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151117 water footprint

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Water footprint-Carolyn McLean, Architect,recently gave this presentation to the Mt Gravatt Rotary club about awareness of water quantities to produce daily items-eg 132 litres of water to produce a 125ml cup of coffee.

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151117 water footprint

  1. 1. MT GRAVATT ROTARY CLUB 17th November 2015 What is your Water Footprint? Carolyn McLean
  2. 2. What is a water footprint? Water scarcity and water wars water consumption and management Low water Architecture and Master planning Water footprint of everyday items
  3. 3. Water footprint of an individual, community or business is defined as the total volume of fresh water that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business www.waterfootprint.org
  4. 4. UN advises that water usage is growing at twice the population growth. By 2025, 2/3 of the world will be facing a water ‘stress’ situation www.waterfootprint.org
  5. 5. Global water footprints/capita/day Solomon Islands 2000 litres /person/per day China 2900 litres /person/per day India 3000 litres /person/per day Indonesia 3100 litres /person/per day Germany 3900 litres /person/per day Saudi Arabia 5100 litres /person/per day Australia 6300 litres /person/ per day USA 7800 litres /person/per day Mongolia 10000 litres /person/per day www.waterfootprint.org
  6. 6. Water scarcity South Australia driest state in the driest country
  7. 7. Water scarcity Water conservation and restrictions
  8. 8. Water scarcity Water has always been a precious commodity
  9. 9. Water scarcity The Murray Darling is the largest river system in Australia. The Murray Darling Basin accounts for over 70 % of irrigation in Australia
  10. 10. Water scarcity Continuous years of drought have reduced the river flow considerably
  11. 11. Water scarcity Cotton, one of the world’s most water intensive crops is grown along the Murray Darling in Queensland and Upper New South Wales
  12. 12. Water scarcity A direct result of the cotton industry is the continual closing of the Murray Mouth in South Australia due to lack of water flow The Murray mouth now needs to be dredged of 1300m3 of sand every day to keep it open
  13. 13. Water wars Around the world today, water wars are increasing Water is the new oil and as the natural supply decreases and demand increases the situation is now a global crisis Over 260 river basins are shared by two or more countries. When major projects proceed without regional collaboration, they can become a point of conflicts, heightening regional instability. The Parana La Plata, the Aral Sea, the Jordan and the Danube may serve as examples.
  14. 14. Water wars Australian states are constantly arguing about which state uses how much water from the river systems. Somali clans are fighting for water in east Africa. The Israeli occupation of Palestine is in part to secure a fresh water supply. The US govt sees the reduction in water availability as an equal threat as terrorism, and cyber-terrorism of infra-structure. Water wars ‘hot spots’ are being identified to try and resolve these issues before the situation reaches war
  15. 15. Water scarcity Water problems affect half of humanity: 1.1 billion people have inadequate access to water 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation.
  16. 16. Water scarcity Millions of women spending several hours a day collecting water. massive economic waste associated with the water and sanitation deficit Sub-Saharan Africa loses about 5% of GDP, or some $28.4 billion annually, a figure that exceeds total aid flows and debt relief to the region in 2003 2006 United Nations Human Development Report
  17. 17. Water scarcity – 85% of people in wealthy countries have access to piped water – 25% of people in the poorest countries have access to piped water – 1.8 billion people who have access to a water source within 1 kilometre, but not in their house or yard, consume around 20 litres per day. – In the United Kingdom the average person uses more than 50 litres of water a day flushing toilets – 1.8 million child deaths each year as a result of diarrhoea
  18. 18. Water consumption & management "There is a water crisis today. But the crisis is not about having too little water to satisfy our needs. It is a crisis of managing water so badly that billions of people - and the environment – suffer badly." World Water Vision Report Leaking pipes alone account for between 30-50% of water loss globally. In the UK, approx. 2 full baths of water / household/ day is lost through leaking pipes.
  19. 19. Water consumption & management Water consumption varies hugely across the world 20% of the worlds richest people consume 76% of the water
  20. 20. Water consumption & management Agriculture is the largest use of water globally, typically using around 67% of water resources
