Major function:Client knows the interviewer:Heard what they were sayingSaw their point of viewFelt their world as they experience itSecondary function:Clarify what the client saysFeedback what you hearCheck for accuracyHelp clients talk in detail about issuesHelp overly talkative clients speed up, clarify, and stop repeating the same facts and/or storiesNOTESKey word choices lead the client in a variety of directionsBe aware what key words you choose; avoid over directing the clientExcessive gestures and parroting can be annoying and frustratingToo few encouragers may make the interviewer appear cold and uninterested
Talk to why this is important & how it helps the client to feel connected and understood…
Counseling Skills for Recruitment & Admissions
Counseling Skills forRecruitment & Admissions Dr. Carrie Lynn Bailey, NCC, LPC, LPSC Asst. Professor – Counselor Education firstname.lastname@example.org August 4th, 2011
Today’s Agenda Introductions Why Counseling Skills? Basic Overview Things to Consider… Role Plays & Practice Wrap-Up
Introductions… Tell me a little bit about you & what brought you to college admissions counseling What is your favorite admissions story (in a nutshell )? Now – tell me about your most challenging admissions story…
Why Counseling Skills? What are the most difficult aspects of your job? How do you connect with students and their families? How comfortable do you feel with challenging conversations? Counseling involves gathering information, problem solving, advice giving, and (mostly) listening…
Counseling = Intentional InterviewingIntentionality is acting with a sense ofcapability and deciding from among arange of alternative actions, thoughts,and behaviors in responding to changinglife situations.
Basic Counseling SkillsIntentionality Listen first; solve problems later. Avoid ―perfect‖ solutions. Avoid jumping to the ―right‖ response too soon. Adapt your style to suit different individuals / cultures.
Basic Counseling SkillsNatural Style of Helping Know yourself Be yourself Learn new ways of being in an interview Adapt flexibility
Basic Counseling SkillsIntentional Interviewing and Counseling Narrative Model Story: Here’s their story, as told by the client. Positive asset: Build on positive aspects and client’s strengths. Restory: Generate new ways for the client to talk about themselves. Action: Help the client bring new ways of thinking and being into action.
Intentional Interviewing and Counseling 1. Story 2. Positive Asset Search Listening Strength Development New Perspectives Action Planning 4. Action 3. Re-story
Basic Counseling SkillsThe Basics of Listening Visual / eye contact Vocal qualities Verbal tracking Body Language
Basic Counseling SkillsQuestions… How you ask questions is very important in establishing a basis for effective communication. Effective questions open the door to knowledge and understanding. The art of questioning lies in knowing which questions to ask when.Address your first question to yourself: if you could press a magic button and get every piece of information you want, what would you want to know? The answer will immediately help you compose the right questions. — Robert Heller and Tim Hindle
Basic Counseling SkillsQuestions – Two Kinds Open What, How, Why, or Could? Closed Who, When, Where, Is, Are, or Do?
Basic Counseling SkillsOpen Questions Begin an interview Open new topics and pinpoint / clarify details Identify specifics Assist with client / situation assessment
Basic Counseling SkillsClosed Questions Focus the interview Reveal specific details Close down client talk Increase interviewer control
Basic Counseling SkillsMAKING QUESTIONS WORK FOR YOU Questions can be facilitative or they can be so intrusive that clients want to close up and say nothing. Use the ideas presented here to help you define your own position around questioning and how it fits with your natural style.
Basic Counseling SkillsEight Questioning Issues 1. Questions Help Begin the Interview 2. Open Questions Help Elaborate and Enrich the Client’s Story 3. Questions Help Bring Out Concrete Specifics of the Client’s World 4. Questions are Critical in Assessment 5. The First Word of Certain Open Questions Partially Determines What the Client Will Say Next 6. Questions Have Potential Problems 7. In Cross-Cultural Situations, Questions Can Promote Distrust 8. Questions Can Be Used to Help Clients Search for Positive Assets, Strengths, and Patterns of Wellness
Basic Counseling SkillsActive Listening/Reflecting Listening is an active process Whether using attending, encouraging, paraphrasing, or summarizing, you are actively involved in the interview Requires interviewer participation Hear small changes in thoughts, feelings, behavior ―Walk in the other person’s shoes‖ Help the client enlarge and enrich their story
Basic Counseling SkillsReflecting is . . . a verbal way of communicating empathy Communicates, ―I hear your deeper thoughts and emotions as well as the facts…‖ Helps you to understand the situation through the client’s perspective rather than your own a form of feedback or a mirror that enables the person to confirm or correct the impression he or she is giving A reflecting statement, even if inaccurate, can give the client an opportunity to clarify the experience to others and to oneself
