Concussions: Mild Head Injury… or Not???
What is a Concussion? <ul><li>An injury to the brain that may be caused by a blow to the head, face, neck, or elsewhere on...
History <ul><li>All head injuries are serious, even those that seem minor </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness not requ...
Symptoms <ul><li>There are many symptoms of a concussion </li></ul><ul><li>To be diagnosed a person only needs to have one...
Cognitive Symptoms <ul><li>Appear Dazed or Stunned </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Forgets Plays </li></ul><...
Physical Symptoms <ul><li>Headache or ‘Pressure’ in head </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea or Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Balance pr...
Cause <ul><li>Concussions can be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Diagnositic Tests <ul><li>Neurological Exam </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Function </li></ul><ul><li>Balance Tests </li></ul><ul><...
Risks <ul><li>After first concussion, your risk of getting another concussion is 3-6 times greater </li></ul><ul><li>If yo...
Preventing <ul><li>Proper fitting helmet or headgear reduce injury </li></ul><ul><li>Correct technique in contact sports c...
Treatment <ul><li>REST! </li></ul><ul><li>To heal properly the brain needs physical and mental rest </li></ul><ul><li>Athl...
Return to play guidelines <ul><li>An athlete who has any loss of consciousness must be immediately removed from competitio...
Myths <ul><li>“ After 1 concussion you will lose intelligence” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple concussions can cause emotio...
Other Information <ul><li>A coma (or extended loss of consciousness) should be treated respectively  </li></ul><ul><li>Any...
 
The following slides show different head injuries related to concussions that are important to know about  as well.
Post-Concussion Syndrome <ul><ul><li>Persistent headache or any other concussion symptoms that persist weeks after concuss...
Second Impact Syndrome <ul><li>Rapid swelling of brain from second injury to head before previous head injury resolved </l...
Symptoms and Treatment <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look stunned, within seconds to minutes condition rapidly w...
Epidural Hematoma <ul><li>Blow to head often with skull fracture tearing meningeal arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Blood accumu...
Subdural Hematoma <ul><li>Result of acceleration/deceleration forces that cause bleeding between dura and brain </li></ul>...
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  1. 1. Concussions: Mild Head Injury… or Not???
  2. 2. What is a Concussion? <ul><li>An injury to the brain that may be caused by a blow to the head, face, neck, or elsewhere on the body with an ‘impulsive’ force transmitted to the head. </li></ul><ul><li>All brain injuries can have serious effects on health and well-being, even mild injuries. </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>All head injuries are serious, even those that seem minor </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness not required to have sustained a concussion, in fact most concussions do not involve a loss of consciousness at all </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition and proper treatment can prevent further injury and even death </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes often do not report symptoms for fear of losing playing time. This can result in long term emotional or physical complications, maybe even death </li></ul>
  4. 4. Symptoms <ul><li>There are many symptoms of a concussion </li></ul><ul><li>To be diagnosed a person only needs to have one of the following symptoms </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cognitive Symptoms <ul><li>Appear Dazed or Stunned </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Forgets Plays </li></ul><ul><li>Unsure of game, score or opponent </li></ul><ul><li>Answers questions slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Loses Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Shows behavior or personality changes </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t recall events before or after injury </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration or memory problems </li></ul>
  6. 6. Physical Symptoms <ul><li>Headache or ‘Pressure’ in head </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea or Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Balance problems or dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Clumsy </li></ul><ul><li>Double or Blurry Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to light or noise </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling sluggish, hazy, foggy or groggy </li></ul><ul><li>Does not feel right </li></ul><ul><li>Ringing in ears </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cause <ul><li>Concussions can be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration/Deceleration forces that cause a shaking of the brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotational forces that cause a shaking of the brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not have to be direct contact to the head to be a concussion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Diagnositic Tests <ul><li>Neurological Exam </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Function </li></ul><ul><li>Balance Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Tests </li></ul>
  9. 9. Risks <ul><li>After first concussion, your risk of getting another concussion is 3-6 times greater </li></ul><ul><li>If you get another concussion before the first one has healed you can get what is called Second Impact Syndrome and risk death </li></ul><ul><li>Concussions can lead to long term disturbances in health and well-being </li></ul>
  10. 10. Preventing <ul><li>Proper fitting helmet or headgear reduce injury </li></ul><ul><li>Correct technique in contact sports can reduce injury </li></ul><ul><li>No protective device will completely eliminate risk for injury </li></ul><ul><li>You can still suffer a concussion even with the best helmets or head gear on the market </li></ul>
  11. 11. Treatment <ul><li>REST! </li></ul><ul><li>To heal properly the brain needs physical and mental rest </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete must be symptom free for at least 1 week and evaluated and cleared by medical health professional before returning to activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms should resolve in 7-10 days unless they’ve had multiple concussions, or if it was more severe, then they can last weeks to months </li></ul>
  12. 12. Return to play guidelines <ul><li>An athlete who has any loss of consciousness must be immediately removed from competition and sent to a Physician for further evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>All symptoms should be completely gone for a minimum of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 week for the 1st concussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 weeks for the 2nd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>until a Physician’s clearance for the 3rd concussion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All concussions, mild or severe, must be cleared by a medical health professional before returning to play! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Myths <ul><li>“ After 1 concussion you will lose intelligence” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple concussions can cause emotional and physical disturbances but if recognized and treated properly the chance of long term effects are lower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ A second concussion can make you remember things that you had forgotten after the first concussion” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have suffered amnesia following a concussion it can sometimes come back with rest, but cannot be knocked back into you </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Being knocked unconscious always causes permanent brain damage” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some damage can heal with proper rest and treatment, but improper treatment can result in permanent brain damage </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Other Information <ul><li>A coma (or extended loss of consciousness) should be treated respectively </li></ul><ul><li>Any concussion can lead to emotional disruptions </li></ul><ul><li>If an athlete has trouble remembering who they are, or who people are around them it is likely they will exhibit other more serious symptoms as well </li></ul>
  15. 16. The following slides show different head injuries related to concussions that are important to know about as well.
  16. 17. Post-Concussion Syndrome <ul><ul><li>Persistent headache or any other concussion symptoms that persist weeks after concussion </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Second Impact Syndrome <ul><li>Rapid swelling of brain from second injury to head before previous head injury resolved </li></ul><ul><li>May be caused by any blow to head, even very minor ones </li></ul><ul><li>Life Threatening Emergency </li></ul>
  18. 19. Symptoms and Treatment <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look stunned, within seconds to minutes condition rapidly worsens, dilated pupils, coma, respiratory failure, loss of eye movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best treatment is prevention through management of concussions, Emergency care, very high death rate </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Epidural Hematoma <ul><li>Blow to head often with skull fracture tearing meningeal arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Blood accumulation between dura mater and skull </li></ul><ul><li>Requires surgery </li></ul>
  20. 21. Subdural Hematoma <ul><li>Result of acceleration/deceleration forces that cause bleeding between dura and brain </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious, dilation of one pupil, headache, dizziness, nausea or sleepiness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life threatening-911! </li></ul>

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