Notable alwd bluebook differences third ed


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Notable alwd bluebook differences third ed

  1. 1. Notable Differences between ALWD (3d) and Bluebook (18th) . . . for law review members and research assistants Copyright 2003, 2006. Darby Dickerson. Permission given to use for educational purposes.
  2. 2. Tips for Using the Bluebook <ul><li>Use the “Quick Reference: Law Review Footnotes” inside the front cover. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use the Quick Reference in the back . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the index to find pertinent rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult ALWD if you need clarification; most rules are similar. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Signals (BB 1.2; ALWD 44) <ul><li>The definitions of signals in ALWD and the Bluebook are very similar, but read them carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Bluebook form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert a comma whenever “ e.g.,” is used (ALWD does not use the comma). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you move from one category of signal to another, insert a period (in ALWD, you would use semicolons). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Order of Authorities (BB 1.4; ALWD 45) <ul><li>Federal district courts: Treat as one court and put in reverse chronological order. (In ALWD, courts are first ordered alphabetically, then in reverse chronological order.) </li></ul><ul><li>Federal courts of appeals: Treat as one court and put in reverse chronological order. (In ALWD, courts are first ordered by ordinal, then in reverse chronological order.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Related Authority (BB 1.6; ALWD 46) <ul><li>Append related authority with an italicized explanatory phrase (in ALWD, related authority is included within a parenthetical and is not italicized), unless a particular primary source discusses, quotes, cites, or otherwise mentions the source, then include the information in an explanatory parenthetical like ALWD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S TATUTE , construed in Case One </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case One ( construing S TATUTE ) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Typeface: Small caps (BB 2; ALWD 1) <ul><li>The Bluebook uses large and small capital letters for the following sources (ALWD does not use this typeface at all, but explains it in Rule 23): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutions: Abbreviations (CAL. CONST.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutes: Statutory abbreviation (FLA. STAT.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books: Author names and titles (AUTHOR, TITLE OF BOOK 55 – 56 (2005). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodicals: Periodical abbreviation (MICH. L. REV.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restatements: Title (RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Typeface: Cases (BB 2; ALWD 1) <ul><li>Bluebook: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full case names in textual sentences: italicize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full case names in citations: regular type; no italics (exception: procedural phrases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short case names in the text and citations: italicize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In ALWD, case names are always italicized. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Volume numbers (BB 3.1; ALWD 22) <ul><li>Under the Bluebook, place the volume number for a book before the author’s name: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 A UTHOR N AME , B OOK T ITLE 105 (2005). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In ALWD, the volume appears after the book title, like other subdivisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author Name, Book Title vol. 1, 105 (Publisher name 2005). </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Page Spans (BB 3.1; ALWD 5) <ul><li>Under the Bluebook, drop repetitious digits, but always retain two digits on the right hand side: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1354 – 57 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>101 – 05 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: This rule does not apply to section or paragraph numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALWD gives the same option and the option to retain all digits </li></ul>
  10. 10. Internal Cross-References (BB 3.6; ALWD 10) <ul><li>The rules are very similar, but under the Bluebook, spell out “note” or “Part”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BB: Infra note 45 and accompanying text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALWD: Infra n. 45 and accompanying text. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Id. (BB 4.1; ALWD 11.3) <ul><li>The rules are very similar; however, the Bluebook has a “5 id .” rule that ALWD does not. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the Bluebook, do not use id. or another short form unless “it can be readily found in one of the preceding five footnotes ” (emphasis in original) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bluebook Rules 10.9 and 12.9 contain this “5 footnote” rule. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Quotations (BB 5; ALWD 47) <ul><li>The Bluebook has a stricter rule and says to block indent when fifty or more words are quoted. </li></ul><ul><li>ALWD says to block indent when the quotation spans more than four typed lines of text or exceeds fifty words . