the noise distracters.
  22. 22. Elementary & Middle School Resource and Residential Services. Resources or Special Classroom Services: • 21% are outside of the general classroom at least 80% of the day. • 31% of students with hearing impairments receive education in a self- contained classroom. • Teachers focus on developing language, literacy and content knowledge. Residential Services: • 13% of students school in a separate facility. • Bilingual Cultural Educational Philosophy; emphasis in Deaf Culture & ASL. • ASL is preferred as the first language. • English is taught through reading and writing.
  23. 23. Elementary & Middle School for the Blind or Visually Impaired Students who are blind or visually impaired are highly likely to have educational experiences similar to students without disabilities. • 87% of students spend at least part of the day in general education settings. • 56% spend 80% of the day or more in general education classrooms. • 13% of students are educated in separate facilities. Specialized instruction is commonly provided by an itinerant teacher or in a resource setting.
  24. 24. Elementary & Middle School, General Education Teachers with Disabled Students. Many people believe that the only assistance students who are blind or visually impaired need to access the curriculum is a different format of presentation. Strategies: • Provide opportunities for tactile exploration. • Allow space for specialized equipment. • Give verbal descriptions of visual information. • Learn details about the implications of vision loss. • Allow students to indicate their preferred seating.
  25. 25. Elementary & Middle School Resource and Residential Services. “Blind or Visually Impaired”Resource or Special Classroom Services: • Teachers generally work within a public school. • Number of students requiring this service is small. • Students are grouped in one classroom. • Teachers emphasis: developing Braille literacy skills. • Use of assistive and adaptive technology. • Concept development is conducted hands on, sensory sensitive format. Residential Services: • Very few students receive education outside of the public school. • Most of the students attending Residential school have additional disabilities with exception to Blindness or Visual Impairments. Residential Services have changed since the early 1920’s which said it was necessary for this disability to receive special treatment, but now the incorporation into the public school proves to be more beneficial.
  26. 26. Young adults with sensory impairments do not attain levels similar to young adults without disabilities Only 58.6% of students with hearing impairments attend a post secondary institution
  27. 27. Career education activities for students with visual impairments should be directly tied to the school curriculum and integrated into family lives 5 areas that educators must address for blind students Realistic feedback, high expectations, opportunities to work, compensatory skills, and exposure to visual input
  28. 28. Employment opportunities are often limited for young people who are deaf and blind. These children typically have accompanying disabilities Children who are deaf and blind often have limited life experiences that have not allowed them to see or interact with a wide range of jobs These children must build a knowledge and experience base regarding employment as soon as possible
  29. 29. Should deaf students learn ASL and participate in the deaf culture? Should blind students attend residential schools?
  30. 30. The NAD recognizes that American sign language is the backbone of the American deaf culture The NAD was created in part to promote and preserve ASL as a legitimate language and an optimal educational tool for deaf children and adults.
  31. 31. Children who are deaf should be immersed in the language and culture of the deaf from an early age
  32. 32. Many feel that a strong defense can be made for blind children to attend special residential schools “Schools for blind students were not made to segregate them, but to bring into one location the necessary expertise so that these students could develop their maximum potential notwithstanding their visual disability” (Kay Ferrell 2007)
  33. 33. Schools for the blind were established in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century
  34. 34. • Provide effective personal management, community and independent living skills instruction for individuals with deaf- blindness. • Plan and implement literacy and communication and consultative support within the general curriculum and the expanded core curriculum.
  35. 35. • Participate in the activities of professional organizations in the field of visual impairment • Provide families with support to make informed choices regarding communication modes, philosophies, and educational options • Collaborate with school personnel and community members in integrating individuals with exceptional learning needs into various settings
  36. 36. (National Federation of the Blind) The ultimate purpose of the National Federation of the Blind is the complete integration of the blind into society on a basis of equality. (The Hatlen Center for the Blind) The Hatlen Center is now seen in the field of blindness as having pioneered the most effective way to teach independence to people who are visually impaired.
  37. 37. (The Walden School) Walden School is a nonprofit, nationally- recognized educational institution which provides comprehensive treatment and educational services for Deaf children and adolescents between the ages of eight and 21 (Strategies for teaching the deaf) A website dedicated to providing methods with which to teach the deaf/hearing impaired.