Basic Counseling SkillsReflecting . . . stimulates further exploration of what the client is experiencing Has an opening effect, bringing out more facts and deeper feelings captures important aspects of the client’s message that otherwise might remain camouflaged TWO STEPS: 1. Listen carefully to the client’s story 2. Feed back to the client a condensed, nonjudgmental version of the facts, thoughts, and feelings (next week! ) that you heard
Active Listening Skills Gestures, phrases, repetiEncourage tion Shorten, clarify, andParaphrase feedback other’s comments.Summarize Clarify and feedback lengthy and complex discussions
Basic Counseling SkillsEncouraging Head nods and positive facial expressions Open gestures Minimal verbals - ―Ummm‖ or ―Uh-huh‖ Repeat key words from last statement Silence with appropriate non-verbal behavior
Basic Counseling SkillsParaphrasing Goal Facilitate client exploration and clarification of issues…Four Dimensions of Paraphrasing 1. Choose a sentence stem 2. Use other’s key words and main ideas 3. Briefly state essence of other’s talk 4. Check for accuracy
Basic Counseling Skills1. Choose a sentence stem…or not Sentence stems are optional. Choose appropriate times to call the client by name or use a sentence stem. Examples: ―Bill, I hear you saying. . .‖ ―Joan, sounds like. . .‖ ―Feels like the situation is. . .‖
Basic Counseling Skills2. Use other’s key words. . . Use client main ideas Use exact words used by the client (restatement) Cover only limited amounts of material3. Briefly state essence of other’s talk State the essence of ―client talk‖ in summary form Be succinct, meaningful, and clarifying Stay true to client’s ideas, but don’t repeat them, exactly
Basic Counseling Skills4. Check for accuracy Brief question at the end of a paraphrase Imply check-out by raising your voice tone at the end of a sentence Ask for feedback on the accuracy and usefulness of your paraphrase Examples: Am I hearing you correctly? Is that close? Have I got that right?
Basic Counseling SkillsCommon Problems in Paraphrasing Simply Reciting the Facts Be careful not to ―parrot‖ the client but recognize thoughts & perceptions as well – go a bit deeper Difficulty Hearing the Story because of ―Noise‖ External as well as internal, ―mental noise‖ If you realize you’ve lost track of the client’s story it is o.k. to stop and ask them to repeat the last part of the story again – the respond appropriately…. Much better than to potentially miss key elements Worrying About What to Say Next One of the biggest sources of mental noise… Try to maintain your focus on the client – becomes easier with practice & increased confidence
Basic Counseling SkillsSummarizing - like paraphrasing But… Over a period of time Attend to client’s verbal and Encompasses a nonverbal comments longer period of Selectively attend to key time concepts May cover an entire interview Restate them to the client May cover several accurately interviews plus Check for accuracy at the end interval situations Can be used at any time during the interview
Basic Counseling SkillsReflection of Feeling Explicit Implicit Nonverbal Mixed 3. Repeat to the client
Basic Counseling SkillsThe Basic Listening Sequence:Its Real Promise to Make a DifferenceObservations of successful/effective interviews revealed acommon thread of skill usage:• Relationship established first,• Session begin with an open question,• Closed questions for diagnosis and clarification,• Paraphrases are used to check out the content of client’s story,• Reflection of feeling (usually brief in the early stages) examines key emotions.• Summary of the concern expressed by the client completes the interview.• Encouragers are used throughout to enrich it and evoke details.
Basic Counseling SkillsBasic Listening Sequence (BLS) BLS Skills Usage Open Questions begin the session Closed Questions diagnosis and clarification Encouragers evoke details throughout Paraphrase reflects essence of client talk Reflection of Feeling examines key emotions Summary reviews and closes interviews Attending/observation skills underlie the process.
Basic Counseling SkillsPositive Asset Search Take a wellness approach and use the BLS to draw out the client’s strengths and resources. The effective interviewer seeks constantly to find positive wellness strengths--things that client does right. Emphasis of positive assets gives client a sense of personal power in the interview.
Basic Counseling SkillsBasic Listening Sequence… i.e. Basic Counseling Skills Skills of questioning, encouraging, paraphrasing, reflection of feeling, and summarizing Used in many settings to define problems and outcomes Is critical in identifying client positive assets and strengths
Basic Counseling SkillsThree-Part Goal of Basic Counseling Skills Elicit 1. An overall summary of the issue 2. The key facts of a situation 3. The central emotions and feelings
Basic Counseling SkillsEmpathy and Basic Counseling SkillsListening carefully allows the counselor to: Enter the world of the client See and experience the client’s world Communicate that they understand the world from the client’s perspective
Things to Consider…• Cultural Intentionality Know and integrate communication styles and relationship experiences of diverse cultural groups into your own personal helping style. Age Ethnicity Health Race Individuality Ability Gender Sexual Orientation Disability Lifestyle Religion / Spirituality Development
RESPECTFUL Model Multicultural Review Issues, D’Andrea & Daniels, 2001R Religion/spiritualityE Economic/class backgroundS Sexual identityP Personal styleE Ethnic/racial identityC Chronological/lifespan challengesT TraumaF Family backgroundU Unique physical characteristicsL Location of residence/language