  21. 21. Water consumption & management Water and Energy are inextricably linked due to the desalination process, so every drop of water saved is an energy saving. Desalination is the most energy-intensive form of water supply. There are now over 7,500 plants in 18 countries producing approximately 35,000 million litres of fresh water per day. Saline concentrated water of about twice the concentration of normal sea water is produced as a by product of desalination. We need to minimise water consumption to reduce the energy required for desalination.
  22. 22. Water consumption & management One of the Sustainable Development Goals decided at the UN summit on 25th September 2015, Clean water and Sanitation plans to:- Ensure access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030.
  23. 23. Water consumption & management ARE YOU CONCERNED YET? IF NOT, YOU SHOULD BE IF YOU THINK IT WON’T AFFECT YOU…….YOU’RE WRONG IF YOU THINK YOU PERSONALLY CAN’T DO ANYTHING ABOUT IT ……YOU’RE WRONG
  24. 24. Low water architecture and master planning As professionals and educated people we have the power to change things During our working life we all deal with water, use water, waste water and take it for granted If we started from today to make more of an effort in our professional lives to reduce water consumption wherever possible through our Projects we could have a major impact on water consumption and water wastage. We need to get more passionate and inventive about solving this problem
  25. 25. Low water architecture and master planning Low flow fittings are now requirements in most developed countries to reduce water consumption. Dual flush toilet 5 litres / flush Standard toilet 11 litres/flush Low flow AAA shower head 7.5 litres / minute Standard shower head 12 litres/ minute Standard bath 96 litres
  26. 26. Low water architecture and master planning AAAA front loading washine machine 40 litres / load top loading washine machine 130 litres / load Drip irrigation & timers for garden 651 litres / week Standard garden watering 1116 litres / week Tap off while cleaning teeth 1 litre / minute Tap running while cleaning teeth 5 litres / minute
  27. 27. Low water architecture and master planning Rain water tanks can be re-introduced to council areas that have been negative about them. Master planned communities can incorporate bio- retention swales to treat secondary sewer and provide water for irrigation to landscaped areas. Leaking pipe infrastructure could be replaced to reduce wastage.
  28. 28. High water developments –An average 18-hole golf course soaks up at least 525,000 gallons of water a day - enough to supply the irrigation needs of 100 Malaysian farmers. –One definition of ecotourism is “Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people” (TIES, 1990) –The negatives could be turned into positives with responsible, sustainable development
  29. 29. Water footprints of everyday products The water footprint of a product is the amount of water that is consumed and polluted in all processing stages of its production.
  30. 30. 76 litres of water to produce a 250ml glass of beer 109 litres of water to produce a 250ml glass of beer – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  31. 31. 132 litres of water to produce a 125 litre cup of coffee – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  32. 32. 196 litres of water to produce a 60g egg – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  33. 33. 237 litres of water to produce a kg of lettuce – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  34. 34. 910 litres of water to produce a kg of peaches – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  35. 35. 1600 litres of water to produce a kg of bread – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  36. 36. 2497 litres of water to produce a kg of rice – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  37. 37. 2500 litres of water to produce a 250ml glass of milk – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  38. 38. 4325 litres of water to produce 1kg of chicken meat – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  39. 39. 10,000 litresof water to produce a kg of cotton 250g of cotton used to make a T shirt uses 2500 litres of water 800g of cotton used to make a pair of jeans uses 8000 litres of water Water footprints of everyday products
  40. 40. 10,400 litresof water to produce a kg of lamb – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  41. 41. 15,415 litresof water to produce a 1kg of beef – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  42. 42. 17,000 litresof water to produce a leather bag – Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Water footprints of everyday products
  43. 43. 20,000 litresof water to produce a 1kg of cocoa Chocolate requires 17,000 litresto produce 1 kg Water footprints of everyday products
  44. 44. Each person in this room can reduce their water footprint simply by Being aware of what you consume Knowing the water footprint of that product and making educated lifestyle choices. Thank you

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