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Abbreviations (BB 6.1; ALWD 2) <ul><li>The spacing rules are virtually identical. </li></ul><ul><li>The lists of specific abbreviations in tables differ. The Bluebook sometimes uses a format that includes an apostrophe. </li></ul><ul><li>BB examples ALWD examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comm’n Commn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dep’t Dept. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Env’t Env. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Int’l Intl. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nat’l Natl. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Capitalization (BB 8; ALWD 3) <ul><li>Most capitalization rules are consistent. </li></ul><ul><li>Two differences to watch out for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the Bluebook, do not capitalize prepositions unless they are five or more letters long . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the Bluebook, do not capitalize “Court” when referring to a state supreme court. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cases (BB 10; ALWD 12) <ul><li>Remember the typeface differences discussed earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the differences in abbreviations for words in case names. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Bluebook, you may, but are not required, to note the district or department for state intermediate courts (Rule 10.4(b)). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALWD requires the district or department to be noted. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Cases - continued <ul><li>Under Bluebook Rule 10.5, “[w]hen citing a case with several different decisions in the same year, include the year only with the last-cited decision in that year.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So, if the F. Supp. decision and the F.2d decision were both 2005, include the date only with the F.2d decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under ALWD, include the date for each decision, even if the dates are the same. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cases on Electronic Databases (BB 18.1.1; ALWD 12.12) <ul><li>Under the Bluebook, include the docket number as part of the citation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case X, No. ABC-123, 2003 U.S. App. LEXIS 789, at *2 (3d Cir. Jan. 10, 2003). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALWD deletes the document number. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Constitutions (BB 11; ALWD 13) <ul><li>The forms are identical, except for typeface. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BB: U.S. C ONST . art I. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALWD: U.S. Const. art. I. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Restatements (BB 12.8.5; ALWD 27) <ul><li>The forms are virtually identical, except for typeface. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BB: R ESTATEMENT (T HIRD ) OF U NFAIR C OMPETITION § 3 (1995). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALWD: Restatement (Third) of Unfair Competition § 3 (1995). </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Books (BB 15; ALWD 22) <ul><li>Remember the typeface differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember volume placement. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically do not include the publisher in a Bluebook citation; do include publisher in ALWD citation format. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Periodicals (BB 16; ALWD 23) <ul><li>Remember the typeface differences. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a few periodical abbreviations that differ; look each up to ensure accuracy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BB: Kenneth R. Feinberg, Mediation — A Preferred Method of Dispute Resolution , 16 P EPP . L. R EV . 5, 14 n.19 (1989). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALWD: Kenneth R. Feinberg, Mediation — A Preferred Method of Dispute Resolution , 16 Pepp. L. Rev. 5, 14 n. 19 (1989). </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Periodicals - continued <ul><li>The form for nonconsecutively paginated periodicals differs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BB: Jodi Wilgoren, Prosecution Lays out Case for Harsh Sentencing of B.T.K. Killer in Gory Detail , N.Y. T IMES , Aug. 18, 2005, at A14. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALWD: Jodi Wilgoren, Prosecution Lays out Case for Harsh Sentencing of B.T.K. Killer in Gory Detail , N.Y. Times A14 (Aug. 18, 2005). </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Student-Written Pieces (BB 16.6.2; ALWD 23.1) <ul><li>The Bluebook uses terms like “Note” and “Comment” to designate student works. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BB: Author, Note, Title , 20 AAA L. R EV . 14, 37 (2003). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALWD: Author, Student Author, Title , 20 AAA L. Rev. 14, 37 (2003). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Internet (BB 18; ALWD 40) <ul><li>There are slight format differences. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bluebook has different formats for material posted only on the Web and for material reprinted on the Web ( at v. available at formats). </li></ul><ul><li>As a date option, the Bluebook uses a “last visited” format, which is similar to the ALWD “accessed” format. (And “last visited” should be used instead of “last updated” or “last modified”.) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Use the index to find rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Check forms with the “Quick Reference” inside the front cover. </li></ul><ul><li>You may use the examples within the Bluebook as guides for law review footnotes. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult ALWD for additional explanation if you do not understand the Bluebook rule — but keep typeface differences in mind. </li></ul>